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  • Hey there, welcome to Life Noggin!

    大家好,歡迎收看Life Noggin!

  • More animal species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than in the last 20 million years combined.

    在過去500年中滅絕的物種比過去2000年中的總和還要多。

  • And incredible creatures like lions, whales, tigers,

    一些美妙的動物,像獅子、鯨魚、老虎,

  • oh my, and elephants that used to roam freely in huge numbers are now approaching extinction.

    天哪,還有大象等自由奔放的動物群,現在都已瀕臨絕種。

  • The number of wild lions has dropped 95% since only the 1950s.

    自20世紀50年代以來,野生獅子的數量就下降了95%。

  • With 75% of all species expected to disappear in the next 300 years.

    預計未來300年內,75%的物種將消失,

  • Scientists believe that we're experiencing the sixth mass extinction on Earth.

    科學家認為我們正在經歷地球上的第六次大滅絕。

  • And it's the fastest one ever recorded.

    滅絕速度打破歷史紀錄。

  • Many of the previous extinctions lasted hundreds of thousands and even millions of years.

    之前許多大滅絕皆歷經幾十萬年,甚至幾百萬年。

  • But this one seems to be happening in the blink of an eye.

    但這次似乎是一眨眼的事情。

  • While scientists have found this is due to human activities,

    科學家發現這是人類活動造成的,

  • the causes for the other five mass extinctions aren't so crystal clear.

    但不清楚其他五次大滅絕的原因。

  • The most recent K-T extinction wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

    最近一次白堊紀-古近紀滅絕事件消滅了6500萬年前的恐龍。

  • And the general consensus is that an asteroid impact in Mexico is what caused it,

    人們普遍認為那是小行星撞擊墨西哥造成的,

  • but many scientists also point to major volcanic eruptions in India as a likely cause.

    但許多科學家也指出,印度的大型火山爆發可能是原因之一。

  • Both of these catastrophes would've stirred up so much dust and debris that they'd block out sunlight,

    這兩場災難都會造成大量的塵埃和碎片,它們會阻擋陽光,

  • which is necessary for all kinds of life.

    而陽光是所有生命的必需品。

  • But how did dinosaurs die, while creatures like frogs, alligators, birds, and lizards survived?

    為什麼恐龍滅亡,而青蛙、短吻鱷、鳥類、蜥蜴等生物卻活了下來?

  • We may never know, but selectiveness is a theme in mass extinctions.

    我們可能永遠找不到答案,但適者生存是大滅絕的重要課題。

  • During the Triassic-Jurassic extinction about 200 million years ago,

    大約2億年前的三疊紀-侏羅紀滅絕事件中,

  • there was a mass die off of marine creatures and amphibians, but interestingly, plants weren't really affected.

    大量的海洋生物和兩棲類動物滅亡,但有趣的是,植物並未真正受到影響。

  • About three quarters of all living species went extinct during this event.

    大約四分之三的物種在這次事件中滅絕。

  • It's thought that this was caused by a massive influx of carbon dioxide from major volcanic activity

    人們認為這是火山活動產生的二氧化碳大量湧入所造成,

  • that acidified the oceans and raised air temperatures.

    使海洋酸化、空氣溫度升高。

  • Before that, there was the Permian mass extinction, which has ever so pleasantly been nicknamed "The Great Dying,"

    在此之前,還有二疊紀大滅絕,它的綽號是 「偉大的死亡」,

  • which is a fantastic name for an emo band, I'm just saying!

    這個名字很適合硬蕊龐克樂團,我只是隨便說說!

  • This was the worst extinction event, wiping out 95% of all species on Earth,

    這是最嚴重的滅絕事件,消滅了地球上95%的物種,

  • including insects, which is very rare.

    包括昆蟲,這非常罕見。

  • High CO2 levels in the ocean, massive influxes of methane from sea beds and permafrost,

    海洋中二氧化碳含量高、海床和永久凍土中大量湧入的甲烷,

  • and volcanic eruptions are all considered possible causes.

    以及火山爆發都被認為是可能的原因。

  • Going back even further, we find the Late Devonian extinction about 360 million years ago.

    再往前追溯,我們發現泥盆紀後期滅絕事件大約發生在3.6億年前。

  • This extinction was especially prolonged, lasting about 20 million years,

    這次滅絕的時間特別長,大約持續了2000萬年,

  • and about 75% of all species were killed off.

    約有75%的物種死亡。

  • Marine life were especially affected due to a lack of oxygen in the oceans,

    由於海洋中缺氧,海洋生物受到的影響尤其嚴重,

  • but sharks survived though, so that's good, I guess.

    但鯊魚活了下來,我想這應該算是好事吧。

  • There are lots of things that could've prompted this,

    很多事情都可能導致這種結果,

  • from changing sea levels to new plants altering soil environments.

    從海平面發生變化到改變土壤環境的新植物。

  • The very first mass extinction that we know of is the Late Ordovician extinction that took place 450 million years ago.

    據我們所知,第一次大滅絕是奧陶紀大滅絕,發生在4.5億年前。

  • Around this time, a huge ice age caused sea levels to drop, ocean currents to reroute,

    在這個時候,巨大的冰河期導致海平面下降、洋流改道

  • and oxygen levels in the water to drop drastically.

    以及水中氧含量急劇下降。

  • At this point, almost all life still lived in the sea

    這時,幾乎所有的生物仍生活在海洋中,

  • and these events caused 85% of all marine plants and animals to go extinct.

    而上述原因造成85%的海洋動植物滅絕。

  • Some creatures, like trilobites and brachiopods, survived though.

    不過,像三葉蟲和腕足類等生物活了下來。

  • But the big question is, will humans die off in this current extinction?

    但最大的問題是,人類會不會在這次的滅絕事件中死去?

  • The answer really depends on how plants fare in this war.

    答案取決於植物在這場戰爭中的境遇。

  • They provide us with food and medicine, and absorb an incredible amount of CO2,

    它們為我們提供食物和藥物,並吸收大量的二氧化碳,

  • keeping global warming a bit more at bay.

    遏制全球暖化。

  • But it's thought that if plants reach major extinction levels, humans could be next.

    但有人認為,如果發生植物大滅絕,那麼人類可能就是下一個。

  • So, get out there and water those plants like your life depends on it, because it actually does this time.

    所以,快去幫植物澆澆水,把它當成生死存亡的關鍵,因為這次確實如此。

  • Do you have a favorite animal that went extinct? Is it the dodo? Because I love the dodo.

    你最喜歡的動物滅絕了嗎?是不是渡渡鳥?因為我自己很愛渡渡鳥。

  • Let me know in the comment section below.

    請在下面的評論區留言。

  • Speaking of extinct animals, should humans even try to bring them back?

    說到滅絕的動物,人類是否應該嘗試讓它們復活?

  • Check out this video where we explored just that!

    看看接下來這支探討相關主題的影片!

Hey there, welcome to Life Noggin!

大家好,歡迎收看Life Noggin!

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 滅絕 植物 物種 海洋 生物 二氧化碳

地球上的幾次物種大滅絕都是怎麼發生的?(How Many Mass Extinctions Have Happened On Earth?)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 18 日
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