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  • As a singer-songwriter,

    我身為歌手兼作曲家,

  • people often ask me about my influences or, as I like to call them,

    大家常問我的靈感來源, 但我喜歡這麼說,

  • my sonic lineages.

    我的「聲音族譜」是什麼。

  • And I could easily tell you

    我可以很爽快地回答,

  • that I was shaped by the jazz and hip hop that I grew up with,

    成長的時候我受 爵士及嘻哈音樂風格影響,

  • by the Ethiopian heritage of my ancestors,

    以及來自我祖先 衣索比亞的傳統音樂,

  • or by the 1980s pop on my childhood radio stations.

    或是我童年時期廣播 常播放的 80 年代流行音樂。

  • But beyond genre, there is another question:

    但是除了音樂流派之外, 還有另一個問題:

  • how do the sounds we hear every day influence the music that we make?

    我們日常聽到的聲音 如何影響我們所創作的音樂?

  • I believe that everyday soundscape

    我相信此些日常音景

  • can be the most unexpected inspiration for songwriting,

    可成為不可思議之創作靈感,

  • and to look at this idea a little bit more closely,

    進一步探討這一想法,

  • I'm going to talk today about three things:

    今天我的演講將圍繞三大主體:

  • nature, language and silence --

    自然、語言、無聲──

  • or rather, the impossibility of true silence.

    更清楚一點, 真正無聲的不可能性。

  • And through this I hope to give you a sense of a world

    從而我希望你更了解

  • already alive with musical expression,

    這因多種音樂的情感表現 而豐富的世界,

  • with each of us serving as active participants,

    我們每個人都是積極的參與者,

  • whether we know it or not.

    雖然我們不一定意識到這問題。

  • I'm going to start today with nature, but before we do that,

    我會從自然開始,但開始之前,

  • let's quickly listen to this snippet of an opera singer warming up.

    請你聽一段歌劇歌手 為演唱暖嗓的音樂。

  • Here it is.

    音樂開始。

  • (Singing)

    (唱歌)

  • (Singing ends)

    (歌唱結束)

  • It's beautiful, isn't it?

    很好聽是嗎?

  • Gotcha!

    你被騙了!

  • That is actually not the sound of an opera singer warming up.

    這不是歌劇歌手開唱前的暖嗓。

  • That is the sound of a bird

    而是一種鳥的叫聲,

  • slowed down to a pace

    被放慢到一定程度,

  • that the human ear mistakenly recognizes as its own.

    人耳誤聽為人的歌聲。

  • It was released as part of Peter Szöke's 1987 Hungarian recording

    剛才的音樂就是一名匈牙利音樂家 於 1987 年出版專輯中一部分,

  • "The Unknown Music of Birds,"

    名為《未發現之鳥類音樂》,

  • where he records many birds and slows down their pitches

    為了突出鳥類叫聲本質,

  • to reveal what's underneath.

    他錄了多種鳥叫聲並放慢速度。

  • Let's listen to the full-speed recording.

    現在我們來聽一段正常速度的錄音。

  • (Bird singing)

    (鳥類叫聲)

  • Now, let's hear the two of them together

    現在連續聽這兩首,

  • so your brain can juxtapose them.

    你們可以自己比較。

  • (Bird singing at slow then full speed)

    (放慢的鳥類叫聲,然後正常速度)

  • (Singing ends)

    (音樂結束)

  • It's incredible.

    好奇妙!

  • Perhaps the techniques of opera singing were inspired by birdsong.

    歌劇技巧大概從鳥類叫聲取得靈感。

  • As humans, we intuitively understand birds to be our musical teachers.

    人類本能地將鳥類視為音樂老師。

  • In Ethiopia, birds are considered an integral part

    在衣索比亞,鳥類被視為

  • of the origin of music itself.

    音樂起源的一部分。zz

  • The story goes like this:

    根據傳說,

  • 1,500 years ago, a young man was born in the Empire of Aksum,

    1500 年前,一個小男孩 出生於阿克蘇姆王國,

  • a major trading center of the ancient world.

    當時的世界貿易中心。

  • His name was Yared.

    他的名字為雅瑞德。

  • When Yared was seven years old his father died,

    雅瑞德七歲的時候,他的父親去世,

  • and his mother sent him to go live with an uncle, who was a priest

    母親將他交給舅舅撫養,

  • of the Ethiopian Orthodox tradition,

    這位舅舅是衣索比亞正教的神父,

  • one of the oldest churches in the world.

    為世界古老的教會系統之一。

  • Now, this tradition has an enormous amount of scholarship and learning,

    因為此教派傳講大量知識,

  • and Yared had to study and study and study and study,

    所以雅瑞德必須埋頭苦讀,

  • and one day he was studying under a tree,

    某天他在樹下學習時,

  • when three birds came to him.

    有三隻鳥飛來他旁邊。

  • One by one, these birds became his teachers.

    每一隻鳥陸續成為他的教師。

  • They taught him music -- scales, in fact.

    牠們教他音樂,其實就是音階。

  • And Yared, eventually recognized as Saint Yared,

    後來,雅瑞德被尊稱為聖雅瑞德,

  • used these scales to compose five volumes of chants and hymns

    用此音階寫成五卷聖歌和讚美聖詩,

  • for worship and celebration.

    給各種禮拜及節慶使用。

  • And he used these scales to compose and to create

    他也從這些音階譜出及發明出

  • an indigenous musical notation system.

