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  • I'd like you all to close your eyes, please ...

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: congmei Han

  • and imagine yourself sitting in the middle of a large, open field

    我想請大家閉上眼睛……

  • with the sun setting on your right.

    想像你自己坐在一片 廣大開放的原野中間,

  • And as the sun sets,

    在你的右邊是西下的太陽。

  • imagine that tonight you don't just see the stars appear,

    當太陽西下時,想像今天晚上

  • but you're able to hear the stars appear

    你不只會看到星星出現,

  • with the brightest stars being the loudest notes

    你還會聽見星星出現,

  • and the hotter, bluer stars producing the higher-pitched notes.

    最明亮的星星是最大聲的音符,

  • (Music)

    越熱、越藍的星星 產生越高音的音符。

  • And since each constellation is made up of different types of stars,

    (音樂)

  • they'll each produce their own unique melody,

    既然每個星座都是 由不同類型的星星組成,

  • such as Aries, the ram.

    那麼每個星座都會產生出 它自己的獨特弦律,

  • (Music)

    比如白羊座,公羊。

  • Or Orion, the hunter.

    (音樂)

  • (Music)

    或獵戶座,獵人。

  • Or even Taurus, the bull.

    (音樂)

  • (Music)

    或甚至金牛座,公牛。

  • We live in a musical universe,

    (音樂)

  • and we can use that to experience it from a new perspective,

    我們住在一個音樂的宇宙中,

  • and to share that perspective with a wider range of people.

    我們能利用這一點, 從一個新的角度來體驗宇宙,

  • Let me show you what I mean.

    並和更多人分享那個角度。

  • (Music ends)

    讓我說明我的意思。

  • Now, when I tell people I'm an astrophysicist,

    (音樂結束)

  • they're usually pretty impressed.

    當我說我是天體物理學家時, 別人通常會很敬佩。

  • And then I say I'm also a musician -- they're like, "Yeah, we know."

    接著,我說我也是音樂家—— 他們會說:「是啊,我們知道。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So everyone seems to know

    所以,大家似乎都知道

  • that there's this deep connection between music and astronomy.

    音樂和天文學之間 有很深刻的連結。

  • And it's actually a very old idea;

    這個想法其實很古老;

  • it goes back over 2,000 years to Pythagoras.

    始於兩千年前的畢達哥拉斯。

  • You might remember Pythagoras from such theorems

    你們可能會因為畢達哥拉斯定理

  • as the Pythagorean theorem --

    而記得畢達哥拉斯——

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And he said:

    他說:

  • "There is geometry in the humming of the strings,

    「在弦的哼唱之中,有著幾何學,

  • there is music in the spacing of the spheres."

    在天體的間隔之中,有著音樂。」

  • And so he literally thought

    所以他真的認為

  • that the motions of the planets along the celestial sphere

    行星沿著天体的運行

  • created harmonious music.

    會創造出和諧的音樂。

  • And if you asked him, "Why don't we hear anything?"

    若你問他:「為什麼 我們什麼都聽不見?」

  • he'd say you can't hear it

    他會說你聽不見是因為你不知道

  • because you don't know what it's like to not hear it;

    「沒有聽見它」是怎樣的,

  • you don't know what true silence is.

    你不知道真正的寂靜是什麼。

  • It's like how you have to wait for your power to go out

    就像是,得等到你家停電了,

  • to hear how annoying your refrigerator was.

    才會聽出你的電冰箱有多吵。

  • Maybe you buy that,

    也許你買帳, 但其他人並非都會買帳,

  • but not everybody else was buying it, including such names as Aristotle.

    包括一個叫做亞里斯多德的人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Exact words.

    一字不差。(笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我會一字不差引述他的話,他說:

  • So I'll paraphrase his exact words.

