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  • We begin in 1750 in North America.

    我們從西元1750在北美洲

  • It's been 150 years since settlers from Western Europe, mostly fleeing poverty, famine, or

    西方定居者已經150年了 歐洲,主要是逃離貧困,飢荒,或

  • religious and political persecution, first arrived on the continent.

    首先是宗教和政治迫害 抵達大陸。

  • Their arrival came at the expense of millions of native Americans

    他們的到來是以犧牲數百萬美國本土人為代價的

  • who lived there for thousands of years, mostly in tribes.

    他們在那裡生活了數千年,主要是在部落中。

  • On the East Coast, Great Britain has established colonies inhabited by 1.5 million people.

    在東海岸,英國已經建立 殖民地居住著150萬人。

  • The northern regions depend mainly on fishing and trade, while in the south,

    北部地區主要依靠捕魚 和貿易,而在南部,

  • the climate is ideal for growing products such as tobacco, rice and cotton.

    氣候非常適合種植煙草,大米和棉花等產品。

  • Rich landowners - called the Planters - seize vast territories that they exploit by buying

    豐富的土地所有者 - 稱為種植者 - 抓住 他們通過購買開拓的廣闊領土

  • slaves from Africa, via the triangular trade.

    來自非洲的奴隸,通過三角貿易。

  • Further west, the Appalachian mountains form a natural boundary.

    再往西,阿巴拉契亞山脈形成 一個自然的邊界。

  • Beyond it, is the vast French colony, which lives mainly off the fur trade.

    除此之外,是廣大的法國殖民地,主要生活在毛皮貿易之外。

  • Tensions rise between the French and British colonies.

    法國和英國之間的緊張局勢升級 群落。

  • When the Seven Years' War breaks out in Europe, Britain dominates and takes hold of New France.

    當七年戰爭在歐洲爆發時,英國占主導地位並掌握新法蘭西。

  • Native American tribes living there unite to demand the departure of the British and

    生活在那裡的美洲原住民部落團結起來 要求英國和英國的離開

  • the recognition of their own state.

    承認自己的國家。

  • To calm the situation, the British government hurriedly carves out an Indian reservation

    為了平息局勢,英國政府 趕緊劃出印第安人的預訂

  • between the Appalachians, the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.

    阿巴拉契亞人,密西西比人之間 河流和五大湖。

  • This does not please the colonists who wanted to seize the opportunity to extend their territories to the west.

    對於那些想抓住機會將領土擴展到西部的殖民者來說,這並不令人高興。

  • In addition, war proves costly for Britain.

    此外,戰爭證明對英國來說代價高昂。

  • The country expects its colonies to repay part of its debts through new taxes,

    該國希望其殖民地能夠償還 部分債務通過新稅收,

  • which further angers the settlers.

    這進一步激怒了定居者。

  • In Boston, in protest of taxes on tea, colonists disguised as Native Americans climb on board

    在波士頓,抗議茶稅,殖民者 偽裝成美洲原住民登上船

  • British East India Company ships and throw out its tea cargo into the ocean.

    英國東印度公司船舶投擲 把它的茶貨送到海裡。

  • With the situation tense, representatives from 12 colonies gather in Philadelphia

    隨著形勢緊張,代表們 12個殖民地聚集在費城

  • to organize the First Continental Congress.

    組織第一屆大陸會議。

  • They decide to boycott British goods.

    他們決定抵制英國商品。

  • The following year, the War of Independence breaks out, pitting the insurgents --

    次年,獨立戰爭 爆發,使叛亂分子陷入困境 -

  • also called the patriots -- against the British and its loyalists.

    也稱為愛國者 - 反對英國人 和它的忠誠者。

  • On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress proclaims the independence

    1776年7月4日,第二屆大陸會議宣布獨立

  • of the United States of America.

    美利堅合眾國

  • France sees an opportunity to avenge its defeat in the Seven Years' War.

    法國認為有機會為失敗報仇 在七年戰爭中。

  • Having invested heavily in its military fleet, the country has the means to compete with the Royal Navy.

