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  • Emily Dickinson said over a century ago

    愛蜜莉狄金森 100 多年前曾說: (Emily Dickinson)

  • that there is no frigate like a book to take us lands away,

    沒有船能像書本,載我們遊歷異邦

  • and it's true.

    一點也沒錯

  • When we pick up a book, turn on the TV, or watch a movie,

    只要拿起書、開電視、看電影

  • We're carried away down the currents of story into a world of imagination.

    我們就被故事帶往幻想世界

  • And when we land, on a shore that is both new and familiar,

    踏上陌生又熟悉的海岸

  • something strange happens.

    接下來,怪事發生了

  • Stepping on to the shore, we're changed.

    踏上海岸時,我們改變了

  • We don't retrace the footsteps of the authors or characters we followed here:

    我們不再追隨作者或主角的足跡

  • no. Instead we walk a mile in their shoes.

    而是用他們的眼睛看世界

  • Researchers in psychology, neuroscience, child development, and biology

    心理學、神經科學、兒童發展學、 和生物學的研究人員

  • are finally starting to gain quantifiable scientific evidence

    終於開始提出量化的科學證據

  • showing what writers and readers have always known:

    證明作家和讀者早就知道的事:

  • That stories have a unique ability to change a person's point of view.

    故事有改變個人觀點的獨特力量

  • Scholars are discovering evidence that stories shape culture

    學者發現了故事形塑文化的證據

  • and that much of what we believe about life comes not from fact

    我們的許多觀點,並非來自現實

  • but from fiction, that our ideas

    而是小說

  • of class, marriage, and even gender

    我們對階級、婚姻、性別的觀念

  • are relatively new, and that many ideologies which held fast for centuries

    推翻了數百年根深蒂固的意識型態

  • were revised within the 18th century, and re-drafted in the pages of the early novel.

    18 世紀時被修正,寫進當時小說

  • Imagine a world where class, and not hard work, decide a person's worth.

    想像一個世界 個人價值由階級而非努力決定、

  • A world where women are simply men's more untamed copy.

    女人只是未馴化的男人、

  • A world where marriage for love is a novel notion.

    自由戀愛結婚是前衛的想法

  • Well, that was the world in which Samuel Richardson's Pamela first appeared.

    這是塞繆爾理查森寫愛情小說《潘蜜拉》 的時代背景 (Samuel Richardson)

  • Richardson's love story starred a poor, serving-class heroine

    女主角是個貧窮的僕人

  • who is both morally superior and smarter than her upper-class suitor.

    但才德遠勝於上流社會的追求者

  • The book, challenging a slew of traditions,

    這本書挑戰了許多傳統觀念

  • caused quite a ruckus.

    造成一時輿論譁然

  • There was more press for Pamela than for Parliament.

    媒體報導《潘蜜拉》比國會還多

  • It spawned intense debate and several counter-novels.

    引發激烈論戰和幾本相反觀點小說

  • Still, for all those who couldn't accept Pamela,

    雖然許多人無法接受《潘蜜拉》

  • others were eager for this new fictional world.

    還是有人渴望書中描寫的新世界

  • This best-seller, and all its literary heirs,

    這本暢銷小說,和所有後繼的作品

  • Pride and Prejudice, Jane Eyre, and yes, even Twilight,

    傲慢與偏見、簡愛、甚至暮光之城

  • Have continuously shared the same tale, and taught similar lessons

    持續分享相同故事、傳達相同理念

  • which are now conventional and commonplace.

    現在已成了傳統,甚至陳腔濫調

  • Similarly, novels have helped shape the minds

    相似的,小說也參與塑造

  • of thought leaders across history.

    歷史上領導人物的心靈

  • Some scholars say that Darwin's Theory of Evolution

    有些學者認為達爾文的進化論 (Charles Darwin)

  • is highly indebted to the plots he read and loved.

    受到他喜愛的故事情節影響很大

  • His theory privileges intelligence,

    進化論強調智力、敏捷、適應力

  • swiftness, and adaptability to change- all core characteristics in a hero.

    這些都是英雄人物的特徵

  • Whether you're reading Harry Potter or Great Expectations,

    不論你讀哈利波特、或孤星血淚 (Harry Potter) (Great Expectations)

  • you're reading the kind of plot that inspired Darwin.