    這是個好想法,但,

  • He said it's a nice idea,

    像天堂這麼廣大浩翰的東西

  • but if something as large and vast as the heavens themselves

    若在移動並發出聲音,

  • were moving and making sounds,

    它不僅會是聽得見的,

  • it wouldn't just be audible,

    還會大聲到能撼動地球。

  • it would be earth-shatteringly loud.

    我們存在,因此,天體沒有音樂。

  • We exist, therefore there is no music of the spheres.

    他也認為大腦的唯一目的 就是要讓血液冷卻,

  • He also thought that the brain's only purpose was to cool down the blood,

    那也是他的想法……(笑聲)

  • so there's that ...

    但我想要跟各位說明 在某個角度他們兩人都對。

  • (Laughter)

    我們一開始要先來了解 是什麼讓音樂是音樂。

  • But I'd like to show you that in some way they were actually both right.

    這聽起來是個蠢問題,

  • And we're going to start by understanding what makes music musical.

    但你可曾納悶過, 為什麼一起演奏某些音符時,

  • It may sound like a silly question,

    聽起來相對讓人愉悅或和諧,

  • but have you ever wondered why it is

    比如這兩段——

  • that certain notes, when played together, sound relatively pleasing or consonant,

    (音樂)

  • such as these two --

    而其他音符演奏起來 就很緊繃或刺耳,

  • (Music)

    像這兩段。

  • while others are a lot more tense or dissonant,

    (音樂)

  • such as these two.

    對吧?

  • (Music)

    為什麼會這樣?為什麼會有音符?

  • Right?

    為什麼會有走調和不走調之分?

  • Why is that? Why are there notes at all?

    那個問題的答案

  • Why can you be in or out of tune?

    其實畢達哥拉斯就已經解開了。

  • Well, the answer to that question

    看看最左邊的弦。

  • was actually solved by Pythagoras himself.

    如果你用弓拉那條弦,

  • Take a look at the string on the far left.

    它在快速來回震盪中 會產生一個音符。

  • If you bow that string,

    (音樂音符)

  • it will produce a note as it oscillates very fast back and forth.

    但如果你把弦剪成一半, 你會有兩條弦,

  • (Musical note)

    每條弦的震盪速度會是兩倍。

  • But now if you cut the string in half, you'll get two strings,

    那會產生出一個相關的音符。

  • each oscillating twice as fast.

    或三倍速,

  • And that will produce a related note.

    或四倍速——

  • Or three times as fast,

    (音樂音符)

  • or four times --

    所以,音樂和諧的秘密 其實只是簡單的比率:

  • (Musical notes)

    比率越簡單,

  • And so the secret to musical harmony really is simple ratios:

    那兩個音符一起演奏起來 就會更讓人愉悅、和諧。

  • the simpler the ratio,

    比率越複雜,音符 聽起來就越不和諧。

  • the more pleasing or consonant those two notes will sound together.

    正是這種緊繃和放鬆之間,

  • And the more complex the ratio, the more dissonant they will sound.

    或是和諧與不和諧之間的互相影響,

  • And it's this interplay between tension and release,

    形成了我們所稱的音樂。

  • or consonance and dissonance,

    (音樂)

  • that makes what we call music.

    (音樂結束)

  • (Music)

    (掌聲)謝謝。

  • (Music ends)

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    但還不只如此。

  • Thank you.

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    所以,音樂的兩項特徵, 即我們所謂的音高和節奏,

  • But there's more.

    它們其實是同樣東西的 兩個不同版本,

  • (Laughter)

    容我示範。

  • So the two features of music we like to think of as pitch and rhythms,

    (慢節奏)

  • they're actually two versions of the same thing,

    那是一種節奏,對吧?

  • and I can show you.

    看看當我們把它加快時會如何。

  • (Slow rhythm)

    (節奏漸漸變快)

  • That's a rhythm right?

    (高音)

  • Watch what happens when we speed it up.

