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  • Nearly every one of your science classes

    幾乎每個人上的自然課

  • starts off with the scientific method.

    都是從科學方法開始的

  • You recognize this?

    你認得它嗎?

  • Ask a question,

    提題

  • form a hypothesis,

    假設

  • perform an experiment,

    實驗

  • collect data,

    蒐集數據

  • draw conclusions,

    作出結論

  • and then memorize a bunch of facts.

    然後記住一堆東西

  • This is really boring!

    這真的非常無聊!

  • Science is not a simple recipe in a cookbook,

    科學不是烹飪書上的食譜

  • and learning is not memorizing facts for tests.

    學習也不是為了考試而死背

  • Yet, that is exactly what we do.

    然而,這就是我們平時所做的

  • We have to change this!

    我們必須改變這點!

  • We have to look at how curiosity can ultimately benefit society

    我們要來看看 好奇心如何貢獻社會

  • by looking towards tomorrow,

    藉由展望明天

  • by going through a path from involvement

    藉由一個過程,從參與(involvement)

  • to imagination

    到想像(imagination)

  • to invention

    進而發明(invention)

  • to innovation.

    最後創新(innovation)

  • And I'd like to illustrate this by telling you the real story

    我要用一個真實故事來說明這點

  • about how we discovered how geckos stick.

    是關於我們發現 壁虎如何吸附東西的故事

  • First you need to get involved.

    首先,你必須參與

  • You need to do curiosity-driven research yourself.

    你必須讓好奇心驅使研究

  • We know that learning by being an active researcher

    我們知道成為一個積極的研究者

  • is the best way to learn.

    是學習的最佳方法

  • Imagine being in my lab

    想像在我的實驗室中

  • and trying to discover how geckos stick.

    然後探討壁虎如何吸附東西

  • "Here is one of our subjects.

    「這是我們其中一位受試者

  • This is a crested gecko.

    它是一隻睫角守宮(crested gecko)

  • We are going to put the gecko on glass

    我們要把這隻壁虎放在玻璃上

  • and we're going to use a high speed camera

    然後我們要用高速攝影機

  • that can capture up to 1,000 pictures in one second.

    它可以每秒捕捉 1 千張影像

  • There he goes.

    開始了

  • OK, record it.

    好,錄起來

  • There's the animal's toes."

    這是這動物的腳趾。」

  • "So how do their feet stick and unstick so quickly?"

    「牠們的腳如何在 吸附與不吸附之間快速地轉換?」

  • How do they do this?

    牠們究竟是怎麼做到的?

  • We wonder, it's kind of crazy, right?

    我們很好奇,這很不可思議,對吧?

  • It's hard to believe.

    很難以置信

  • Well it turns out, it was already known that the geckos have hairy toes,

    大家已經知道壁虎有長滿細毛的腳趾

  • and those hairs are really small compared to your hair,

    跟你的頭髮比起來 這些毛非常細小

  • and the little tips at the end are even smaller.

    而在末端的分枝更是小

  • Well, my student Tanya,

    嗯,我的學生 Tanya

  • who is not much older than some of you when she did this,

    她做這研究時沒比你們大多少

  • a sophomore undergraduate,

    還在讀大二

  • tried to figure this out,

    她想要找出答案

  • and we told that her that in order to do this,

    然後我們告訴她

  • you'd have to measure the force of a single hair.

    必須測量單一細毛的力量

  • Though we kind of only did this jokingly

    雖然我們覺得我們在開完笑

  • because these hairs are so small,

    因為那些細毛真的太小了

  • we didn't think it was possible.

    我們覺得這是不可能的

  • But Tanya didn't know that,

    但是 Tanya 並不知道

  • and she went on to build the simplest,

    所以她就想辦法做出了

  • most beautiful measurement device ever.

    我見過最簡單、也最漂亮的測量儀器

  • Here it is:

    就是這個:

  • she took one of those tiny little hairs

    她拿一根細毛

  • and put it on to a probe,

    然後把它放在探測器上

  • and then she began pushing it into the metal beam.

    然後她開始用它推這個金屬桿

  • Now she was very frustrated for months - it didn't stick.

    有好幾個月她非常灰心 因為它並不會吸附

  • But she had figured out she had to orient it

    但是她想到 她必須要調對方向

  • just like the gecko grabs on,

    就像壁虎吸附東西時一樣

  • and then it worked!

    然後就成功了!

  • And there's the little split ends grabbing the beam in that little window.

    細毛末端有小小的分叉 會抓住小視窗裡的金屬桿

  • And then she did something magical:

    於是她克服了這個挑戰:

  • for the first time ever,

    史無前例地

  • she measured the force of a single gecko hair

    她測量了一根壁虎細毛的力量

  • that allowed her to discover

    這讓她發現了

  • a completely new way to stick to something,

    一種附著物體的全新方法

  • something no human has ever known before.

