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  • This is China covered in pollution last year.

    這是去年中國空氣汙染嚴重的樣子,

  • But this year the skies are clear,

    但今年天空變乾淨了,

  • that's because the coronavirus epidemic

    原因就是新冠肺炎疫情

  • had brought much of the country to a standstill

    讓中國大部分地區的經濟活動陷入停滯,

  • for several weeks causing a huge drop in pollutants

    時間長達數周,使得汙染物大幅減少,

  • like nitrogen dioxide,

    例如二氧化氮:

  • a harmful gas that's emitted when burning fossil fuel.

    一種燃燒石化燃料所排出的有害氣體,

  • Compared to previous years it's below typical levels.

    跟前幾年比起來,今年的汙染量低於平均,

  • - If you close down factories or reducing the amount

    如果關閉工廠

  • of cars on the road you're going

    或減少路上的車流量,

  • to reduce the pollution levels.

    汙染程度就會下降。

  • And from that we can deduce that the economic activity

    從這點我們可以推斷中國的經濟活動

  • has been decreased.

    減少了,

  • In early February Chinese president,

    二月初中國國家主席

  • Xi Jinping publicly declared a people's war

    習近平公開宣布,

  • against the virus,

    將對新冠病毒展開一場人民的戰爭,

  • that extreme measures like shutdowns have prevented people

    採取停工等極端措施,

  • from returning to work where necessary.

    使得民眾必要時也無法回去上班,

  • But he also cautioned that those efforts

    但他也告誡這些措施

  • should not jeopardize economic development.

    不應該危及經濟發展,

  • Now a dramatic change in pollution over the country suggests

    現在全中國的汙染大幅改變意味著

  • that striking that balance could be difficult.

    平衡防疫與經濟發展可能很難。

  • In the past few decades China has grown

    在過去幾十年

  • to become the world's largest coal consumer.

    中國已經成全世界最大的煤炭消耗國,

  • Its large manufacturing-based economy burns 95&00:01:10,310 --> 00:01:11,750 of the country's coal,

    龐大的經濟體系奠基在製造業,消耗了全國百分之 95 的煤炭,

  • making it the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gasses.

    使中國成為溫室氣體排放量最大的國家,

  • Usually during the Lunar New Year most industries wind down

    通常在農曆新年期間,大多數產業暫時關閉一周,

  • for a week and power plants burn a lot less coal.

    發電廠燃燒的煤炭量會減少很多,

  • Coal consumption usually rebounds after the week-long break

    不過煤炭消耗量通常會在為期一周的假期結束後回升,

  • which means pollution levels pick up too.

    也就是說汙染程度也會上升,

  • - Because the levels of nitrogen dioxide

    中國的二氧化氮濃度很高,

  • in China are so high we can easily detect that from space.

    我們在太空中很容易就能偵測到,

  • This is what Wuhan,

    這是新冠病毒傳播起點武漢

  • the epicenter of the coronavirus usually looks like

    在假期過後通常會有的

  • after the holiday.

    汙染情況,

  • The city is a key producer of automobiles,

    武漢是汽車、電子業、與重型機械的

  • electronics and heavy machinery.

    主要生產城市,

  • But this year the demand

    但今年的煤炭需求

  • for coal hasn't immediately rebounded since many workers

    在新年假期後並沒有馬上回升,

  • have been stranded at home in locked down cities,

    因為很多勞工滯留在被封鎖的城市裡,

  • and nitrogen dioxide levels have dipped.

    二氧化氮的濃度也下降了,

  • It's not just Wuhan,

    不只武漢有這樣的現象,

  • it's the same when you look

    中國其他的工業大城

  • at other industrial powerhouses in China.

    也是如此,

  • This is what Shandong and Hebei usually look like

    這是山東和河北

  • after the holiday.

    新年假期後的平均二氧化氮濃度,

  • They're know for churning out everything

    他們的大量生產工業很有名,

  • from textiles and metals to petrochemicals.

    從紡織物、金屬、到石化製品都有製造,

  • But this year they also weren't spared

    但今年山東和河北

  • from the impact of the epidemic.

    也沒有倖免於新冠疫情所造成的衝擊,

  • While skies were clear in many parts of China,

    雖然中國很多地方的天空都變乾淨了

  • some cities like Beijing are still shrouded in smog.

    有些城市─例如北京─天空仍然被霧霾籠罩,

  • The city has recorded high levels of air pollutants.