    (降低音高)

  • (Rhythm gets gradually faster)

    (慢節奏)

  • (High pitch)

    一旦節奏開始快到 每秒鐘 20 次以上,

  • (Lowering pitch)

    你的大腦就會翻轉,

  • (Slow Rhythm)

    停止將它聽成是節奏, 開始將它聽成是音高。

  • So once a rhythm starts happening more than about 20 times per second,

    那和天文學有什麼關係?

  • your brain flips.

    那就要談到 TRAPPIST-1 行星系統了。

  • It stops hearing it as a rhythm and starts hearing it as a pitch.

    這是去年二月發現的 系外行星系統,

  • So what does this have to do with astronomy?

    即 2017 年。

  • Well, that's when we get to the TRAPPIST-1 system.

    它讓大家都好興奮,

  • This is an exoplanetary system discovered last February of 2017,

    因為它有七個地球大小的行星,

  • and it got everyone excited

    都繞著一個很近的紅色矮星運行。

  • because it is seven Earth-sized planets all orbiting a very near red dwarf star.

    我們認為,其中三個行星 溫度適合液態水存在。

  • And we think that three of the planets

    不用多久,在接下來的幾年,

  • have the right temperature for liquid water.

    我們應該就能夠偵測 其大氣中的元素,

  • It's also so close that in the next few years,

    比如氧氣以及甲烷—— 可能的生命跡象。

  • we should be able to detect elements in their atmospheres

    但 TRAPPIST 系統 有一個特點,就是它很小。

  • such as oxygen and methane -- potential signs of life.

    這裡的是內岩石行星的軌道, 在我們的太陽系中:

  • But one thing about the TRAPPIST system is that it is tiny.

    水星、金星、地球,和火星,

  • So here we have the orbits of the inner rocky planets

    而 TRAPPIST-1 中 那七個地球大小的行星

  • in our solar system:

    都被好好地塞在水星的軌道中。

  • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars,

    我把它放大了 25 倍,

  • and all seven Earth-sized planets of TRAPPIST-1

    讓各位可以看見 TRAPPIST-1 行星的軌道。

  • are tucked well inside the orbit of Mercury.

    在大小上,其實是和我們的

  • I have to expand this by 25 times

    木星及木星的衛星比較相似,

  • for you to see the orbits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets.

    只是它是七個地球大小的行星 繞著一個恆星在運行。

  • It's actually much more similar in size to our planet Jupiter and its moons,

    另一個讓大家興奮的理由,

  • even though it's seven Earth-size planets orbiting a star.

    是像這樣的藝術呈現。

  • Another reason this got everyone excited was artist renderings like this.

    有一些液態水、一些冰, 也許還有一些土地,

  • You got some liquid water, some ice, maybe some land,

    也許你可以在這絕美的 橘色夕陽下去潛水。

  • maybe you can go for a dive in this amazing orange sunset.

    這讓大家很興奮,接著,

  • It got everyone excited,

    幾個月後,又出現了其他的論文,

  • and then a few months later, some other papers came out

    內容說,其實,它可能 看起來會比較像這樣。

  • that said, actually, it probably looks more like this.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    有一些徵象顯示,

  • So there were signs

    有部分表面可能是熔化的熔岩,

  • that some of the surfaces might actually be molten lava

    還從中間的恆星發出 極具殺傷力的 X 光,

  • and that there were very damaging X-rays coming from the central star --

    X 光會殺盡表面上的所有生命,

  • X-rays that will sterilize the surface of life and even strip off atmospheres.

    甚至會破壞大氣層。

  • Luckily, just a few months ago in 2018,

    幸運的是,2018 年, 就在幾個月前,

  • some new papers came out with more refined measurements,

    根據更精煉的測量值 所寫的論文發表出來了,

  • and they found actually it does look something like that.

    發現確實看起來是那樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we now know that several of them have huge supplies of water --

    我們現在知道 其中幾顆星球有大量的水——

  • global oceans --

    全球海洋——

  • and several of them have thick atmospheres,

    當中數顆星球有很厚的大氣層,

  • so it's the right place to look for potential life.

