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  • way.

    辦法。

  • Use the word modern to describe something.

    用現代這個詞來形容某件事。

  • It's usually a positive.

    這通常是一個積極的。

  • We're very appreciative and even a little smug about the miracles of modern science, modern technology and even the superiority of modern viewpoints.

    我們對現代科學、現代技術的奇蹟,甚至對現代觀點的優越性都非常讚賞,甚至有些自以為是。

  • But what if, in speeding towards a new and ever better future, we've left some important truths about ourselves behind one of the people who best helps us to explore this problem is Margaret Mead, perhaps the most famous anthropologist in the world.

    但是,如果在飛速奔向一個嶄新的、越來越好的未來的過程中,我們留下了關於我們自己的一些重要的真相呢,最能幫助我們探索這個問題的人之一是瑪格麗特-米德,也許是世界上最著名的人類學家。

  • Margaret Mead was born in the U.

    瑪格麗特-米德出生在美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • A.

    A.

  • In 1901 the oldest of five Children.

    1901年,五個孩子中的老大。

  • Her father was a professor of finance, and her mother was a sociologist.

    她的父親是金融學教授,母親是社會學家。

  • After studying psychology is an undergraduate meet began a PhD in the relatively new field off anthropology.

    學習心理學後是大學生見面開始在相對較新的領域關人類學博士。

  • Her supervisor, France Boas, was the founder of the discipline in the United States.

    她的主管法國博斯是美國這門學科的創始人。

  • Unlike earlier anthropologists, who'd imagined that civilization was progressing in a linear fashion, from barbarism to savagery toe civilization, Boas argued that the world was teeming with separate cultures, each with their own unique perspectives, insights on deficiencies.

    與早期的人類學家不同,他們想象中的文明是以線性的方式發展的,從野蠻到野蠻再到文明,博阿斯認為,世界上充滿了獨立的文化,每一種文化都有自己獨特的視角,對不足的見解。

  • The modern Western world was not the pinnacle of human achievement, but simply one specific example of what humans could get up to Bo has suggested that meet travel for her fieldwork to Samoa, a few tiny volcanic tropical islands in the center of the Pacific Ocean.

    現代西方世界並不是人類成就的巔峰,而只是人類能達到的一個具體例子,博文曾建議,滿足前往薩摩亞進行實地考察,薩摩亞是太平洋中心的幾個小小的火山熱帶島嶼。

  • Mead was particularly interested in primitive communities because she believed that such isolated cultures could serve as laboratories that would reveal ways of living that the modern world had for gotten about but needed to remember.

    米德對原始社區特別感興趣,因為她認為這種孤立的文化可以作為實驗室,揭示現代世界已經瞭解但需要記住的生活方式。

  • Starting in 1925 and lasting until the beginning of the Second World War Meet, lived in Samoa in a highly authentic way for long periods.

    從1925年開始,一直到第二次世界大戰開始見面,長期以高度真實的方式生活在薩摩亞。

  • She let the language is dressed like a local and even carried babies around by having them cling to her neck.

    她讓語言穿得像個本地人,甚至還讓嬰兒緊緊貼在她的脖子上,抱著嬰兒到處跑。

  • Meet became fascinated by Samoan attitudes to sex in particular.

    尤其是薩摩亞人對性的態度,讓Meet變得非常著迷。

  • In the book that made her name coming of age in Samoa, published in 1928 Mead described Samoan culture a Sfar more open and comfortable with sex than the modern United States.

    在1928年出版的《在薩摩亞成年》一書中,米德將薩摩亞文化描述為比現代美國更開放、更舒適的性文化。

  • Little Children in Samoa knew all about masturbation and learned about intercourse in other acts through firsthand observation, but thought of it is no more scandalous or worthy of comment than death or birth.

    薩摩亞的小孩子都知道手淫的事,也通過親身觀察瞭解了其他行為中的性交,但想到這一點,並不比死亡或出生更可恥或值得評論。

  • Homosexuality was incidental, but also not a matter of shame on people's orientations, fluctuated naturally throughout their lives without defining them.

    同志是偶然的,但也不是人們取向的恥辱問題,在他們的一生中自然地波動著,沒有給他們下定義。

  • This intrigued and inspired Mead, who herself lead rather unconventional life simultaneously involved with successive husbands on an ever present female lover.

    這引起了米德的興趣和啟發,她自己也過著相當不拘一格的生活,同時涉及到連續的丈夫對一個永遠存在的女性情人。

  • Another famous anthropologist called Ruth Benedict Media argued that the Samoan approach to sex made adolescence far easier for girls there because there was little pressure for them to conform to particular kinds of sexuality.

    另一位著名的人類學家Ruth Benedict Media認為,薩摩亞人對性的態度使那裡的女孩的青春期變得容易得多,因為那裡的女孩沒有什麼壓力要她們遵守特定類型的性行為。

  • They were neither pressure to abstain from sex, nor to achieve particular milestones, like having boyfriends or getting married.