    該國在其軍事艦隊上投入了大量資金,因此有能力與皇家海軍競爭。

  • France allies with the patriots.

    法國與愛國者隊結盟。

  • Spain and the United Provinces of the Netherlands, in turn, go to war against Great Britain.

    西班牙和荷蘭聯合省, 反過來,對英國開戰。

  • In 1783, the patriots prevail, forcing Britain to recognize the independence of the country.

    1783年,愛國者佔上風,迫使英國 承認國家的獨立性。

  • The United States receives territories until Mississippi, while Spain seizes Florida.

    美國直到收到領土 密西西比州,而西班牙佔領了佛羅里達州。

  • This marks the first time a European colony gains independence.

    這標誌著歐洲殖民地第一次出現 獲得獨立。

  • The United States adopts a constitution based on a strict separation of powers.

    美國採用憲法為基礎 嚴格分權。

  • The legislative power formed by Congress passes laws and budgets,

    國會通過的立法權力通過 法律和預算,

  • the judiciary with the Supreme Court upholds the constitution,

    最高法院的司法機構維護憲法,

  • and finally there is the executive power with the US president, the head of government.

    最後,與美國總統,政府首腦有行政權力。

  • On the other hand, the 13 states retain sovereignty with their own constitution and governor.

    另一方面,13個州保留了主權 與自己的憲法和州長。

  • It was decided to build the new capital, Washington, along the Potomac River.

    決定建造新首都華盛頓, 沿著波托馬克河。

  • In the West, each new territory with at least 60,000 free citizens would be allowed to form

    在西方,每個新領土至少有 將允許60,000名免費公民參加

  • a new state equal to the others.

    一個與​​其他國家相等的新國家。

  • Pioneers set off to relocate there, pushing back Amerindian tribes further west of the Mississippi River.

    先驅們開始搬遷到那裡,推回密西西比河以西的美洲印第安人部落。

  • In 1800, France obtained Louisiana from Spain in exchange for the kingdom of Etruria.

    1800年,法國從西班牙獲得路易斯安那州 以換取伊特魯里亞王國。

  • But it proves difficult to protect this vast, far-away & relatively less known territory.

    但事實證明很難保護這個巨大的, 遙遠且相對鮮為人知的領土。

  • Fearing the loss of Louisiana to the United Kingdom in war, France decides to sell the

    擔心路易斯安那州失去聯合國 戰爭中的王國,法國決定出售

  • region to the United States.

    地區到美國。

  • Congress then funds expeditions to explore and reach the Pacific Ocean.

    然後國會資助探險隊進行探索 並到達太平洋。

  • In Europe, France and the UK clash again.

    在歐洲,法國和英國再次發生衝突。

  • The United States first tries to remain neutral, but following tensions with Britain, enters the war.

    美國首先試圖保持中立, 但隨著與英國的緊張關係,進入戰爭。

  • It fails in a bid to invade the colony of Canada, as a British maritime raid

    它無法入侵殖民地 加拿大,作為英國海上突襲

  • reaches Washington and burns the city.

    到達華盛頓並燒毀這座城市。

  • At the end of the war, the United States abandons its ambitions in the north

    在戰爭結束時,美國放棄了 它在北方的野心

  • and focuses on the south where the Spanish Empire is in decline.

    並關注西班牙帝國衰落的南方。

  • A military incursion in Florida allows -- after negotiations -- the annexation of the territory.

    在佛羅里達州的軍事入侵允許 - 之後 談判 - 吞併領土。

  • In the West, Oregon is shared with the United Kingdom.

    在西方,俄勒岡州與美國共享 王國。

  • East of the Mississippi, five Amerindian tribes are adapted to the settlers' sedentary

    密西西比河東部,五個美洲印第安人部落 適應定居者的久坐

  • and agrarian lifestyle, but Congress nevertheless decides to take over the land

    和農業生活方式,但國會 決定接管土地

  • and pushes the natives to a reserve west of the Mississippi.

    並將當地人推到密西西比河以西的保護區。

  • Thousands die of exhaustion on the way.