    這方法沒有任何人了解過

  • They have hairy little toes,

    壁虎有佈滿細毛的腳趾

  • huge numbers of hairs,

    有大量的細毛

  • and each hair has the worst case of split ends possible,

    每根細毛尾端還有分叉

  • 100 to 1,000 nano-tips that an animal has on one hair,

    每根細毛上的分岔 約長 1 百到 1 千個奈米

  • and 2 billion total,

    每根細毛上總共有 20 億個分岔

  • and they don't stick by glue,

    而牠們不是靠膠水

  • or by suction,

    吸盤

  • or by velcro.

    或魔鬼粘吸附東西

  • It was discovered that they stick by inter-molecular forces alone,

    我們發現牠們只靠 分子間作用力吸附東西

  • by van der Waals forces,

    這叫凡得瓦力

  • and you'll learn this in Chemistry and Physics, if you take it.

    若選修化學或物理課,你就會學到

  • It's unbelievable!

    這太令人不可置信了!

  • It's a whole new way of thinking about making an adhesive!

    這是一種對於 黏著東西的全新想法!

  • Well, this isn't the end of the story,

    不過,這故事還沒結束

  • there are still mysteries.

    還有一些謎團

  • Why are the gecko's feet looking like this?

    為什麼壁虎的腳趾長得像這樣?

  • They have bizarre toes and we don't know why.

    牠們腳趾的樣子奇特 而我們不知道原因

  • If you go into a museum and look at each gecko species,

    如果你到博物館, 然後看看每一種壁虎

  • you see they have all different hairs,

    你會看到各種不同的細毛

  • different lengths, and thicknesses, and patterns.

    不同長度、不同厚度、不同樣式

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • I don't know!

    我不知道!

  • But you should come to Berkeley and help me figure this out.

    但是你們應該 來柏克萊大學幫我

  • It's just about right, so, apply.

    我們很接近了 試著申請看看吧

  • But it's a mystery.

    這只是其中一個謎團

  • There is even more stuff that is unknown.

    而且還有更多未知的東西

  • This tarantula also has hairs

    這隻狼蛛也有細毛

  • and can stick this way, too,

    也可以這樣吸附東西

  • but recently it was found that they also can secrete silk from their feet,

    但最近發現牠們 也可以從牠們的腳吐絲

  • not just their behind, like you know they do.

    並不只是你們已知的絲疣

  • And even more recently, my graduate student Ann showed

    而更新的結果: 我的研究生 Ann 發現

  • that all spiders can secrete glue,

    所有的蜘蛛都可以分泌黏液

  • and we know nothing about this glue

    而我們對這黏液一無所知

  • except it was around way before this guy,

    除了知道這黏液

  • millions of years before.

    比蜘蛛人早出現幾百萬年

  • So don't stop at the discovery,

    所以不要在發現時就停下來

  • next imagine the possible uses for society.

    接著要想像 對社會可能的貢獻

  • Here is the first human supported by a gecko-inspired adhesive.

    她是第一個被由 壁虎式黏著劑支撐的人

  • This is my former graduate student, Kellar Autumn,

    這是我之前的研究生 Kellar Autumn

  • who is professor at Lewis and Clark,

    他現在是路易克拉克大學(Lewis and Clark)的教授

  • offering his second born child for the test.

    他帶他家老二來做實驗

  • And she's a very good sport about it!

    她很能接受這個遊戲!

  • Now imagine all the things you could make from this,

    現在想像所有你可以 用這做出來的東西

  • not only adhesives, but products in sports,

    不止是黏膠,還有各種產品, 可以運用到運動器材

  • and biomedicine,

    生物醫學

  • technology,

    科技

  • robotics,

    機器人學

  • toys,

    玩具

  • automotive,

    汽車

  • fashion,

    流行時尚

  • clothes,

    服飾

  • and yes, even hair pieces.

    噢對,甚至是假髮

  • I swear to you, we got a call from Michael Jackson's hairdresser

    我保證:在麥可.傑克森過世之前

  • about hair pieces before he passed away.

    我們接過一通來自 他設計師詢問假髮的電話

  • Who would have guessed from studying geckos?!?

    誰會想到這是研究壁虎得來的?

  • Next, invent a game-changing technology, device, or product.

    接著,發明一個改變世界的 科技、設備、或是產品

  • Like my engineering colleague at Berkeley, Ron Fearing, did

    我一位柏克萊 名叫 Ron Fearing 的同事

  • when he made one of the first synthetic, self-cleaning dry adhesives

    從觀察動物後合成

  • after the simplest version that you see in animals.

    第一個能自我清潔的乾型黏著劑

  • Believe it or not, right now, because of this work,

    你信不信因為有項個發明

  • you can make your own synthetic gecko nano-tape

    你可以用一些奈米模型

  • by nano-molding with just a few parts,

    然後做出屬於自己的壁虎膠帶

  • and here's the recipe that we can give you.

