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  • Now, Hegel -- he very famously said

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Melody Tang

  • that Africa was a place without history,

    黑格爾說過一句有名言,

  • without past, without narrative.

    他說,非洲是個沒有歷史的地方,

  • Yet, I'd argue that no other continent has nurtured, has fought for,

    沒有過去,也沒有敘事。

  • has celebrated its history more concertedly.

    然而我認為,沒其他大陸像非洲 這樣齊心一致地培養它的歷史,

  • The struggle to keep African narrative alive

    為它的歷史而戰,並頌揚它的歷史。

  • has been one of the most consistent

    為了能够讓非洲敘事延續下去,

  • and hard-fought endeavors of African peoples,

    非洲的人們一直在進行着

  • and it continues to be so.

    最持續、最艱苦的鬥爭,

  • The struggles endured and the sacrifices made to hold onto narrative

    至今仍然如此。

  • in the face of enslavement, colonialism, racism, wars and so much else

    在面對被奴役、殖民主義、 種族主義,以及戰爭等等,

  • has been the underpinning narrative

    人民為了守住非洲敘事 所承受的艱苦、所做出的犧牲,

  • of our history.

    一直就是我們歷史的核心敘事。

  • And our narrative has not just survived the assaults

    我們的敘事不僅在歷史

  • that history has thrown at it.

    對它的攻擊之下存活下來。

  • We've left a body of material culture,

    我們留下了許多物質文化、

  • artistic magistery and intellectual output.

    藝術精華以及智慧產物。

  • We've mapped and we've charted and we've captured our histories

    我們勘測了、繪製了、 捕捉了我們的歷史,

  • in ways that are the measure of anywhere else on earth.

    是地球上任何其他地方的準繩。

  • Long before the meaningful arrival of Europeans --

    遠在歐洲人意義深長的抵達之前——

  • indeed, whilst Europe was still mired in its Dark Age --

    的確,當歐洲仍陷在 黑暗時代中時——

  • Africans were pioneering techniques in recording, in nurturing history,

    非洲人已在開創記錄 和滋養歷史的技術,

  • forging revolutionary methods for keeping their story alive.

    打造出革命性的方法, 來讓故事延續下去。

  • And living history, dynamic heritage --

    而活著的歷史、動態的遺產——

  • it remains important to us.

    它對我們而言仍然是重要的。

  • We see that manifest in so many ways.

    我們見過它以非常多種 不同方式呈現。

  • I'm reminded of how, just last year -- you might remember it --

    我想起了去年 ——你們可能還記得——

  • the first members

    加入艾蓋達組織支助的 伊斯蘭衛士的最早的成員

  • of the al Qaeda-affiliated Ansar Dine

    被控告犯有戰爭犯罪, 而後被送到海牙。

  • were indicted for war crimes and sent to the Hague.

    最惡名昭彰的一位 就是艾哈邁德·艾法奇

  • And one of the most notorious was Ahmad al-Faqi,

    他是位年輕的馬里人,

  • who was a young Malian,

    他被控的罪名不是大屠殺,

  • and he was charged, not with genocide,

    不是種族清洗,

  • not with ethnic cleansing,

    而是教唆摧毀馬里最重要的

  • but with being one of the instigators of a campaign

    一些文化資產的活動。

  • to destroy some of Mali's most important cultural heritage.

    那不是非故意的破壞;

  • This wasn't vandalism;

    也並不是未經思考的草率行為。

  • these weren't thoughtless acts.

    當艾馬蒂被要求在法庭上

  • One of the things that al-Faqi said

    報出自己的身份時,他說到一點,

  • when he was asked to identify himself in court

    他說他是大學畢業生, 而且他是老師。

  • was that he was a graduate, that he was a teacher.

    在 2012 年間,他們進行了 一個規劃完善的活動,

  • Over the course of 2012, they engaged in a systematic campaign

    目標是要摧毀馬里的文化遺產。

  • to destroy Mali's cultural heritage.

    這是經過深入考量後進行的戰爭,

  • This was a deeply considered waging of war

    且進行的方式是 人能想像出來最強大的方式來

  • in the most powerful way that could be envisaged:

    摧毀敘事,摧毀故事。

  • in destroying narrative, in destroying stories.

    他們試圖摧毀九個聖壇、

  • The attempted destruction of nine shrines,

    中央清真寺、

  • the central mosque

    可能還有約四千份手稿,

  • and perhaps as many as 4,000 manuscripts

    都是仔細考量過的行為。

  • was a considered act.

