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  • (Video Presenter): And, the winner of the 75,000 dollar 2012 Gordon E. Moore Award

    (播放的影片) : 2012 年高登·厄爾·摩爾獎 75000 美元的得主

  • in the category of Medicine and Health Sciences,

    來自醫療健康科學領域

  • (Cheers) (Applause)

    (歡呼)(掌聲)

  • the grand prize winner, Jack Thomas Andraka.

    傑克·湯瑪斯·安紮克

  • (Cheers) (Applause)

    (歡呼)(掌聲)

  • (Trumpets) (Applause)

    (音樂)(掌聲)

  • And, now, ladies and gentlemen,

    好的 女士們 先生們

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • it is my honor to present to you the top award winners

    很榮幸給你們展示2012年

  • of 2012 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (Applause)

    英特爾國際科學工程大會的冠軍 (掌聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Jack Andraka: So there I am.

    傑克·安紮克: 我在這裏

  • No, that was the entire talk, bye.

    噢,那不是演說的全部

  • We have been talking a lot about this thing called cancer.

    我們一直在談論癌症

  • It's really near and dear to all of us.

    它離我們很近,治療很昂貴

  • But, imagine a world without cancer.

    但,想像一個沒有癌症的世界

  • What if there was a sensor that was like a diabetes test strip

    那假如有一種像糖尿病檢測條

  • that could detect cancer for less than 3 cents in 5 minutes.

    只用 3 美分,5 分鐘來檢測癌症呢

  • Imagine a 168 times faster, over 26,000 times less expensive,

    想像一下,它能 168 倍更快 便宜 26,000 倍

  • and over 400 times more sensitive.

    而且靈敏 400 多倍

  • Well, I created such a strip.

    我就創造了這樣一個檢測條

  • Basically, I was motivated to do this

    簡單說,一位家人因胰腺癌過世

  • because I had a close family member that passed due to pancreatic cancer.

    激發了我這樣做

  • It's a really devastating disease. It's the death sentence basically.

    這個病很危險,幾乎就是絕症

  • You can see that, after 5 years,

    圖上能看出來,只有百分之 5.5 的病人

  • only 5.5 percent of people who are initially diagnosed, will survive.

    能夠在被診斷 5 年後生還

  • That is a staggering statistics.

    這是個令人沮喪的統計

  • Why as a society that is so technologically advanced --

    科技已經如此發達

  • should this statistic be acceptable to us.

    我們不應該接受這樣的結果

  • So, then, I got really interested and I started doing a bit of research.

    所以我著手做了些調查

  • What I found is that there are these certain proteins.

    我找到了這些蛋白質

  • They are found in your blood at higher concentrations

    當患者有胰腺癌時

  • when you have pancreatic cancer.

    他們在血液中的濃度會更高

  • I was looking at one, called mesothelin.

    我進一步觀察間皮素

  • It's highly overexpressed by pancreatic cancer as well as [at] the early stages.

    (是一種細胞表面糖蛋白) 胰腺癌早期它會很明顯

  • Where, if you can find it in those stages, then it has close to a 100% survival rate

    可以儘早發現,從而獲得接近 100% 的存活率

  • rather than 5.5%.

    而不是原先的 5.5%

  • But, also a main problem with our current diagnostic test

    然而我們現在的診斷測試

  • for pancreatic cancer -- it's grossly inaccurate.

    卻有一個問題——不夠準確

  • It diagnoses like, for example, inflamation of your pancreas.

    它能診斷,譬如,胰腺的炎症

  • That to me is unacceptable.

    但還不夠

  • A 70% sensitivity and less than that for specificity --

    70% 的靈敏度和更低的專一性

  • [Which] means it gives tons of false positives and false negatives.

    這可能會導致錯誤的陰性陽性結果

  • So then, through these really cool things called carbon nanotubes --

    通過這些很酷的碳微管

  • They are the superheros of material science.

    它們是材料科學的成就

  • There are these atom-thick tube of carbon and they have these fantastic properties.

    它們只有一層碳原子厚 而且具有絕佳的性質

  • So, I am super interested in that.

    我對這很有興趣

  • I began formulating an idea in unlikely place, biology class.

    我開始在生物領域制定一個想法

  • We were learning about antibodies which are basically lock and key molecules

    我們瞭解的分子抗體 有點像鎖和鑰匙

  • that bind specifically to a certain protein.

    它們與相關的蛋白質緊密相關

  • In this case, the cancer biomarker, mesothelin.