    都會讀到啟發達爾文的那種情節

  • Yet recent studies show that his theory might not be the whole story,

    近期研究顯示,他的理論不見得正確

  • our sense of being a hero- one man, or one woman, or even one species

    要成為超人、女超人、或超人族

  • taking on the challenges of the world might be wrong.

    以承擔世界的挑戰,想法可能錯誤

  • Instead of being hard-wired for competition,

    與其在自己的故事裡

  • for being the solitary heroes in our own story,

    想強出頭,成為孤獨的英雄

  • we might instead be members of a shared quest.

    不如成為探索之旅的成員

  • More Hobbit than Harry.

    比起哈利波特,我們更像哈比人

  • Sometimes, of course, the shoes we've been walking in can get plain worn out.

    有時候書中觀念已成陳腔濫調

  • After all, we haven't walked just one mile in Jane Austen or Mark Twain's shoes,

    畢竟我們陪珍奧斯汀或馬克吐溫 不止是一小段路

  • we've walked about a hundred trillion miles in them.

    而是一段漫長歲月的旅程

  • This isn't to say that we can't read and enjoy the classics,

    這不是說,我們不該享受經典名著

  • we should travel with Dickens,

    而是應該和狄更斯一起旅行 (Charles Dickens)

  • let Pip teach us what to expect from ourselves,

    讓孤星血淚的男主角皮普 (Pip) 教我們認清自己的期望

  • have a talk with Austen and Elizabeth about our prides and prejudices.

    該對珍奧斯汀與主角伊麗莎白 說出自己的傲慢與偏見 (Jane Austen)

  • We should float with Twain down the Mississippi,

    該和馬克吐溫一起在密西西比河上 (Mark Twain)

  • and have Jim show us what it means to be good.

    讓頑童流浪記的吉姆,告訴我們 何謂善良 (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)

  • But on our journey, we should also keep in mind

    在旅程中,我們要謹記

  • that the terrain has changed. We'll start shopping around for boots

    時代已經改變了

  • that were made for walking into a new era.

    我們必須用新想法,面對新世界

  • Take, for instance, Katniss Everdeen and her battle with the Capitol.

    例如飢餓遊戲女主角凱妮絲艾佛丁 對都城的戰爭 (The Hunger Games)

  • Can Hunger Games lead us into thinking about capitalism in a new way?

    能否帶領我們 以新角度思考資本主義?

  • Can it teach us a lesson about why the individual should not put herself before the group?

    能否教導我們 個人利益不該凌駕團體?

  • Will Uglies reflect the dangers of pursuing a perfect body

    小說《醜人兒》 (Uglies) 是否能 反映出追求完美體態…

  • and letting the media define what is beautiful?

    以及讓媒體定義「美麗」的危險?

  • Will Seekers trod a path beyond global warming?

    《熊行者》 (Seekers) 是否能 踏出解決全球暖化之道?

  • Will the life and death struggles of Toklo,

    小棕熊托克羅 (Toklo)、 小北極熊卡莉 (Kallik)、

  • Kallik, Lusa, and the other bears chart a course for understanding animals

    小黑熊露莎 (Lusa) 和熊族的 生存奮鬥,能否讓我們

  • and our place in their world?

    關懷動物、了解責任?

  • Only the future will tell which stories will engage our imagination,

    未來才知,哪些故事激發想像

  • which tales of make-believe we'll make tomorrow,

    哪些故事形塑我們的未來

  • but the good news is this:

    但好消息是:

  • There are new stories to venture in every day.

    每天都有新的故事可以冒險

  • New tales that promise to influence, to create, and to spark change.

    帶來影響、創造、和改變的契機

  • Stories that you might even write yourself.

    甚至你也可以寫自己的故事!

  • So I guess the final question is this:

    我想最終的問題是:

  • what story will you try on next?

    接下來,你要走進哪個故事呢?

Emily Dickinson said over a century ago

愛蜜莉狄金森 100 多年前曾說: (Emily Dickinson)

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 小說 故事 主角 世界 進化論

【TED-Ed】虛構小說如何改變現實世界?- How fiction can change reality - Jessica Wise

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