    北京已經有記錄到高濃度的空氣汙染物,

  • These fine particles are created

    這些微粒

  • during the chemical reaction of gasses generated

    來自燃燒燃料時所產生的氣體

  • from burning fuel.

    發生的化學反應,

  • Heating systems in Beijing's geography

    供熱系統和北京的地理環境

  • can affect this reading.

    可能可以減緩空汙,

  • But there's one huge source of pollution

    但北京的空氣汙染還有一個的大宗來源

  • that can't be missed,

    不能忽略:

  • major steel makers around the capital don't stop production

    北京周圍的鋼鐵製造大廠在農曆新年假期

  • during the holiday because going offline is costlier

    並沒有暫停生產,

  • than running all year round.

    因為暫停運作的成本比全年營運更多,

  • So during the city shutdown some factories continue

    所以在封城期間有些工廠

  • to produce steel.

    仍持續生產鋼鐵,

  • Li Hongmei is an analyst

    李紅梅 (音譯) 是個分析師,

  • who tracks the Chinese metal industry.

    負責追蹤中國的重工業情形,

  • - Because of the outbreak all the normal pattern

    由於新冠疫情疫情爆發,

  • has been broken so the construction sites are still

    造成所有正常運作模式被破壞,

  • in the process of resuming work,

    建築工地仍在復工中,

  • that's why their steel consumption slow down and delayed.

    這就是為什麼鋼鐵消耗量減緩甚至延遲了,

  • - [Narrator] Steel inventories are now at record high levels

    鋼鐵庫存量現在創新高紀錄,

  • because buyers in the construction industry

    因為現在建設工業的購買者,

  • are demanding less right now.

    對鋼鐵的需求大減,

  • Home sales were already cooling before the virus,

    家用銷售量在疫情出現以前已經剛始下降,

  • now they're below last year levels.

    而現在更是比去年還要低,

  • - Whenever you're not so sure about your national economy

    如果你覺得國家經濟不安定,

  • you're not so sure about your job security,

    那麼也會不確定自己還能否保住飯碗、

  • about your income.

    以及收入,

  • People definitely will be reducing expenditure

    因此人們必定會在投資中

  • in a investment.

    減少花費,

  • - [Narrator] In recent days Xi has been touting efforts

    最近習近平大力支持

  • to meet economic targets while containing the virus,

    在疫情期間,為達成經濟目標所做的措施,

  • like heavy stimulus to support banks and tax cuts

    例如對銀行給予強力經濟刺激、

  • for small businesses.

    並對中小企業減稅,

  • But analysts say it's not clear whether these measures

    但分析師說還未能確定

  • can help make up for lost ground.

    這些措施是否能挽救經濟,

  • Some factories are slowly resuming production.

    有些工廠正在緩慢恢復生產,

  • - So pollution levels that we're observing from space

    所以我們現在從太空觀察到的汙染濃度

  • are beginning to increase which may indicate

    也開始增加,

  • that economic activity could be resuming.

    也就是經濟活動可能已經開始恢復,

  • - [Narrator] Beijing recently put out the first full month

    北京最近第一次發布了

  • of economic data after the virus hit China.

    中國疫情爆發後整個月的經濟數據,

  • The index tracks business sentiment among manufacturing

    這個指數是追蹤對製造業與服務業的

  • and service sectors and it falls

    企業信心程度。

  • below the lowest level recorded

    今年全球因為疫情陷入經濟危機,

  • during the global financial crisis.

    商業信心指數便創了新低,

  • An increase in the number of infections overseas

    若海外感染者人數增加,

  • could also put China's economy at greater risk,

    也可能使中國經濟面臨更大危機,

  • complicating efforts to meet Xi's economic goals

    讓習近平對今年的經濟發展目標

  • for this year.

    更難達成,

  • For now, one of the most visible indicators

    現在,如果想知道中國的經濟發展措施成效如何,

  • to see how it all plays out might be just

    最明顯的指標之一

  • to look up at the skies.

    可能是抬頭看天空是否乾淨,

  • (relaxing music)

    (背景音樂)

This is China covered in pollution last year.

這是去年中國空氣汙染嚴重的樣子,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 WSJ 經濟 中國 疫情 汙染 新冠

中國的汙染對冠狀病毒和經濟的啟示 - 華爾街日報 (What China's Pollution Says About Coronavirus and the Economy | WSJ)

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    Seraya 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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