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  • Consider the following statement:

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • human beings only use 10 percent of their brain capacity.

    想想這段陳述:

  • Well, as a neuroscientist, I can tell you

    人類的大腦只開發了 10%。

  • that while Morgan Freeman delivered this line

    身為神經科學家,我可以告訴各位,

  • with the gravitas that makes him a great actor,

    雖然摩根費里曼在說這句臺詞時,

  • this statement is entirely false.

    是帶著讓他成為偉大 演員的那份認真嚴肅,

  • (Laughter)

    但這句陳述完全是錯的。

  • The truth is, human beings use 100 percent of their brain capacity.

    (笑聲)

  • The brain is a highly efficient, energy-demanding organ

    事實是,人類用了 100% 的大腦。

  • that gets fully utilized

    大腦是個效率很高 且非常需要能量的器官,

  • and even though it is at full capacity being used,

    它被充分利用,

  • it suffers from a problem of information overload.

    而且雖然大腦已經被充分利用了,

  • There's far too much in the environment than it can fully process.

    仍然要面對資訊過載的問題。

  • So to solve this problem of overload,

    環境中有太多資訊, 大腦無法全部處理。

  • evolution devised a solution,

    為了要解決過載的問題,

  • which is the brain's attention system.

    進化就想出了一個解決方案,

  • Attention allows us

    那就是大腦的注意力系統。

  • to notice, select and direct the brain's computational resources

    注意力讓我們

  • to a subset of all that's available.

    能夠注意、選擇, 並引導大腦的運算資源,

  • We can think of attention as the leader of the brain.

    成為所有可得資源的一個子集。

  • Wherever attention goes, the rest of the brain follows.

    我們可以把注意力 想成是大腦的領導人。

  • In some sense, it's your brain's boss.

    注意力到哪裡, 大腦的其他部分就會跟隨。

  • And over the last 15 years,

    在某種意義上,它是你大腦的老闆。

  • I've been studying the human brain's attention system.

    在過去十五年間,

  • In all of our studies, I've been very interested in one question.

    我一直在研究大腦的注意力系統。

  • If it is indeed the case that our attention is the brain's boss,

    在我們所有的研究中, 我一直對一個問題非常感興趣,

  • is it a good boss?

    如果我們的注意力 的確是大腦的老闆,

  • Does it actually guide us well?

    它是個好老闆嗎?

  • And to dig in on this big question, I wanted to know three things.

    它有好好引導我們嗎?

  • First, how does attention control our perception?

    為了探究這個大哉問, 我想要知道三件事。

  • Second, why does it fail us,

    第一,注意力如何控制我們的感知?

  • often leaving us feeling foggy and distracted?

    第二,為什麼它會讓我們失望,

  • And third, can we do anything about this fogginess,

    常常會讓我們困惑和分心?

  • can we train our brain to pay better attention?

    第三,我們能否處理這種困惑,

  • To have more strong and stable attention in the work that we do in our lives.

    我們能否訓練大腦有更佳的注意力?

  • So I wanted to give you a brief glimpse

    在我們生活中做事情時 能有更強、更穩的注意力。

  • into how we're going to look at this.

    我想給大家一個簡短概念,

  • A very poignant example

    了解我們要如何來看待這件事。

  • of how our attention ends up getting utilized.

    一個非常切中要害的例子,

  • And I want to do it using the example of somebody that I know quite well.

    說明我們如何使用注意力。

  • He ends up being part of a very large group of people that we work with,

    我想用一個熟人的例子來解釋。

  • for whom attention is a matter of life and death.

    他後來成為我們合作的 一個大團體中的一員,

  • Think of medical professionals

    對他來說,注意力攸關生死。

  • or firefighters

    想想醫療專業人士,

  • or soldiers or marines.

    或消防隊員,

  • This is the story of a marine captain, Captain Jeff Davis.

    或士兵,或海軍陸戰隊。

  • And the scene that I'm going to share with you, as you can see,

    這是海軍陸戰隊隊長 傑夫戴維斯的故事。

  • is not about his time in the battlefield.

    各位從這個景可以看出

  • He was actually on a bridge, in Florida.