    他們知道敘事有著 能將社區團結起來的力量,

  • They understood the power of narrative to hold communities together,

    他們藉由反向思考了解到 通過摧毀故事,

  • and they conversely understood that in destroying stories,

    他們就有可能摧毀一個民族。

  • they hoped they would destroy a people.

    但正如伊斯蘭衛士和他們的暴動

  • But just as Ansar Dine and their insurgency

    是被強大的敘事所驅使的,

  • were driven by powerful narratives,

    當地人民為廷巴克圖 及其圖書館所做的防禦也一樣。

  • so was the local population's defense of Timbuktu and its libraries.

    這些社區的人 聽著馬里帝國的故事長大;

  • These were communities who've grown up with stories of the Mali Empire;

    他們住在廷巴克圖偉大的 圖書館的影子底下。

  • lived in the shadow of Timbuktu's great libraries.

    他們從孩提時就在聽著 關於廷巴克圖起源的歌曲,

  • They'd listened to songs of its origin from their childhood,

    而他們不願意

  • and they weren't about to give up on that

    不嘗試抵抗就放棄那一切。

  • without a fight.

    在 2012 年的艱苦月份中,

  • Over difficult months of 2012,

    在伊斯蘭衛士入侵的時期,

  • during the Ansar Dine invasion,

    馬里人、平民百姓,冒著生命危險,

  • Malians, ordinary people, risked their lives

    把文件藏起來並偷運到安全的地方,

  • to secrete and smuggle documents to safety,

    盡他們所能,去保護歷史建築,

  • doing what they could to protect historic buildings

    去保衛他們古老的圖書館。

  • and defend their ancient libraries.

    雖然他們不一定都能成功,

  • And although they weren't always successful,

    許多最重要的手稿 都很幸運地被保存下來了,

  • many of the most important manuscripts were thankfully saved,

    今天,在那次暴動中受損的所有聖壇

  • and today each one of the shrines that was damaged during that uprising

    都已被重建,

  • have been rebuilt,

    包括一間十四世紀的清真寺, 它象徵該城市的心臟。

  • including the 14th-century mosque that is the symbolic heart of the city.

    它已經被完全復原了。

  • It's been fully restored.

    即使在被佔領期間 最令人沮喪的時候,

  • But even in the bleakest periods of the occupation,

    廷巴克圖還是有足夠的人民 就是不願意屈服於

  • enough of the population of Timbuktu simply would not bow

    像艾馬蒂這樣的人。

  • to men like al-Faqi.

    他們不允許他們的歷史被抹滅。

  • They wouldn't allow their history to be wiped away,

    任何曾經造訪過 世界的那個角落的人,

  • and anyone who has visited that part of the world,

    都能夠了解為什麼,

  • they will understand why,

    為什麼故事,為什麼敘事, 為什麼歷史有這麼重要。

  • why stories, why narrative, why histories are of such importance.

    歷史很重要。

  • History matters.

    歷史真的關乎緊要。

  • History really matters.

    對於看到數世紀來自己的故事

  • And for peoples of African descent,

    不斷被有系統地攻擊的 非洲後裔而言,

  • who have seen their narrative systematically assaulted over centuries,

    這是極度重要的。

  • this is critically important.

    這是一部份不斷重覆的共鳴, 迴盪在我們那段關於

  • This is part of a recurrent echo across our history

    平民百姓為了他們的故事及歷史 而挺身抵抗的歷史當中。

  • of ordinary people making a stand for their story, for their history.

    就如同十九世紀

  • Just as in the 19th century,

    在加勒比海被奴役的非洲後裔,

  • enslaved peoples of African descent in the Caribbean

    在懲罰的威脅之下決定一戰,

  • fought under threat of punishment,

    為了實踐他們的宗教, 為了慶祝狂歡節而戰,

  • fought to practice their religions, to celebrate Carnival,

    為了延續他們的歷史而戰。

  • to keep their history alive.

    平民百姓都準備好 要做出偉大的犧牲,

  • Ordinary people were prepared to make great sacrifices,

    有些人最終也為了他們的歷史

  • some even the ultimate sacrifice,

    犧牲了。

  • for their history.

    透過對敘事的控制,

  • And it was through control of narrative

    一些最具毀滅性的 殖民活動才得以存在。

  • that some of the most devastating colonial campaigns were crystallized.

    透過支配一個又一個的敘事,

  • It was through the dominance of one narrative over another

    殖民主義最糟糕的 表現形式才得以具現。

  • that the worst manifestations of colonialism became palpable.

