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  • Your plan to set up your friend Carey with your acquaintance Emerson is finally coming together.

    你要撮合你朋友 Carey 和你熟人 Emerson 的計畫終於要實現了。

  • Both individuals have heard all about each other and they're eager to meet for dinner.


  • You've just made them a reservation for Friday night, and you're about to text Carey the details when an unsettling thought crosses your mind.

    你剛幫他們預約了週五晚上的位置,在要傳簡訊給 Carey 時,腦中突然浮現了令你不安的想法。

  • Carey is always late.

    Carey 總是會遲到。

  • And not just by 5 minutes; we're talking 20 or even 30 minutes late.

    不是只晚到個 5 分鐘,而是遲到 20 甚至 30 分鐘。

  • Carey seems to view punctuality as an oppressive relic of an earlier era.

    Carey 似乎將「守時」視為古早時代具壓迫性的遺物。

  • But what if you told them dinner was at 6 instead of 6:30?

    那你如果跟他說晚餐是 6 點開始,而不是 6 點半呢?

  • That way, they would almost certainly arrive on time.


  • You really want this relationship to work, so... should you lie?


  • Take a moment to think; what you would do?


  • Maybe you should lie.


  • You think this new relationship could be great for Carey, and you don't want them to ruin it before it's even begun.

    你覺得這段新關係對 Carey 來說會很棒,也不希望在它開始前就被他毀掉。

  • Sure, Emerson may eventually learn about their chronic lateness.

    沒錯,Emerson 可能終究還是會發現 Carey 的慣性遲到。

  • But if Carey shows up on time just this once, the relationship will at least have a chance to take root.

    但如果 Carey 只要能夠準時出現一次,那這段關係至少還有開始的機會。

  • Your lie would pave the way for a potentially happy relationship.


  • And if taking an action will create a better outcome for everyone involved, that's normally a pretty good reason to take it.


  • But isn't it morally wrong to lie?


  • The absolutist position on lying, associated with German philosopher Immanuel Kant, holds that lying is always immoral, regardless of the circumstances.

    與德國哲學家 Immanuel Kant 相關的對於說謊絕對主義者認為,說謊不管在什麼狀況下都是不道德的。

  • In other words, there's a moral rule which forbids lying, and that rule is absolute.


  • You might think, though, that this stance overstates the moral importance of lying.


  • Suppose a murderer were hunting Carey down.

    假設有個殺人犯正在追殺 Carey。

  • If the killer asked you about Carey's whereabouts, it seems odd to say that you must tell the truth at the cost of your friend's life.

    如果這個殺人犯問你 Carey 在哪裡,不惜犧牲朋友的生命也堅持要說實話顯得很奇怪。

  • From this perspective, absolutism seems too rigid.

    從這個角度來看, 絕對主義似乎太過僵化。

  • By contrast, utilitarian philosopher John Stuart Mill would say lying is wrong only when it leads to less happiness overall.

    相反地,功利主義哲學家 John Stuart Mill 則認為說謊只有在導致整體幸褔消減的狀況下才能算是錯的。

  • Now, to be fair, most lies do seem likely to create unhappiness.


  • Someone who accepts a lie believes something which is false, and trying to conduct your life on the basis of false information doesn't usually go well.


  • However, in some circumstances, perhaps including your situation, lying might produce more happiness overall.


  • In those cases, utilitarians say it's not morally wrong to lie.


  • In fact, it might even be your moral duty to do so.


  • But if absolutism seems too extreme, you might feel this stance is too lax.

    但如果你認為絕對主義太激進, 你可能也會覺得功利主義太鬆散。

  • In other words, perhaps the utilitarian position understates the moral significance of lying.


  • Most people generally feel some regret about lying, even when they believe it's the right thing to do.


  • This suggests there's something inherently objectionable about lying, even when it leads to more happiness.


  • In this case, lying to Carey would be an instance of paternalism.

    在這個案例中,對 Carey 說謊就會是家長作風的立場。

  • Paternalism is interfering with another person's choices for that person's benefit.


  • This might be fine if that person is a literal child.

    如果對象真的是個小孩, 那或許是沒關係的。

  • But it seems disrespectful to treat a peer paternalistically.


  • Lying to Carey would mean taking away their opportunity to handle the situation as they see fit based on their own beliefs and values.

    對 Carey 說謊會意味你剝奪了他根據自己的信念與價值判定對這個狀況應採取什麼行動的機會。

  • Trying to protect Carey from what you consider to be a bad choice would show a lack of respect for their autonomy.

    試著保護 Carey 免於你認為的「壞選擇」會顯示你對她的自主權缺乏尊重。

  • By extension, it might also be disrespectful towards Emerson, since you would be deliberately trying to give him a false impression of Carey's punctuality.

    延伸來說,這樣做也可能不尊重 Emerson,因為你故意試著讓他對 Carey 的時間觀念產生錯誤印象。

  • So, how do you weigh potential happiness against guaranteed disrespect?


  • Followers of Kant would say treating others with respect is the heart of moral conduct, while followers of Mill would say nothing is more important than happiness.

    Kant 的追隨者會說,尊重他人是道德實踐的中心,而 Mill 的追隨者則會認為, 福祉是首要之務。

  • But other philosophers believe that such conflicts can only be resolved on a case-by-case basis, depending on various details and on the individuals involved.

    但其他哲學家相信,這種衝突只能根據個案一一解決, 視具體細節和參與者而定。

  • So, what will you do in Carey's case?

    那麼,你會怎麼處理 Carey 這個狀況呢?

  • Keep testing your decision-making skills with another classic ethical dilemma.


  • Two ships have sent out distress calls, and you only have enough time to save one.


  • Which ship do you save?


  • Make your choice with this video.


Your plan to set up your friend Carey with your acquaintance Emerson is finally coming together.

你要撮合你朋友 Carey 和你熟人 Emerson 的計畫終於要實現了。

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該說事實還是該說「善意的謊言」? Ethical dilemma: Would you lie? - Sarah Stroud

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    たらこ 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 25 日