    我要談的不是他在戰場上的事。

  • But instead of looking at the scenery around him,

    他是在一座橋上,位在佛羅里達。

  • seeing the beautiful vistas

    但他沒有看他周圍的景色,

  • and noticing the cool ocean breezes,

    沒有看這漂亮的遠景,

  • he was driving fast and contemplating driving off that bridge.

    沒有注意到清涼的海風,

  • And he would later tell me that it took all of everything he had not to do so.

    他以非常快的速度, 蓄意開車衝下那座橋。

  • You see, he'd just returned from Iraq.

    後來他告訴我, 他得使盡全力才能不這麼做,

  • And while his body was on that bridge,

    他剛從伊拉克回來。

  • his mind, his attention, was thousands of miles away.

    雖然他的身體在橋上,

  • He was gripped with suffering.

    他的心、他的注意力 都還在數千英哩外。

  • His mind was worried and preoccupied

    他因為痛苦而緊握著手。

  • and had stressful memories and, really, dread for his future.

    他滿腦子擔心,所以很出神,

  • And I'm really glad that he didn't take his life.

    他的記憶讓他很有壓力, 對未來感到恐懼。

  • Because he, as a leader, knew that he wasn't the only one

    我很高興他沒有奪走自己的生命。

  • that was probably suffering;

    因為,身為領導人, 他知道他並不是唯一

  • many of his fellow marines probably were, too.

    在受苦的人;

  • And in the year 2008, he partnered with me in the first-of-its-kind project

    他的海軍陸戰隊 伙伴們可能也是如此。

  • that actually allowed us to test and offer something called mindfulness training

    2008 年,他和我搭擋 進行一個前所未有的計畫,

  • to active-duty military personnel.

    讓我們測試並提供一種正念訓練,

  • But before I tell you about what mindfulness training is,

    對象是現役軍事人員。

  • or the results of that study,

    但在我告訴各位正念訓練是什麼,

  • I think it's important to understand how attention works in the brain.

    或該研究的結果之前,

  • So what we do in the laboratory

    我認為很重要的是要了解 在大腦中的注意力是怎麼運作的。

  • is that many of our studies of attention involve brain-wave recordings.

    我們在實驗室中,

  • In these brain wave recordings, people wear funny-looking caps

    許多關於注意力的研究 都有用到腦波記錄。

  • that are sort of like swimming caps, that have electrodes embedded in them.

    在這些腦波記錄過程, 受試者要戴很可笑的頭罩,

  • These electrodes pick up the ongoing brain electrical activity.

    有點像泳帽,有內建電極。

  • And they do it with millisecond temporal precision.

    這些電極會取得 正在發生中的腦電活動。

  • So we can see these small yet detectable voltage fluctuations over time.

    時間上的精準度可以到毫秒。

  • And doing this, we can very precisely plot the timing of the brain's activity.

    我們就能看到很小,但能偵測到的 電壓波動隨著時間變化。

  • About 170 milliseconds

    這麼做,我們就能非常精確地 畫出腦活動的時間圖。

  • after we show our research participants a face on the screen,

    在我們給研究受試者在螢幕上

  • we see a very reliable, detectable brain signature.

    看到一張面孔之後大約 170 毫秒,

  • It happens right at the back of the scalp,

    我們發現有一個極可靠 且可偵測到的大腦特徵。

  • above the regions of the brain that are involved in face processing.

    它就發生在頭皮後面。

  • Now, this happens so reliably and so on cue,

    就在腦中處理面孔的區域上方。

  • as the brain's face detector,

    這個現象的發生非常可靠且準時,

  • that we've even given this brain-wave component a name.

    可以當作大腦的面孔偵測器,

  • We call it the N170 component.

    我們甚至幫這個腦波要素 取了一個名字,

  • And we use this component in many of our studies.

    我們叫它 N170 要素。

  • It allows us to see the impact that attention may have on our perception.

    我們在許多研究中都用到這個要素。

  • I'm going to give you a sense of the kind of experiments

    它讓我們能看見注意力可能 對我們的感知造成什麼影響。

  • that we actually do in the lab.

    我想讓各位了解一下我們在實驗室中

  • We would show participants images like this one.

    做的是什麼實驗。

  • You should see a face and a scene overlaid on each other.