    在 1874 年,當英國攻打阿善提時,

  • When, in 1874, the British attacked the Ashanti,

    他們侵佔蹂躪了庫馬西, 捕捉了阿散蒂西里王。

  • they overran Kumasi and captured the Asantehene.

    他們知道,控制領土 和制服國家領袖——

  • They knew that controlling territory and subjugating the head of state --

    是不夠的。

  • it wasn't enough.

    他們明白,國家情感的中心

  • They recognized that the emotional authority of state

    在該國家的敘事當中,

  • lay in its narrative

    以及代表它的象徵當中,

  • and the symbols that represented it,

    比如金凳子。 (註:阿散蒂西里王的寶座)

  • like the Golden Stool.

    他們了解,如果要真正 控制一個民族,

  • They understood that control of story was absolutely critical

    對故事的控制是至關重要的。

  • to truly controlling a people.

    阿善提人也明白這一點,

  • And the Ashanti understood, too,

    他們始終不願放棄, 不肯交出寶貴的金凳子,

  • and they never were to relinquish the precious Golden Stool,

    始終沒有完全屈從於英國人。

  • never to completely capitulate to the British.

    敘事是至關緊要的。

  • Narrative matters.

    在 1871 年,在南非工作的 德國地理學家卡爾·毛赫

  • In 1871, Karl Mauch, a German geologist working in Southern Africa,

    偶然發現了一個非凡的建築群,

  • he stumbled across an extraordinary complex,

    由廢棄的石頭房屋組成的建築群。

  • a complex of abandoned stone buildings.

    而他始終未能全然忘懷:

  • And he never quite recovered from what he saw:

    一個花崗岩乾砌的城市,

  • a granite, drystone city,

    位於空蕩大草原露出的礦脈上:

  • stranded on an outcrop above an empty savannah:

    大辛巴威。

  • Great Zimbabwe.

    毛赫完全不知道是誰建造了

  • And Mauch had no idea who was responsible

    這顯然十分驚人的建築壯舉,

  • for what was obviously an astonishing feat of architecture,

    但他很確定一件事:

  • but he felt sure of one single thing:

    必須要找到這敘事的歸屬。

  • this narrative needed to be claimed.

    他後來寫道:大辛巴威的精心構思建築

  • He later wrote that the wrought architecture of Great Zimbabwe

    實在是太精密、太特別了,

  • was simply too sophisticated,

    因此不可能是非洲人建造的。

  • too special to have been built by Africans.

    毛赫,和數十位跟隨 他腳步的歐洲人一樣,

  • Mauch, like dozens of Europeans that followed in his footsteps,

    臆測了誰可能建造了這個城市。

  • speculated on who might have built the city.

    其中一個人竟然斷定說:

  • And one went as far as to posit,

    「我猜測這山丘上的遺跡 是仿效所羅門聖殿的,

  • "I do not think that I am far wrong if I suppose that that ruin on the hill

    我想我應該不會錯得離譜。」

  • is a copy of King Solomon's Temple."

    我相信你們都知道,

  • And as I'm sure you know, Mauch,

    毛赫偶然發現的並非所羅門聖殿,

  • he hadn't stumbled upon King Solomon's Temple,

    他發現的是純非洲的建築群,

  • but upon a purely African complex of buildings

    在十一世紀, 由純非洲的文明所建造。

  • constructed by a purely African civilization

    但就像幾年之後,德國人類學家 李歐·佛洛班尼爾斯

  • from the 11th century onward.

    在初次看到奈及利亞 伊費青銅頭像時,

  • But like Leo Frobenius, a fellow German anthropologist

    他揣測這些頭像可能是來自 失落的亞特蘭提斯的文物。

  • who speculated some years later,

    就像黑格爾一樣,

  • upon seeing the Nigerian Ife Heads for the very first time,

    他幾乎是本能地感覺 他必須掠奪非洲的歷史。

  • that they must have been artifacts from the long-lost kingdom of Atlantis.

    這些想法非常不理性,

  • He felt, just like Hegel,

    且根深蒂固。

  • an almost instinctive need to rob Africa of its history.

    即使面對實體的古物,

  • These ideas are so irrational,

    他們也無法理性思考。

  • so deeply held,

    他們已經無法看清楚。

  • that even when faced with the physical archaeology,

    就像非洲和啟蒙時代 歐洲之間的關係,

  • they couldn't think rationally.

    它涉及了對該大陸的 佔用、詆毀,和控制。

  • They could no longer see.

    它涉及了為迎合歐洲而將敘事改變。

  • And like so much of Africa's relationship with Enlightenment Europe,

    如果毛赫真的想要為 他的這個問題找到答案:

  • it involved appropriation, denigration and control of the continent.