    所以,若要找尋生命, 到這裡找是對的。

  • But there's something even more exciting about this system,

    但關於這個系統, 還有件更讓人興奮的事,

  • especially for me.

    特別讓我興奮。

  • And that's that TRAPPIST-1 is a resonant chain.

    這件事就是, TRAPPIST-1 是個共振鏈。

  • And so that means for every two orbits of the outer planet,

    那就表示,外行星每繞 2 圈,

  • the next one in orbits three times,

    下一個行星就會繞 3 圈,

  • and the next one in four,

    再下一個是 4 圈,

  • and then six, nine, 15 and 24.

    接著是 6、9、15,

  • So you see a lot of very simple ratios among the orbits of these planets.

    及 24 圈。

  • Clearly, if you speed up their motion, you can get rhythms, right?

    可以看到這些行星的繞行當中 有許多非常簡單的比率。

  • One beat, say, for every time a planet goes around.

    很顯然,加速它們的移動, 就能得到節奏,對吧?

  • But now we know if you speed that motion up even more,

    比如,每一個行星 繞一圈,就是一拍。

  • you'll actually produce musical pitches,

    但現在,我們知道, 如果把移動速度再提高,

  • and in this case alone,

    就會產生出音樂音高,

  • those pitches will work together,

    在這個案例中,

  • making harmonious, even human-like harmony.

    那些音高能夠同心協力,

  • So let's hear TRAPPIST-1.

    產生出悅耳, 甚至像人類演奏的和諧。

  • The first thing you'll hear will be a note for every orbit of each planet,

    咱們來聽聽 TRAPPIST-1 吧。

  • and just keep in mind,

    你們會先聽到的是 每個星球軌道的音符,

  • this music is coming from the system itself.

    只要記住,

  • I'm not creating the pitches or rhythms,

    這音樂是來自系統本身。

  • I'm just bringing them into the human hearing range.

    我並沒有創造音高或是節奏,

  • And after all seven planets have entered,

    我只是把它們帶到 人類的聽覺範圍中。

  • you're going to see --

    在所有七個行星都進入之後,

  • well, you're going to hear a drum for every time two planets align.

    你們就會看見——

  • That's when they kind of get close to each other

    嗯,你們就會在每兩個行星 對齊時聽見一聲鼓聲。

  • and give each other a gravitational tug.

    那就是它們靠近彼此的時候,

  • (Tone)

    會因為引力而彼此拉扯。

  • (Two tones)

    (音調)

  • (Three tones)

    (兩種音調)

  • (Four tones)

    (三種音調)

  • (Five tones)

    (四種音調)

  • (Six tones)

    (五種音調)

  • (Seven tones)

    (六種音調)

  • (Drum beats)

    (七種音調)

  • (Music ends)

    (鼓節拍)

  • And that's the sound of the star itself -- its light converted into sound.

    (音樂結束)

  • So you may wonder how this is even possible.

    那是行星自身的聲音—— 它的光線被轉換成聲音。

  • And it's good to think of the analogy of an orchestra.

    你可能會納悶,這怎麼有可能?

  • When everyone gets together to start playing in an orchestra,

    有個很好的比喻,就是交響樂團。

  • they can't just dive into it, right?

    當大家聚集在 一個交響樂團中演奏,

  • They have to all get in tune;

    他們無法一蹴而就吧?

  • they have to make sure

    他們全都必須調節;必須要確保

  • their instruments resonate with their neighbors' instruments,

    他們的樂器和旁邊的樂器會共振,

  • and something very similar happened to TRAPPIST-1 early in its existence.

    TRAPPIST-1 存在的初期 就有遇到很類似這樣的狀況。

  • When the planets were first forming,

    當時此星系剛剛形成,

  • they were orbiting within a disc of gas,

    它們是在一個氣體的 圓平面內繞行,

  • and while inside that disc,

    在那個圓平面內,

  • they can actually slide around

    它們其實可以滑來滑去,

  • and adjust their orbits to their neighbors

    調整它們跟旁邊行星之間的軌道,

  • until they're perfectly in tune.