    我們會給受試者看類似這樣的影像。

  • And what we do is we ask our participants

    你們應該可以看到一張臉 以及一個景重疊在一起。

  • as they're viewing a series of these types of overlaid images,

    我們的做法是要求受試者

  • to do something with their attention.

    在觀看一系列這類重疊影像時,

  • On some trials, we'll ask them to pay attention to the face.

    控制他們的注意力。

  • And to make sure they're doing that,

    在一些試驗中,我們請他們 把注意力放在臉孔上。

  • we ask them to tell us, by pressing a button,

    為了確保他們有做到,

  • if the face appeared to be male or female.

    我們請他們透過按鈕來告訴我們

  • On other trials,

    這張臉是男性,還是女性。

  • we ask them to tell what the scene was -- was it indoor or outdoor?

    在其他試驗中,

  • And in this way, we can manipulate attention

    我們問他們,這個景 是在室內,還是室外?

  • and confirm that the participants were actually doing what we said.

    這樣,我們就能操控注意力,

  • Our hypotheses about attention were as follows:

    並確認受試者是否有 真的照我們說的去做。

  • if attention is indeed doing its job and affecting perception,

    我們對注意力的假設是:

  • maybe it works like an amplifier.

    如果注意力真的有盡到 它的本分並影響到感知,

  • And what I mean by this

    也許它的作用會類似擴大機。

  • is that when we direct attention to the face,

    這樣說的意思是,

  • it becomes clearer and more salient,

    當我們把注意力引導到臉孔時,

  • it's easier to see.

    臉孔就會變得更清楚且更突出。

  • But when we direct it to the scene, the face becomes barely perceptible

    比較容易看到它。

  • as we process the scene information.

    但當我們把注意力引導到景時, 面孔就幾乎不會被感知到了,

  • So what we wanted to do

    因為我們正在處理景的資訊。

  • is look at this brain-wave component of face detection, the N170,

    我們想要做的

  • and see if it changed at all

    是去研究面部偵測的 腦波要素,N170,

  • as a function of where our participants were paying attention --

    看看它會不會改變,

  • to the scene or the face.

    是否是受試者注意力目標──

  • And here's what we found.

    景或臉──的影響。

  • We found that when they paid attention to the face,

    我們的發現如下。

  • the N170 was larger.

    我們發現,當他們注意臉孔時,

  • And when they paid attention to the scene, as you can see in red, it was smaller.

    N170 會變大。

  • And that gap you see between the blue and red lines

    當他們注意景時, 是圖上紅色的部分,比較小。

  • is pretty powerful.

    在藍線和紅線之間的落差,

  • What it tells us is that attention,

    是很強大的。

  • which is really the only thing that changed,

    它告訴我們注意力──

  • since the images they viewed were identical in both cases --

    注意力是實驗中唯一有改變的,

  • attention changes perception.

    因為他們在兩種情況下 看的影像都是同一張──

  • And it does so very fast.

    因此是注意力改變了感知。

  • Within 170 milliseconds of actually seeing a face.

    且它作用的速度很快。

  • In our follow-up studies, we wanted to see what would happen,

    看到臉的 170 毫秒內就有反應。

  • how could we perturb or diminish this effect.

    在我們的後續研究中, 我們想探究會發生什麼狀況、

  • And our hunch was that if you put people in a very stressful environment,

    我們要如何擾亂或減少那效應。

  • if you distract them with disturbing, negative images,

    我們的預感是,如果把人 放到一個很有壓力的環境中,

  • images of suffering and violence --

    如果用很讓人不舒服、 負面的影像來讓他們分心,

  • sort of like what you might see on the news, unfortunately --

    比如受苦或暴力的影像──

  • that doing this might actually affect their attention.

    很不幸,就像在新聞上 會看到的那些──

  • And that's indeed what we found.

    這麼做可能會影響他們的注意力。

  • If we present stressful images while they're doing this experiment,

    而我們發現結果的確如此。

  • this gap of attention shrinks, its power diminishes.