    「大辛巴威或是那偉大的 石建築是從哪裡來的?」

  • It involved an attempt to bend narrative to Europe's ends.

    他其實必須在大辛巴威以外

  • And if Mauch had really wanted to find an answer to his question,

    幾千英哩的地方, 展開他的追尋之旅,

  • "Where did Great Zimbabwe or that great stone building come from?"

    也就是這塊大陸的東岸, 非洲和印度洋交接的地方。

  • he would have needed to begin his quest

    他應該從斯華西里海岸的那一些

  • a thousand miles away from Great Zimbabwe,

    與大辛巴威做貿易的大型商業中心, 追蹤黃金和商品的來源,

  • at the eastern edge of the continent, where Africa meets the Indian Ocean.

    來探究那神秘文化的

  • He would have needed to trace the gold and the goods

    規模和影響;

  • from some of the great trading emporia of the Swahili coast to Great Zimbabwe,

    透過大辛巴威所控制的王國和文明,

  • to gain a sense of the scale and influence

    來了解大辛巴威成為政治、

  • of that mysterious culture,

    文化實體的真實情況。

  • to get a picture of Great Zimbabwe as a political, cultural entity

    數世紀以來,商人都被 吸引到該海岸的那個小區域,

  • through the kingdoms and the civilizations

    他們來自遠方,如印度、 中國、中東等地。

  • that were drawn under its control.

    人們可能會傾向這樣詮釋,

  • For centuries, traders have been drawn to that bit of the coast

    因為那建築十分精緻美麗。

  • from as far away as India and China and the Middle East.

    人們可能會傾向將它詮釋成

  • And it might be tempting to interpret,

    一個精緻、象徵性的珠寶,

  • because it's exquisitely beautiful, that building,

    一個巨大的儀式性石雕。

  • it might be tempting to interpret it

    但這個遺跡建築群,

  • as just an exquisite, symbolic jewel,

    在過去肯定是位在許多經濟體 所形成之重要網路的中心,

  • a vast ceremonial sculpture in stone.

    定義了這個區域長達一千年的時間。

  • But the site must have been a complex

    這是非常重要的。

  • at the center of a significant nexus of economies

    這些敘事是至關緊要的。

  • that defined this region for a millennium.

    即使現今,我們為了說出故事而戰, 並不只是在對抗時間。

  • This matters.

    也並不只是對抗 像伊斯蘭衛士的組織。

  • These narratives matter.

    在經過了數世紀 一直被強加上的歷史之後,

  • Even today, the fight to tell our story is not just against time.

    我們也為了建立真正的非洲聲音。

  • It's not just against organizations like Ansar Dine.

    我們不僅是要重新殖民我們的歷史,

  • It's also in establishing a truly African voice

    我們必需要找到方法來重新建立

  • after centuries of imposed histories.

    完全被黑格爾否認曾在那裡存在的。

  • We don't just have to recolonize our history,

    我們得要重新發現非洲的哲學、

  • but we have to find ways to build back the intellectual underpinning

    非洲的觀點、非洲的歷史。

  • that Hegel denied was there at all.

    大辛巴威的繁榮—— 它並不是個特異的時刻。

  • We have to rediscover African philosophy,

    它是整個大陸急速改變的一部份。

  • African perspectives, African history.

    很好的範例或許就是松迪亞塔可塔。

  • The flowering of Great Zimbabwe -- it wasn't a freak moment.

    他是馬里帝國的開創者,

  • It was part of a burgeoning change across the whole of the continent.

    而馬里帝國可能是 西非史上最偉大的帝國。

  • Perhaps the great exemplification of that was Sundiata Keita,

    松迪亞塔可塔大約生於 1235 年,

  • the founder of the Mali Empire,

    成長於一個巨大變遷的時代。

  • probably the greatest empire that West Africa has ever seen.

    他看到北邊巴巴里的改朝換代,

  • Sundiata Keita was born about 1235,

    他可能也聽到南邊伊費的崛起,

  • growing up in a time of profound flux.

    甚至東邊衣索比亞

  • He was seeing the transition between the Berber dynasties to the north,

    所羅門王朝的統治。

  • he may have heard about the rise of the Ife to the south

    他一定有意識到,他身處在一個

  • and perhaps even the dominance of the Solomaic Dynasty

    快速改變的時刻,

  • in Ethiopia to the east.