    在這裏是癌症的製造者間皮素

  • Then, I had an idea. I was reading this paper

    我有了個主意 生物課上

  • in biology class -- about carbon nanotubes --

    我學到一些--有關於碳微管

  • I knew about this protein, mesothelin, and we were learning about antibodies.

    我知道這些蛋白質間皮素 也瞭解分子抗體

  • It is kind of like a connect-the-dots puzzle where you form a draft

    這有點像連點拼圖

  • where in this case it is like a sensor.

    在這裏就是一個感應器

  • So, here is the idea I came up with.

    這就是我的想法:

  • You have a network of the single walled carbon nanotubes and antibodies.

    用網狀的單層碳微管和分子抗體

  • What happens is -- when you put a blood sample

    就是這樣——當你在這種網狀物上

  • that contains that target protein in it on this network,

    放置帶有目標蛋白質的血液樣本

  • that protein will go into the network and form a larger molecule with that antibody.

    目標蛋白質會進入網狀物並 形成帶有分子抗體的更大的分子

  • This causes an electrical change in the sensor.

    感應器中會產生電流

  • I can actually measure this with a 50 dollar ohmmeter from Home Depot.

    在家得寶 (傢俱建材店) 50 美元買的歐姆表就能測量到

  • And it is really easy to produce.

    真的很方便

  • All you do is to create uniform dispersion out of these.

    僅僅需要均勻分散樣本

  • You mix it up with these carbon nanotubes and this antibody.

    要把它和碳微管和分子抗體 混合起來

  • You just dip stick that is like a piece of filter paper.

    就用一張濾紙

  • It's really, really simple.

    確實真的很簡單

  • Then, you dry it and you use it for a certain time.

    然後讓它乾燥 就能用一段時間了

  • That's not that hard.

    這並不是很難

  • You just measure it with this 50 dollar ohmmeter.

    就把它跟 50 美元的歐姆表接起來

  • It requires less than a sixth of the drop of blood.

    只需要一滴血的六分之一那麼多

  • It is a tiny prick to your finger.

    刺一下你的手指就有了

  • What you have to do for detecting a disease such as pancreatic cancer [is] --

    當你檢測疾病例如胰腺癌時

  • when a protein is overexpressed you have to set a cutoff level.

    一種蛋白質的表現有差異 這就需要一個排除門檻

  • If it's above this, then, it's at an abnormally high level.

    如果高於這個 那資料就異常了

  • If't is below that, then, it's kind of normal and you are OK.

    如果低於它 那就沒有問題

  • So, I choose mine as 10 nano grams per mL.

    所以 我把我的排除門檻定為 每毫升 10 納克

  • A nano gram is a tiny amount.

    一納克極其小

  • Think it of as one billionth.

    想像一下十億 (10 的正九次與負九次方對比)

  • So, pretty small.

    對吧,很小

  • Then, essentially what I did is, I had to test whether my sensor was actualy working.

    然後很重要的,我得來檢測 我的感應器對不對

  • I took about 100 patients

    我取了 100 位病人

  • who had pancreatic cancer ranging in its stage.

    在此階段有胰腺癌

  • You can see they are all above this 20 ng.

    你們能看到,他們的資料都超過 20 納克

  • That's well above the 10 ng per mL cutoff.

    這遠超 10 納克的排除門檻

  • So, I had a 100 percent sensitivity.

    它的靈敏度是很高的

  • Them, I had negative cancer samples, healthy patients.

    然後我用了陰性病例,也就是健康人

  • People who did not have pancreatic cancer, maybe some other condition.

    沒有胰腺癌的人 有著各種其他身體情況

  • Those are all below 10 ng for mL.

    他們的資料都在 10 以下

  • That means that is not giving any false positives or any false negatives.

    這表明,這個方法不會產生 錯誤的陰性或陽性檢測結果

  • That means a 100% accuracy as [its] diagnosis.

    它有著 100% 的準確度

  • This has the potential to save thusands of lives,

    它或許可以拯救成千上萬人

  • reshaping how we think of cancer diagnostics.

    重塑我們對於癌症診斷的看法

  • In addition to this, what happens is this -- also I found we could look at

    並且我們來看下

  • how effective a chemotherapeutic treatment or a regimen

    化療或者調養 跟手術比

  • as well as how effective your surgery is.

    有怎樣的效果

  • You can see it here that

    這兒你們能看到

  • for each of different chemotherapeutic drugs -- I tested five on mouse models --

    對於每個不同的化療藥物 我在五個老鼠身上實驗

  • they all have different levels of mesothelin.