    如果受試者在進行實驗時, 我們展示很有壓力的影像,

  • So in some of our other studies,

    這個注意力落差會縮小, 它的力量會減少。

  • we wanted to see, OK, great --

    在我們的一些其他研究中,

  • not great, actually, bad news that stress does this to the brain --

    我們想要探究的是,很好──

  • but if it is the case that stress has this powerful influence on attention

    其實不好,壓力對大腦會有 這種影響,不是好消息──

  • through external distraction,

    但如果壓力真的能透過 外在的分心來對注意力

  • what if we don't need external distraction,

    產生這麼強大的影響,

  • what if we distract ourselves?

    那要是我們不需要外在的分心,

  • And to do this,

    而是讓自己分心呢?

  • we had to basically come up with an experiment

    要做到這一點,

  • in which we could have people generate their own mind-wandering.

    基本上,我們得要想出一種實驗,

  • This is having off-task thoughts

    在實驗中受試者要能 產生出他們自己的神遊。

  • while we're engaged in an ongoing task of some sort.

    也就是當我們正在進行某種任務時,

  • And the trick to mind-wandering is that essentially, you bore people.

    產生和任務無關的想法。

  • So hopefully there's not a lot of mind-wandering happening right now.

    而要讓人神遊的訣竅, 其實就是要讓他們很無聊。

  • When we bore people,

    所以,希望現在這裡 沒有很多人正在神遊。

  • people happily generate all kinds of internal content to occupy themselves.

    當人感到無聊時,

  • So we devised what might be considered

    他們就會很樂意產生出 各種內容來讓自己忙著想。

  • one of the world's most boring experiments.

    所以我們發明出一種可能是

  • All the participants saw were a series of faces on the screen,

    世界上最無聊的實驗之一。

  • one after another.

    所有的受試者要在 螢幕上看一系列的臉孔,

  • They pressed the button every time they saw the face.

    一張接著一張。

  • That was pretty much it.

    他們看到臉的時候就要按鈕。

  • Well, one trick was that sometimes, the face would be upside down,

    大致上就這樣。

  • and it would happen very infrequently.

    詭計在於,有時臉孔會上下顛倒,

  • On those trials they were told just to withhold the response.

    發生的頻率非常低。

  • Pretty soon, we could tell that they were successfully mind-wandering,

    他們被告知在這種情況下不要回應。

  • because they pressed the button when that face was upside down.

    很快我們就能辨別出 他們是否成功在神遊了,

  • Even though it's quite plain to see that it was upside down.

    因為連臉孔顛倒時 他們也會按下按鈕。

  • So we wanted to know what happens when people have mind-wandering.

    即使臉孔顛倒是很容易看出來的。

  • And what we found was that,

    所以我們想要知道 人在神遊時會發生什麼事。

  • very similar to external stress

    我們的發現是,

  • and external distraction in the environment,

    和環境中的外在壓力

  • internal distraction, our own mind wandering,

    以及外在分心很相似,

  • also shrinks the gap of attention.

    內在分心,也就是我們的神遊,

  • It diminishes attention's power.

    也會讓注意力的落差縮小。

  • So what do all of these studies tell us?

    它會減少注意力的力量。

  • They tell us that attention is very powerful

    所有這些研究,告訴了我們什麼?

  • in terms of affecting our perception.

    它們告訴我們,注意力在影響

  • Even though it's so powerful, it's also fragile and vulnerable.

    我們的感知上是很強大的,

  • And things like stress and mind-wandering diminish its power.

    雖然它很強大,它也很脆弱。

  • But that's all in the context of these very controlled laboratory settings.

    像壓力以及神遊, 都能減少它的力量。

  • What about in the real world?

    但那些都是在非常 受控制的實驗室環境中。

  • What about in our actual day-to-day life?

    在真實世界呢?

  • What about now?

    在我們的日常生活中呢?

  • Where is your attention right now?

    現在呢?

  • To kind of bring it back,

    現在你的注意力在哪裡?

  • I'd like to make a prediction about your attention

    為了要把它帶回來,

  • for the remainder of my talk.

    我想做個預測,預測你們在這場演說

  • Are you up for it?

    剩下時間中的注意力。

  • Here's the prediction.

    你們準備好了嗎?

  • You will be unaware of what I'm saying for four out of the next eight minutes.

    預測如下。

  • (Laughter)

    接下來的八分鐘,會有四分鐘 你都不會意識到我在說什麼。

  • It's a challenge, so pay attention, please.

    (笑聲)

  • Now, why am I saying this?

