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  • Hey there. I'm Mike Rugnetta. This is Crash Course Mythology and hey, Thoth, can we talk man-to-man?

  • Man-to-God? Man-to-Ibis-and-sometimes-Baboon because today's episode is about

  • Mythological men and what unites them among different cultures. We've been talking about gods for months

  • But now we're going to look at them more theoretically and divide them into groups based on their

  • archetypal functions in myth. Grab your Papyrus, Thoth, so you can take notes. I promise it won't be rote.

  • We examined female divinity archetypes in the last two episodes and

  • mythologists have categorized male divinities into a similar set of archetypes. Across countless myths when male gods appear

  • It's usually in one of six

  • forms. Fathers and/or sons, kings and judges, saviors and sages, Shamans, Tricksters, and the lords of

  • destruction and just if you got excited about finally figuring out the name of your new death metal band,

  • I've got some bad news,

  • it's already taken so. So let's begin at the beginning with fathers and sons. We've talked about creation myths and divine families,

  • so you already know that in a lot of cases a son

  • overthrows his father to usurp his spot.

  • This can get pretty bloody and, as is the case with Uranus and Cronus and Zeus, can even involve

  • castration. One reason god-sons might be eager to topple their divine fathers is that these fathers are often

  • aloof

  • Especially in creation myths, it's common for all-Powerful father figures to live in the sky being all unapproachable

  • for their children. According to Scott Leonard and Michael McClure in patrifocal myths, all seek the father's love

  • and approval; all long for even a glimpse of his face;

  • and all live in terror of his wrath. You can just picture Apollo asking Zeus

  • if he'll come outside to like kick the soccer ball around - "Come on dad, please?"

  • Meanwhile Zeus is just lightning-bolting things - he's busy working. In other myths, sons become symbols of their fathers attributes or

  • conduits for their father's knowledge and abilities. Take Odin and his sons Tyr and Balder;

  • they epitomize their father's bravery and wisdom respectively and Thor is a distillation of Odin's military and

  • reproductive power. We see something similar in a Korean myth about the heavenly ruler Hwaning.

  • Before any people exist on Earth, Hwaning teaches his son Hwanung the secrets of the heavenly kingdom and allows him to descend to Earth

  • to create a new society. The advice allows Hwanung to rule more effectively over the earth, and later

  • he passes the same wisdom on to the first man, Dangun, so that he can recreate the heavenly order

  • himself. Gods hate weeding,

  • but they love order. in Hwanung's transition from archetypal son to father,

  • marked by passing on knowledge to humans, he also embodies another male archetype: God as king or judge.

  • There's no clear reason why pantheons of gods would need to be organized like terrestrial governments

  • but there are countless myths where gods are in human leadership roles. For instance, sky gods like Zeus are often described as

  • reigning like Kings and also partying like kings, if you ask Leticia,

  • Roman goddess of festivity. Historically, myths featuring gods as kings have helped justify monarchical power on Earth. They create an

  • equivalence between the

  • terrestrial kings' ability to provide security and the gods' ability to do the same. In some traditions male divinities also act as judges; often

  • judges of human souls. In Egyptian myths, Osiris and

  • 42 other gods test the souls of the dead to see if they were Maat Kheru, or true of voice. At times

  • Osiris and Anubis are pictured weighing a soul in the form of a heart against a feather and Thoth would record the results.

  • Nice work, pal. No matter how well a human has learned from their father figure, sometimes things get out of hand.

  • Mythology is brimming with stories of bailouts in the form of a savior god.

  • This salvation can be a

  • sacrifice like the Aztec myth of Nanahuatl who throws himself onto a fire to become the sun that will nourish

  • humanity - more on that in our episode about dying gods.

  • More often though gods act as saviors by providing knowledge and guidance that humans need to thrive spiritually and

  • survive actually.

  • Usually these saviors don't die, but instead impart some important, often sacred, knowledge that if followed leads to salvation.

  • We can make a case for

  • Prometheus, who gives people fire, as a kind of sage and maybe we can read the biblical story of Jesus as a

  • combination of savior and sage; just two great tastes that taste great together.

  • According to William Doty,

  • the Shaman is a figure who can enter the world of spirits easily because of the powers granted to her or him

  • by such beings. Often a Shaman will travel to spiritual realms,

  • journeying on a road that puts him in contact with supernatural

  • forces that most people cannot see. It can be tricky to see shamans as gods rather than human heroes because

  • human Shamans exists in many cultures, both historically and

  • currently. It may be more helpful to think of some gods as having the skills or attributes of Shamans,

  • specifically the use of

  • supernatural power to provide or find the answers to

  • pressing questions. For example, the Celtic deity the Dagda has a magic cauldron from which he draws special items;

  • messenger gods like Hermes sprint between the Earth, the Heavens and the Underworld.

  • Hermes himself was the God of alchemists and

  • magicians and, functionally similar to Hermes, is our good friend Thoth. Thoth was also a heavenly messenger, often credited with special if not

  • mystical knowledge about things like

  • mathematics, astronomy, the alphabet and writing: that's why Thoth here is the patron god of Crash Course; not because his name is fun to say,

  • but because he's awesome. High five, pal.

  • Another important archetypal role for male gods is the trickster. This one is so fun that we're going to be devoting a few episodes to

  • it in the future. We've already seen tricksters like Eshu,

  • who you may remember from our episode on Orishas, and of course our old friend

  • Loki, who you may remember from him being the worst.