    成千上萬的人在途中疲憊不堪。

  • In Mexico, Texas, which is populated mainly by settlers from the United States, declares its independence.

    在墨西哥,主要由美國定居者居住的德克薩斯州宣布獨立。

  • After a war, the Republic of Texas is created and in 1845 is annexed to the United States.

    戰爭結束後,德克薩斯州共和國成立 並於1845年併入美國。

  • But as the border is poorly defined, both countries are at war.

    但由於邊界定義不明確,兩者都有 國家處於戰爭狀態。

  • The United States prevails and takes the opportunity to annex New Mexico and California,

    美國占上風並抓住機會 兼併新墨西哥州和加利福尼亞州

  • where the discovery of gold causes a rush that attracts hundreds of thousands of pioneers of all origins.

    黃金的發現引起了一股吸引力 成千上萬的各種起源先驅。

  • With the land route proving dangerous, private funds are invested in the construction of a railway in Panama.

    由於土地路線證明是危險的,私人資金投資於巴拿馬的鐵路建設。

  • The state of California is admitted, which does not have slavery.

    加利福尼亞州被接納,其中 沒有奴隸制。

  • Southern states are largely agrarian, and have slavery; while Northern states are industrial and abolitionist.

    南方各州主要是農業,並且有奴隸制;北方各州是工業和廢奴主義者。

  • Both sides wish to extend their model to the new western states, causing the gap between them to widen.

    雙方都希望將他們的模式擴展到新的西部各州,導致他們之間的差距擴大。

  • In 1860, Abraham Lincoln, who is hostile to slavery, is elected president of the country.

    1860年,亞伯拉罕林肯,誰是敵對的 奴隸制,當選為國家總統。

  • In response, southern states secede from the United States one by one and band together

    作為回應,南方各州脫離了國家 美國一個接一個地和樂隊在一起

  • to proclaim the Confederate States of America.

    宣布美國同盟國。

  • Then begins the Civil War which pits the Unionists of the North against the Confederates of the South.

    然後開始內戰,聯盟主義者 北方對抗南方同盟國。

  • The North sets up a maritime blockade on the Atlantic coast, cutting out any potential

    朝鮮建立了海上封鎖 大西洋沿岸,切斷任何潛力

  • support from Europe and blocking cotton exports.

    來自歐洲的支持和阻止棉花出口。

  • In 1865, the North prevails and takes the opportunity to impose its policies.

    在1865年,北方佔上風並取得了成功 施加政策的機會。

  • Slavery is abolished, and 3.5 million slaves are freed.

    奴隸制被廢除,350萬奴隸 被釋放了。

  • But African-Americans are now victims of segregation and racism, especially through the emergence

    但非裔美國人現在是種族隔離的受害者 和種族主義,特別是通過出現

  • of Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacist organization.

    白人至上主義組織Ku Klux Klan

  • Many migrate to the North, while others move to cities.

    許多人遷移到北方,而其他人遷移 去城市。

  • The Russian Empire fears losing Alaska to Britain, so chooses to sell the territory

    俄羅斯帝國害怕失去阿拉斯加 英國選擇出售該地區

  • to the United States.

    到美國。

  • To accelerate its conquest of the West, the government finances the construction

    為了加速征服西方,政府為建設提供資金

  • of transcontinental railway lines.

    橫貫大陸的鐵路線。

  • In the center of the country, the invention of new machinery allows intensive agriculture.

    在該國的中心,發明 新機器允許集約化農業。

  • Vast plantations of wheat, corn and large pastures are set up at the expense of the

    廣闊的小麥,玉米和大型種植園 牧場是以犧牲的為代價建立的

  • last 250,000 Amerindians who are kept on reserves.

    持續儲備的最後250,000名美洲印第安人。

  • On the other hand, the rich soil allows rapid development of industry.

    另一方面,肥沃的土壤允許快速 發展工業。

  • The old continent, Europe, now views the United States as an El Dorado.