    對我們的大陸越來越有信心的時刻。

  • And he must have been aware that he was living through a moment

    他一定意識到

  • of quickening change,

    新的國家在建立它們的影響力,

  • of growing confidence in our continent.

    偏遠到大辛巴威 和蘇丹統治的斯華西里。

  • He must have been aware of new states

    它們都被直接或間接地 與非洲以外有所連結,

  • that were building their influence

    它們個別也都投入心力去 保護它們的知識和文化遺產。

  • from as far afield as Great Zimbabwe and the Swahili sultanates,

    他可能有和這些國家進行貿易。

  • each engaged directly or indirectly beyond the continent itself,

    這是偉大的中世紀非洲經濟體的

  • each driven also to invest in securing their intellectual and cultural legacy.

    大規模大陸連結網的一部份。

  • He probably would have engaged in trade with these peer nations

    如同所有偉大的帝國,

  • as part of a massive continental nexus

    松迪亞塔可塔也投入心力 去保護他的歷史遺產,

  • of great medieval African economies.

    用的方式就是故事——

  • And like all of those great empires,

    不僅是把說故事的 這個想法給正式化,

  • Sundiata Keita invested in securing his legacy through history

    他還建立了完整的常規習俗

  • by using story --

    來敘述和重述他的故事。

  • not just formalizing the idea of storytelling,

    建造敘事對於他的帝國十分關鍵。

  • but in building a whole convention

    他的故事以音樂的形式訴說,

  • of telling and retelling his story

    至今仍然被唱誦著。

  • as a key to founding a narrative

    在松迪亞塔死後數十年,

  • for his empire.

    一個新國王登上王位,

  • And these stories, in musical form,

    曼薩穆薩,馬里最有名的帝王。

  • are still sung today.

    曼薩·穆薩以儲存大量黃金而聞名,

  • Now, several decades after the death of Sundiata,

    他也以派使節到歐洲 和中東的朝廷而聞名。

  • a new king ascended the throne,

    他的野心完全不輸給他的前人,

  • Mansa Musa, its most famous emperor.

    但他發現一種不同的方式 可以保護他在歷史上的地位。

  • Now, Mansa Musa is famed for his vast gold reserves

    在 1324 年,曼薩·穆薩去麥加朝聖,

  • and for sending envoys to the courts of Europe and the Middle East.

    他此行的扈從就有數千人。

  • He was every bit as ambitious as his predecessors,

    傳說有 100 隻駱駝, 每隻載著 100 磅的黃金。

  • but saw a different kind of route of securing his place in history.

    有記錄指出,旅程中的每個星期五

  • In 1324, Mansa Musa went on pilgrimage to Mecca,

    他都會建立一間功能完整的清真寺,

  • and he traveled with a retinue of thousands.

    做了非常多的仁慈之舉。

  • It's been said that 100 camels each carried 100 pounds of gold.

    偉大的巴巴里編年史家 伊本·巴圖塔寫到:

  • It's been recorded that he built a fully functioning mosque

    「他用仁慈淹沒了開羅,

  • every Friday of his trip,

    在北非和中東的市場花了如此多錢,

  • and performed so many acts of kindness,

    以致於影響到了接下來 十年的黃金價格。」

  • that the great Berber chronicler, Ibn Battuta, wrote,

    回程時,

  • "He flooded Cairo with kindness,

    曼薩·穆薩紀念他這趟旅程的方式是

  • spending so much in the markets of North Africa and the Middle East

    在他的帝國的心臟地帶 建立一座清真寺。

  • that it affected the price of gold into the next decade."

    他留給後世的遺產,

  • And on his return,

    就是廷巴克圖,

  • Mansa Musa memorialized his journey

    它代表了由非洲學者所寫的

  • by building a mosque at the heart of his empire.

    最大量的書面歷史材料之一:

  • And the legacy of what he left behind,

    大約有七十萬份中世紀文件,

  • Timbuktu,

    從學術著作到信件應有盡有。

  • it represents one of the great bodies of written historical material

    這些大都被私人保存下來。

  • produced by African scholars:

    在巔峰時期,在十五及十六世紀時,

  • about 700,000 medieval documents,

    那裡的大學的影響力完全不輸給

  • ranging from scholarly works to letters,

    歐洲的任何教育機關,

  • which have been preserved often by private households.

    吸引了約兩萬五千名學生。

  • And at its peak, in the 15th and 16th centuries,

    這個城市在那時的人口約為十萬人。

  • the university there was as influential

    它奠定了廷巴克圖成為 世界學習中心的地位。

  • as any educational establishment in Europe,

    但那裡的學習非常特別,