  • Trickster gods remind us that life's can be chaotic, and not just the creation from the void kind of chaotic.

  • There's plenty of mischief that we're going to talk about; you're going to have to wait. Our last

  • archetype of male divinity is the Lord of Destruction, or Lord of the Underworld.

  • We've met this type before: Hades, Osiris looking at y'all's. Often they have dogs or dog-headed

  • gods as helpers, like Cerberus and Anubis, and sometimes lords of the underworld are connected with greed:

  • Pluto gives us the word plutocrat: someone who derives their power from their wealth; possibly because kings of the underworld never give up a soul

  • once they get one. Another possible explanation for the strange connection between death and abundance

  • is that some of these gods are linked with seasonal renewal and thus

  • fertility, and it's not surprising that many gods of battle are archetypically male. A good example of a battle

  • god who combines many masculine divine attributes is Perune, the chief Slavic deity. He sometimes pictured as a huge man with a

  • silver face, a golden moustache and who wields an enormous club, a battle ax, a bow and arrow and

  • thunderbolts; basically, you name it, he is going to stab someone with it. And then there's Balor,

  • the celtic war god of the Fomorians.

  • His single eye has a lid so heavy that it required

  • servants to hoist it open which is probably a good thing because anyone who fell under

  • Balor of the stout blow's gaze was crushed in an instant.

  • Talk about a death stare. So as you've probably figured out, there's a lot of overlap among these archetypes. A male

  • god can be a king and a sage and a father and a warrior all at the same time

  • or he can fulfill different roles in different stories. A great example of this is the god Krishna in the

  • Bhagavad-Gita. The Bhagavad-Gita is the sixth book in the Indian epic poem the Mahabharata; in the West,

  • it's probably the most well known section of the poem. It tells the story of the Prince Arjuna and his

  • charioteer, who happens to be Krishna, deciding what to do on the battlefield of Kuruksetra.

  • Thought bubble's is going to help us out. In the middle of battle, Prince Arjuna is torn between his duty as a warrior and

  • family loyalty. He has family on the opposite side, so he might harm them if he fulfilled his warrior Dharma.

  • He's deciding whether to be a warrior or renounce his role as a Kshatriya: a member of the Hindu military caste.

  • He says to Krishna, "Krishna,

  • I see my kinsmen gathered here, wanting war. My limbs sink, my mouth is parched,

  • my body trembles, the hair bristles on my flesh, the magic bow slips from my hand, my skin burns,

  • I cannot stand still, my mind reels. I see omens of chaos, Krishna;

  • I see no good in killing my kinsmen in battle." Krishna acts as a sage;

  • he answers Arjuna's question then gives him the secret to living a good life,

  • achieving immortality, and even becoming a sage himself.

  • He says, "You must learn to endure fleeting things - they come and go!

  • When these cannot torment a man, when suffering and joy are equal for him

  • and he has courage, he is fit for immortality." Then Arjuna asks to see Krishna in his true form. He is

  • duly

  • terrified and amazed. He says, "You are the gods of wind, death, fire and water; the moon; the lord of life; the great

  • ancestor... You are father of the world of animate and inanimate things, its venerable teacher, most worthy of worship...

  • I bow to you." Arjuna realizes

  • he must fulfill his destiny to be a warrior.

  • Krishna, by embodying various archetypes, helps Arjuna to become the best and most destructive

  • version of himself. Thanks

  • Thought bubble. So it's interesting that even while Krishna is ultimately encouraging Arjuna to rejoin the battle,

  • he's also offering a way to achieve peace and salvation within the religious tradition of Hinduism.

  • Krishna even provides more than one path, inspiring Arjuna to follow his dharma,

  • practice the disciplines of Yoga and worship Krishna himself, a devotion called Bhakti. When Krishna reveals himself to Arjuna,

  • he is both creator and lord of destruction, glorious and terrible to behold.

  • He represents the multiplicity and complexity of

  • divinity, common in Indian religious texts and

  • myths.

  • He is

  • lord and father,

  • but also provides comfort like a friend or a lover, and he's a sage too when he provides a path to salvation.

  • So really Krishna's pretty much the full God package. The fact that Krishna occupies almost every archetype

  • we've talked about helps illustrate

  • what's useful about

  • identifying

  • archetypes in the first place. Knowing about these categories allows us to see patterns in stories and even whole traditions. Realizing that father

  • figures take different forms in different cultures or often take the same form helps us ground the connections between myth,

  • culture and our beliefs about everyday life and what it means to be a dude. Thanks for watching we'll see you next week.

  • Check out our Crash Course Mythology Thoth tote bag and poster, available now at dftba.com

  • Crash course Mythology is filmed in the Chad and Stacey Emigholz studio in Indianapolis,

  • Indiana and is produced with the help of all of these nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course exists

  • thanks to the generous support of our patrons at Patreon.

  • Patreon is a voluntary subscription service where you can support the content you love through a monthly donation to help keep Crash Course free for everyone for ever.

  • Crash course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud; check the description for a link to a free trial. Thanks for watching. Don't worry -

  • You're going to find a name for your metal band. It's out there.

  • Probably in an episode about

  • Egyptian Mythology.

Hey there. I'm Mike Rugnetta. This is Crash Course Mythology and hey, Thoth, can we talk man-to-man?

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Archetypes and Male Divinities: Crash Course World Mythology #15(Archetypes and Male Divinities: Crash Course World Mythology #15)

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    香蕉先生 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 26 日
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