    歐洲這個古老的大陸現在看到了美國 國家作為埃爾多拉多。

  • Fleeing poverty and religious persecution, many Southern and Eastern Europeans migrate

    逃離貧困和宗教迫害, 許多南歐和東歐人遷移

  • to the United States where they work as cheap labor.

    到美國,他們的工作便宜 勞工。

  • But the economic boom only benefits a minority.

    但經濟繁榮只會使少數人受益。

  • An elite group of industrialists grows rich quickly by establishing monopolies in sectors

    一群精英的工業家變得富裕起來 迅速通過建立行業壟斷

  • such as steel, railways, oil and banks at the expense of workers and peasants,

    如鋼鐵,鐵路,石油和銀行 工人和農民的代價,

  • including women and children working in harsh conditions.

    包括在惡劣條件下工作的婦女和兒童。

  • Strikes and protests erupt demanding better conditions, but these are often met with violence

    罷工和抗議活動要求更好 條件,但這些往往遭到暴力

  • by private militias or the National Guard.

    私人民兵或國民警衛隊。

  • While European powers colonize a large part of the world, the United States also looks

    雖然歐洲大國在很大程度上殖民 對世界而言,美國也是如此

  • to project its power on the international scene.

    把它的力量投射到國際上 現場。

  • While annexing Hawaii in the middle of the Pacific, the country turns to Cuba

    在兼併夏威夷的中間 太平洋,該國轉向古巴

  • where there is a revolt against the Spanish.

    哪裡有對西班牙人的反抗。

  • The United States supports Cuban independentists.

    美國支持古巴獨立主義者。

  • After the mysterious explosion of a US Navy ship in the port of Havana,

    在美國海軍的神秘爆炸之後 船在哈瓦那港,

  • war breaks out between Spain and the United States.

    西班牙和美國之間爆發了戰爭。

  • The United States wins, obtains the independence of Cuba and seizes Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.

    美國獲勝,獲得古巴獨立,佔領波多黎各,關島和菲律賓。

  • The country thus becomes a colonial power.

    因此,這個國家成為殖民大國。

  • In Colombia, a French company begins construction of a canal that would connect the two oceans,

    在哥倫比亞,一家法國公司開始建設 連接兩個海洋的運河,

  • greatly shortening the journey between the US East and west Coast.

    大大縮短了之間的旅程 美國東西海岸。

  • The United States buys the project and then intervenes to support the independence of Panama.

    然後美國購買該項目 介入以支持巴拿馬的獨立。

  • In return, the new government of Panama offers the United States a strip of land,

    作為回報,巴拿馬新政府提供 美國一片土地,

  • which helps complete the construction of the canal, inaugurated in 1914.

    這有助於完成運河的建設,於1914年落成。

  • In Europe, World War I begins.

    在歐洲,第一次世界大戰開始。

  • With workers and peasants on the frontlines, industry on the continent slows down.

    工人和農民在前線, 非洲大陸的工業放緩。

  • The US industry takes advantage of this and -- despite the country's neutrality in the war

    美國工業利用了這一點和 - 儘管該國在戰爭中保持中立

  • -- sells on credit ammunition, food, clothes and automobiles to the Entente countries.

    - 出售信貸彈藥,食品,衣服 和協調國家的汽車。

  • In response, Germany tries to impose a maritime blockade by sinking merchant ships in British waters.

    作為回應,德國試圖強加海事 在英國水域沉船的封鎖

  • In 1917, a German telegram destined for Mexico is intercepted, proposing a military alliance

    1917年,一封德國電報發往墨西哥 被截獲,提議建立軍事聯盟

  • against the United States.

    反對美國。

  • This pushes the United States to go to war on the side of the Entente,

    這促使美國發動戰爭 在協約方面,

  • and 2 million soldiers are sent to European fronts.

    200萬名士兵被派往歐洲戰線。

  • 116,000 soldiers lose their lives.

    116,000名士兵喪生。

  • After the victory of the Entente, Europe finds itself indebted to the United States.

    在協約獲勝後,歐洲發現了 本身感激美國。

  • The economy of the US prospers.