    直到它們調節到完美。

  • And it's a good thing they did because this system is so compact --

    它們的融合是件好事, 因為這個系統非常緊密——

  • a lot of mass in a tight space --

    在非常擠的空間中 有很大的質量——

  • if every aspect of their orbits wasn't very finely tuned,

    如果它們的軌道的 每個面向沒有調節好,

  • they would very quickly disrupt each other's orbits,

    它們就可能會馬上 打斷彼此的軌道,

  • destroying the whole system.

    摧毀整個系統。

  • So it's really music that is keeping this system alive --

    是音樂,讓這個系統 能一直活下去——

  • and any of its potential inhabitants.

    以及系統中可能存在的居民。

  • But what does our solar system sound like?

    但我們的太陽系聽起來 是什麼樣子的?

  • I hate to be the one to show you this, but it's not pretty.

    我真希望不是由我來 為各位展示,它不怎麼美好。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So for one thing,

    所以,一則,

  • our solar system is on a much, much larger scale,

    我們的太陽系的規模更大許多,

  • and so to hear all eight planets,

    所以若要聽見所有八個行星,

  • we have to start with Neptune near the bottom of our hearing range,

    我們就得要從海王星開始, 它在我們的聽覺範圍底部,

  • and then Mercury's going to be all the way up

    接著一直到最上的水星,

  • near the very top of our hearing range.

    很靠近我們聽覺範圍的頂部。

  • But also, since our planets are not very compact --

    但,此外,因為我們太陽系的 行星沒有很緊密——

  • they're very spread out --

    它們非常分散——

  • they didn't have to adjust their orbits to each other,

    它們不需要去調整彼此間的軌道,

  • so they're kind of just all playing their own random note at random times.

    所以它們有點像是在隨機的時刻 演奏自己隨機的音符。

  • So, I'm sorry, but here it is.

    讓我說聲抱歉,我們就來聽吧。

  • (Tone)

    (音調)那是海王星。

  • That's Neptune.

    (兩種音調)天王星。

  • (Two tones)

    (三種音調)

  • Uranus.

    土星。

  • (Three tones)

    (四種音調)

  • Saturn.

    木星。

  • (Four tones)

    接著拉進來的是火星。 (五種音調)

  • Jupiter.

    (六種音調)地球。

  • And then tucked in, that's Mars.

    (七種音調)金星。

  • (Five tones)

    (八種音調)那是水星——

  • (Six tones)

    好,好,我停下來就是了。

  • Earth.

    (笑聲)

  • (Seven tones)

    這其實是克卜勒的夢想。

  • Venus.

    約翰尼斯克卜勒就是 想出行星運動定律的人。

  • (Eight tones)

    對於在音樂、天文學,和幾何之間

  • And that's Mercury --

    有連結存在的這個想法, 讓他非常著迷。

  • OK, OK, I'll stop.

    所以他寫了一整本書,

  • (Laughter)

    就是在尋找太陽系行星之間的

  • So this was actually Kepler's dream.

    任何一種音樂和諧,

  • Johannes Kepler is the person

    這真的非常困難。

  • that figured out the laws of planetary motion.

    如果他住在 TRAPPIST-1, 就會簡單得多,

  • He was completely fascinated by this idea

    或就這點來說,

  • that there's a connection between music, astronomy and geometry.

    住在 K2-138 上也不錯。

  • And so he actually spent an entire book

    它是個新系統,

  • just searching for any kind of musical harmony amongst the solar system's planets

    在 2018 年一月被發現,

  • and it was really, really hard.

    有五個行星,

  • It would have been much easier had he lived on TRAPPIST-1,

    和 TRAPPIST 很像,

  • or for that matter ...

    它們存在的初期, 都調節得非常一致。

  • K2-138.

    其實,它們調節成為