    它們有著不同的間皮素水準

  • So, you could effectively see how effective your cancer drug treatment is.

    這樣就能清楚地 看到癌症藥物的效果了

  • You could look at drug resistance, for example.

    例如,能觀察耐藥性

  • With this, I have created a sensor that can detect pancreatic cancer.

    就這樣,我發明了一種 可以檢測到胰腺癌的感應器

  • It is very simple. It is very rapid -- taking 5 minutes for 3 cents.

    它很簡易,很快速——只需要 花 5 分鐘和 3 美分

  • It's non invasible. It's sensitive and selective.

    它不需要進入人體 它靈敏而准確

  • But in addition, compared to the current gold standard of pancreatic cancer detection,

    而且,跟如今的標準探測法比起來

  • it is a 168 times faster,

    快了 168 倍

  • over 26,000 times less expensive and over 400 times more sensitive.

    便宜了 26000 倍,靈敏了 400 多倍

  • That is not actually, including -- that you need specific practice

    不僅僅如此

  • like a university training in order to conduct that gold standard,

    做標準化檢測程式

  • as well as it requires this expensive bulky machine to read this thing called ELISA.

    需要到大學裏使用叫做 ELISA 這樣的笨重的機器

  • Whilst mine, it's a 50 dollar ohmmeter from Home Depot.

    我的呢,只需要一個 50 美元的歐姆表

  • Also, the protein I am detecting, called mesothelin,

    而且我檢查的間皮素

  • it is overexpressed in both ovarian and lung cancer.

    在卵巢癌和肺癌都有症狀

  • Through this sensor, [that] is a generic sensor for those two cancers,

    這個感應器不是唯一的 對這兩種癌症都有用

  • but also implications are that certain protein is found in 40 different types of cancer.

    這種應用指向了 40 多種癌症的蛋白質

  • This sensor, is detecting nearly every form of cancer.

    這件感應器幫助我們 檢測幾乎所有癌症

  • This has limitless applications.

    仿佛有著無窮的應用

  • What happens is you just change this antibody in the sensor,

    只需要改變感應器裏的分子抗體

  • you can detect anything, any protein.

    就能檢測任何物質蛋白質

  • That means other forms of cancer, other diseases

    啟示我們其他疾病

  • such as E Coli, Rotavirus, Salmonella, and those HIV, AIDS.

    例如 E 大腸桿菌、輪狀病毒、 沙門氏菌、愛滋病毒

  • All those cancers and diseases are plague us.

    這些瘟疫一般的癌症與疾病 (都不再那麼可怕)

  • Thusands, millions, billions of lives can be saved with this technology.

    數不清的人們可能因此得救

  • Also, it can look at how effective our treatment is.

    並且可以指示我們的治療效

  • So, this will reshape how we think of medicine.

    它會重塑我們的治療觀

  • We will now have a simple diabetic test strip

    我們將有一個簡單的檢測方法

  • that can detect your disease in 5 minutes for 3 cents,

    在 5 分鐘內花 3 美分就能檢測你的疾病

  • but also tell you how to optimally cure the disease and treat it.

    還能輔助你治療疾病

  • And, so -- Oh, two slides are missing.

    然後——噢,我忘了兩點

  • My final conclusion, what I am leaving you with,

    我的結論,想告訴你們的

  • is that I am not the only one who can do this.

    不是只有我可以做到這樣

  • Anyone can.

    每個人都可以

  • It just took me 200 emails and a bunch of hardwork to do it,

    這只花了我大約 200 封電子郵件 和一些努力就做到了

  • but that is a different story.

    當然那是另一個故事了

  • But, you just have to ask yourself.

    你需要問問你自己

  • Imagine a world -- or what if --

    想像一個世界.....或者 如果....

  • you can become like me and hopefully have a very happy running up to a stage.

    你也可以像我一樣 (拿獎) 然後高高興興地跑去講臺

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

(Video Presenter): And, the winner of the 75,000 dollar 2012 Gordon E. Moore Award

(播放的影片) : 2012 年高登·厄爾·摩爾獎 75000 美元的得主

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 癌症 檢測 感應器 蛋白質 抗體 分子

TEDx】一個沒有癌症的世界--傑克-安德拉卡在TEDxRedmond 2012上的演講。 (【TEDx】A World Without Cancer - Jack Andraka at TEDxRedmond 2012)

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