    美國的經濟繁榮。

  • In factories, improvements in the assembly line cause production to skyrocket and decrease prices.

    在工廠,裝配的改進 生產線急劇下滑並降低價格。

  • The rise in purchasing power and credit results in a boom for the sale of cars,

    購買力和信貸結果的上升 在汽車銷售熱潮中,

  • all kinds of appliances, and bank shares.

    各種電器和銀行股。

  • Hollywood becomes a major industry with global influence.

    好萊塢成為全球的主要產業 影響。

  • Thanks to the sale of radios, music genres such as jazz become popular.

    由於出售收音機,音樂流派 如爵士樂變得流行。

  • In New York mainly, night clubs open, stimulating the sale of alcohol.

    在紐約主要是夜總會開放,刺激 出售酒精。

  • The more conservative government tries to stem the phenomenon by voting for prohibition,

    更保守的政府試圖 通過投票禁止來阻止這種現象,

  • forbidding the production, transport or sale of alcohol.

    禁止生產,運輸或銷售 酒精

  • In response, thousands of speakeasies spring up throughout the country.

    作為回應,成千上萬的人們湧現出來 遍布全國各地。

  • Mafia networks seize the market and get rich quickly.

    黑手黨網絡搶占市場並致富 很快。

  • Meanwhile, the South misses out on this wave of prosperity.

    與此同時,南方錯過了這一浪潮 繁榮

  • Falling prices for agricultural products plunge the region into poverty.

    農產品價格暴跌 該地區陷入貧困。

  • The Ku Klux Klan comes back into prominence,

    Ku Klux Klan重新成名,

  • this time also targeting Catholics, Jews and immigrants in addition to African-Americans.

    這次也是針對非洲裔美國人的天主教徒,猶太人和移民。

  • The organization reaches 5 million members, and is then banned after several lynching episodes.

    該組織達到500萬會員, 然後在幾次私刑事件後被禁止。

  • In 1929, the Wall Street Stock Market crash takes place.

    1929年,華爾街股市崩盤 發生了。

  • The US economy collapses.

    美國經濟崩潰。

  • In a few short years, a string of bankruptcies of companies and banks

    在短短的幾年裡,一連串的破產 公司和銀行

  • pushes a quarter of the active population into unemployment.

    將四分之一的活躍人口推向失業。

  • Prohibition is lifted, and steps are taken to try to revive the economy and improve working conditions.

    取消禁令,並採取措施,以恢復經濟和改善工作條件。

  • In Europe, World War II breaks out.

    在歐洲,第二次世界大戰爆發。

  • The United States, although officially neutral, prepares for war by reinstating military service.

    美國雖然官方中立,但 通過恢復兵役為戰爭做準備。

  • In addition, the country sells arms mainly to the United Kingdom and the USSR.

    此外,該國主要銷售武器 到英國和蘇聯。

  • In the Pacific Ocean, in order to curb the expansion of imperialist Japan allied to Nazi Germany,

    在太平洋,為了遏制 帝國主義日本與納粹德國結盟的擴張,

  • the United States imposes upon the country an embargo on steel and oil.

    美國強加給了美國 國家對鋼鐵和石油的禁運。

  • In response, Japan launches a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, causing the United States to enter the war.

    作為回應,日本對珍珠港發動突然襲擊,導緻美國捲入戰爭。

  • The country secretly embarks upon a research program to create the atomic bomb.

    該國秘密開展了一項研究 製造原子彈的計劃。

  • In 1945, the Allies overcome Germany.

    1945年,盟軍戰勝德國。

  • The USSR and the United States then unite against Japan.

    然後蘇聯和美國團結起來 反對日本。

  • A ground invasion by the Soviets and the two atomic bombs dropped by the United States

    蘇聯和兩人的地面入侵 原子彈被美國拋棄

  • on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki force Japan to surrender.

    在廣島和長崎市的力量 日本投降。

  • At the end of the war, the United States supports the creation of the United Nations whose primary

    在戰爭結束時,美國支持 建立主要的聯合國