    這是個挑戰,請保持注意力。

  • I'm surely going to assume that you're going to remain seated

    為什麼我會這麼說?

  • and, you know, graciously keep your eyes on me as I speak.

    我肯定會假設你們 接下來都會一直坐著,

  • But a growing body of literature suggests that we mind-wander,

    在我說話時,很親切地注視著我。

  • we take our mind away from the task at hand,

    但越來越多研究指出,我們會神遊,

  • about 50 percent of our waking moments.

    我們不會把心留在手邊的工作上,

  • These might be small, little trips that we take away,

    我們清醒的時候, 有 50% 的時間都是如此。

  • private thoughts that we have.

    有可能只是小小地神遊一下,

  • And when this mind-wandering happens,

    有些私人的想法。

  • it can be problematic.

    當神遊發生時,

  • Now I don't think there will be any dire consequences

    可能會造成問題。

  • with you all sitting here today,

    各位今天坐在這裡,神遊可能不會

  • but imagine a military leader missing four minutes of a military briefing,

    有任何可怕的後果,

  • or a judge missing four minutes of testimony.

    但想像一下,軍事領導人 在軍事簡報時錯過了四分鐘,

  • Or a surgeon or firefighter missing any time.

    或法官在證詞時錯過了四分鐘。

  • The consequences in those cases could be dire.

    或外科醫生或消防隊員 錯過任何時間。

  • So we might ask why do we do this?

    這些情況的後果可能很可怕。

  • Why do we mind-wander so much?

    我們可能會問,為何我們要這樣做?

  • Well, part of the answer is that our mind is an exquisite time-traveling master.

    我們為什麼這麼常神遊?

  • It can actually time travel very easily.

    部分答案是,我們的大腦 是個靈敏的時間旅行大師。

  • If we think of the mind as the metaphor of the music player, we see this.

    它很容易就能做時間旅行。

  • We can rewind the mind to the past

    如果把大腦比喻成音樂 播放器,我們會看到這個。

  • to reflect on events that have already happened, right?

    我們可以把大腦倒帶回到過去,

  • Or we can go and fast-future, to plan for the next thing that we want to do.

    去回想已經發生過的事件,對吧?

  • And we land in this mental time-travel mode of the past or the future

    我們也可以快轉到未來, 去計畫我們接下來要做什麼。

  • very frequently.

    我們經常會進入這種過去或未來的

  • And we land there often without our awareness,

    心理旅行模式。

  • most times without our awareness,

    我們常常進入了也不自覺。

  • even if we want to be paying attention.

    多數時候都不自覺,

  • Think of just the last time you were trying to read a book,

    即使在想保持注意力時也一樣。

  • got to the bottom of the page with no idea what the words were saying.

    想想看上回你想要讀一本書的時候,

  • This happens to us.

    看完了一頁卻不知道 那些字在說什麼。

  • And when this happens, when we mind-wander without an awareness that we're doing it,

    我們會碰到這種情況。

  • there are consequences.

    碰到我們無意識地神遊時,

  • We make errors.

    就會產生後果。

  • We miss critical information, sometimes.

    我們會犯錯。

  • And we have difficulty making decisions.

    有時我們會錯失關鍵資訊。

  • What's worse is when we experience stress.

    且我們會很難做決策。

  • When we're in a moment of overwhelm.

    更糟的是在我們碰到壓力的時候,

  • We don't just reflect on the past when we rewind,

    當我們無法招架的時候。

  • we end up being in the past ruminating, reliving or regretting

    在我們倒帶時, 我們不僅是在想著過去,

  • events that have already happened.

    我們會陷入過去中, 反覆思考、重新經歷,或後悔

  • Or under stress, we fast-forward the mind.

    已經發生的事件。

  • Not just to productively plan.

    或是在壓力之下, 我們會讓大腦快轉。

  • But we end up catastrophizing or worrying

    不只是很有生產力地在做計畫。

  • about events that haven't happened yet

    我們甚至會擔心還沒有發生的事件,

  • and frankly may never happen.

    或是將它們給災難化,

  • So at this point, you might be thinking to yourself, OK,

    而且它們可能根本不會發生。

  • mind-wandering's happening a lot.

    所以這個時候,你可能會想,好,