    他們既沒有禁慾的壓力,也沒有達到特定的里程碑,比如交男朋友或結婚。

  • Gradually, Meat got interested in gender roles on discovered that modern societies are far more rigid in this area than primitive ones.

    漸漸地,肉肉對性別角色產生了興趣,在發現現代社會在這方面比原始社會要僵化得多。

  • For example, Americans tend to think of men as productive, sensible and aggressive, while women are often told that they're more frivolous, peaceful and nurturing.

    例如,美國人傾向於認為男性是生產性的、理智的和積極的,而女性經常被告知她們更輕浮、和平和養育。

  • But in 1935 book sex and Temperament in three primitive societies, Mead's study tribes in Papua New Guinea on recorded that in the Arab pesh tribe, both men and women were peaceful and nurturing, while among the Monday game or tribe, men and women were both ruthless and aggressive.

    但在1935年書中性與氣質在三個原始社會,米德的研究部落在巴巴新幾內亞上記錄,在阿拉伯佩什部落,男人和女人都是和平和養育,而在週一遊戲或部落,男人和女人都是殘酷和侵略性。

  • In short, meet suggested that no gender traits are ever simply human nature.

    簡而言之,見面提出,任何性別特徵都不曾簡單的人性。

  • They're all instead simply possibilities which are either taught, encouraged or shunned by any given culture meet.

    它們反而都只是簡單的可能性,而這些可能性被任何特定的文化滿足教導、鼓勵或迴避。

  • Striking conclusion is it.

    驚人的結論是它。

  • It isn't gender that makes women color their hair or listen to people's feelings or race that makes some nations regularly attacked their neighbors.

    不是性別讓女人染髮,也不是聽從別人的感受,也不是種族讓一些國家經常攻擊鄰國。

  • Rather, it's the social expectations and norms that have developed slowly over centuries and which have laid the groundwork for each individual psychological makeup we must recognize.

    而是幾百年來慢慢形成的社會期望和規範,為我們必須認識到的每個人的心理構成奠定了基礎。

  • She reminded her readers that beneath the superficial classifications of sex and race, the same potentialities always exist recurring generation after generation, only to perish because society has no place for them.

    她提醒她的讀者,在性別和種族的表面分類之下,同樣的潛能總是一代又一代地重複存在,只是因為社會沒有他們的位置而消亡。

  • Meet herself learned so much from her anthropological subjects.

    遇見自己從人類學科目中學到了很多東西。

  • She brought up her daughter according to some of the parenting ideas of the primitive people she worked with like breastfeeding on demand, which he helped to popularize in modern day America during World War Two, access to the South Pacific was impossible, so Mead began to study more complex cultures like her own.

    她按照她工作過的原始人的一些育兒觀念來帶女兒,比如按需哺乳,二戰期間,他幫助現代美國普及了這一觀念,進入南太平洋是不可能的,所以米德開始研究更復雜的文化,比如自己的文化。

  • After the war, Mead work for the U.

    戰後,米德為美國工作。

  • S military studying Russian responses to authority in order to try to predict what the Soviets might do.

    S軍方研究俄羅斯對權威的反應,以試圖預測蘇聯可能會做什麼。

  • During the Cold War, she grew increasingly famous, traveling widely, giving lectures and teaching at universities for 50 years.

    冷戰期間,她的名氣越來越大,足跡遍佈各地,在大學裡開講座、教書50年。

  • From 1928 until her death in 1978 she worked on and off for the American Museum of Natural History in New York City as a curator for their special projects.

    從1928年到1978年去世,她一直在紐約市的美國自然歷史博物館擔任特別項目的策展人。

  • She wrote 20 books in all on was awarded 28 Honorary Degrees.

    她總共寫了20本書,被授予28個榮譽學位。

  • Means Work helps us to use the experiences of other nations and people as a storehouse of good ideas, as the traveler who has once bean from home is wiser than he who's never left his own doorstep, she suggested.

    她建議,"手段工作 "可以幫助我們把其他國家和人民的經驗作為一個好的思想庫,就像曾經離家出走的旅行者比從未離開過自己家門口的人更有智慧。

  • So a knowledge of another culture will always sharp in our ability to scrutinize our own more steadily.

    所以,對另一種文化的瞭解,總能讓我們更穩定地審視自己的文化。

  • In doing so, she suggested, we will always uncover and support undeveloped human potential for gotten in our rush towards modernity.

    她建議,在這樣做的過程中,我們將始終發掘和支持未被開發的人類潛力,以便在我們急於實現現代化的過程中得到。

way.

辦法。

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社會學--瑪格麗特-米德 (SOCIOLOGY - Margaret Mead)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 11 日
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