    而這些是我們可以給你的配方

  • It's been incredible since we made this discovery

    很難想像我們的這項發現

  • of all the papers and the work

    還有所有相關論文以及研究

  • and the different ways to make it,

    還有其他不同的做法

  • it's emerging into a billion dollar industry.

    可以衍生出幾十億元的商機

  • And who would have imagined that it started

    而誰會想過這是來自於

  • because we were curious about how geckos can run up walls.

    我們對壁虎爬牆能力的好奇心

  • Next you need to innovate,

    接著你必須創新

  • create a business that ultimately benefits society.

    如何創造產業, 並對社會作出貢獻

  • Did you know that there are 6 million people per year that have chronic wounds,

    你知道每年約有 600 萬人有慢性傷口嗎?

  • 2 million develop an infection,

    其中有 200 萬人傷口感染

  • and infections account for 100,000 hospital deaths?

    而感染造成 10 萬多人死亡

  • Imagine if you could build a company that could produce

    想像如果你能蓋一座工廠

  • a gecko-inspired band-aid

    它可以生產壁虎 OK 繃

  • that would remove the pain and suffering.

    可以減緩疼痛以及不便

  • Just a simple invention.

    只是一個簡單的發明

  • If you look at the last three great earthquakes,

    如果你看看過去三個大地震

  • over 700,000 people were trapped and lost their lives.

    將近 70 萬人受困、喪生

  • Imagine the company that made a search-and-rescue robot

    想像一間工廠,由壁虎啟發

  • inspired from a gecko

    並製造出搜救機器人

  • that could move anywhere

    它可以爬到各個地方

  • and quickly find individuals that have been trapped,

    然後迅速地找到受困的人

  • that sometimes survive as long as two weeks.

    他們有的可以存活兩個禮拜

  • There is a gecko-inspired robot, StickyBot,

    這是一臺叫作 StickyBot 的壁虎機器人

  • from the Stanford group,

    它來自於史丹佛團隊

  • that can grab on to any surface.

    可以在各種表面上爬行

  • Now we ran our own, for TED, Mini Bio-inspired Design Challenge

    現在我們為 TED 籌劃了 小型生物啟發設計挑戰賽

  • to get you to think about these kinds of products.

    來鼓勵你去思考這類的產品

  • We have a winner.

    我們有一個得獎者

  • Here's the winner.

    這是他的作品

  • The winner came up with this design called StickySeat.

    他發明了這個設計 叫做壁虎黏椅(Sticky Seat)

  • Really clever.

    真的很聰明

  • It's a seat that is not only comfortable,

    這個座椅不儘舒適

  • but it aids a seat belt, if you were in an accident,

    同時在有意外的狀況下

  • in terms of keeping your seat and moving.

    藉由將你穩固在座椅上, 來減少安全帶壓力

  • This is brilliant!

    這很聰明!

  • We didn't think about this,

    我們沒想過這點

  • although we might think about patenting it now,

    雖然我們現在可能會想要申請專利了

  • but there is a winner for this,

    但得獎者就在這

  • and the winner, and you can't,

    而這得獎者,你不能

  • you can't make up something like this,

    你不能憑空捏造這種東西

  • the winner's name

    得獎者的名字是

  • is Harry.

    Harry

  • Where's Harry?

    Harry 在哪?

  • Harry, come here, we have a prize for you.

    Harry,上臺來, 我們有禮物要給你

  • Where's Harry?

    Harry 呢?

  • Harry!

    Harry!

  • Come here!

    快來!

  • We have a crested gecko for you

    我們有一隻睫角守宮要給你

  • that has very cool hairs on it.

    牠上面的毛長得很酷

  • Congratulations for Harry!

    恭喜 Harry!

  • Excellent job!

    他做得太棒了!

  • So don't worry, if you missed out on this, it's OK

    所以別擔心,如果你錯過這次沒關係

  • because we are doing another design challenge

    因為我們還有別的設計挑戰賽

  • working with the San Diego Zoo.

    是和聖地牙哥動物園合作的

  • They're developing a best ideas project in San Diego,

    我們正在聖地牙哥 發展一個最佳點子的計劃

  • but it's going to go national.

    不過它會漸漸變全國性的

  • And I'll leave you with a fact that you should keep being curious

    最後我想告訴你們 你們應該保有好奇心

  • because curiosity-based research leads to the biggest benefits,

    因為由好奇心驅使的研究 才可以達到最佳的效益

  • as we showed you in our example,

    就像我們的例子裡所說的

  • and you can make a difference

    你一定可以做點不同的事

  • now

    就是現在

  • because like Tanya,

    就像 Tanya 一樣

  • you don't know what can't be done.

    你不會知道什麼是做不到的

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

Nearly every one of your science classes

幾乎每個人上的自然課

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 壁虎 腳趾 好奇心 黏液 發明

【TED-Ed】Robert Full 談向壁虎學習 - Curiosity, discovery and gecko feet

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 06 月 09 日
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