    一套當地使用的記譜法。

  • And these scales evolved into what is known as kiñit,

    這些音階演變成 衣索比亞音階 (kiñit),

  • the unique, pentatonic, five-note, modal system that is very much alive

    其獨特的五聲音階, 由五個音組成的調式,

  • and thriving and still evolving in Ethiopia today.

    現在在衣索比亞還普遍使用及發展。

  • Now, I love this story because it's true at multiple levels.

    我很喜歡這個故事, 因為它在很多方面都可考證。

  • Saint Yared was a real, historical figure,

    聖雅瑞德是一位真實人物,

  • and the natural world can be our musical teacher.

    而自然世界 也可以成為我們的教師呀!

  • And we have so many examples of this:

    有很多相似的例子:

  • the Pygmies of the Congo tune their instruments

    剛果俾格米人(矮人族)

  • to the pitches of the birds in the forest around them.

    根據山鳥叫聲調整琴弦。

  • Musician and natural soundscape expert Bernie Krause describes

    音樂家兼自然音景專家 伯尼克勞斯描述,

  • how a healthy environment has animals and insects

    一個健康的環境會有各種動物及昆蟲

  • taking up low, medium and high-frequency bands,

    占據低、中及高頻率的音頻,

  • in exactly the same way as a symphony does.

    和人類的交響樂一樣。

  • And countless works of music were inspired by bird and forest song.

    數不清的曲子 以鳥類和森林作為靈感。

  • Yes, the natural world can be our cultural teacher.

    沒錯,自然世界 可以成為我們的文化教師。

  • So let's go now to the uniquely human world of language.

    現在我們來談獨特的人類世界語言。

  • Every language communicates with pitch to varying degrees,

    每個語言通過各種音高交流,

  • whether it's Mandarin Chinese,

    無論是華語,

  • where a shift in melodic inflection gives the same phonetic syllable

    如果你將音調發錯, 會讓相同的拼音音節

  • an entirely different meaning,

    產生不同的意思;

  • to a language like English,

    或者其它語言像英語,

  • where a raised pitch at the end of a sentence ...

    在句尾語氣上揚……

  • (Going up in pitch) implies a question?

    (提升音高)代表問句,對嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾大笑)

  • As an Ethiopian-American woman,

    身為衣索比亞美裔婦女,

  • I grew up around the language of Amharic, Amhariña.

    我在阿姆哈拉語環境中長大。

  • It was my first language, the language of my parents,

    這是我的母語,是我父母說的語言,

  • one of the main languages of Ethiopia.

    是衣索比亞主要語言之一。

  • And there are a million reasons to fall in love with this language:

    我有一千萬個理由喜愛這個語言:

  • its depth of poetics, its double entendres,

    詩歌的深度,雙關的詞語,

  • its wax and gold, its humor,

    隱藏的涵義,幽默的特性,

  • its proverbs that illuminate the wisdom and follies of life.

    生活中有智慧的俗語以及反語。

  • But there's also this melodicism, a musicality built right in.

    但更主要的是包括在 詞語裡面的旋律感。

  • And I find this distilled most clearly

    我發現這種旋律感在

  • in what I like to call emphatic language --

    我所稱的「強調語言」中 明顯突出——

  • language that's meant to highlight or underline

    即明顯指出、強調意思之語言,

  • or that springs from surprise.

    或者表示驚訝的狀態。

  • Take, for example, the word: "indey."

    例如 indey 這個字,

  • Now, if there are Ethiopians in the audience,

    如果在座有衣索比亞人,

  • they're probably chuckling to themselves,

    他們一定會咯咯笑起來,

  • because the word means something like "No!"

    因為這個字的意思是「不行!」

  • or "How could he?" or "No, he didn't."

    或「他怎麼能這樣呢?」 或「不,他沒有。」

  • It kind of depends on the situation.

    根據具體的情況而不同。

  • But when I was a kid, this was my very favorite word,

    可是在我小時候, 這是我最喜歡的字,

  • and I think it's because it has a pitch.

    我想是因為我喜歡它的音高。

  • It has a melody.

    它有旋律。

  • You can almost see the shape as it springs from someone's mouth.

    這個字發出來, 我們幾乎可以看到它的口型。

  • "Indey" -- it dips, and then raises again.

    “Indey” — 音調先往下降後再往上升高。

  • And as a musician and composer, when I hear that word,

    身為音樂家和作曲家, 每次聽到此字,

  • something like this is floating through my mind.

    這樣的畫面就在我的腦海裡展現。

  • (Music and singing "Indey")

    (音樂和唱 indey)

  • (Music ends)

    (音樂停止)

  • Or take, for example, the phrase for "It is right" or "It is correct" --

    另外一個例子, 代表「沒錯、正確」——

  • "Lickih nehu ... Lickih nehu."

    "Lickih nehu ... Lickih nehu."

  • It's an affirmation, an agreement.

    就是確定、同意。

  • "Lickih nehu."

    "Lickih nehu."

  • When I hear that phrase,

    我聽到此詞的時候,

  • something like this starts rolling through my mind.

    音樂泉在我的腦海裡流出。

  • (Music and singing "Lickih nehu")

    (音樂及唱 “Lickih nehu” 聲)

  • (Music ends)

    (音樂結束)

  • And in both of those cases, what I did was I took the melody

    以上兩個例子,

  • and the phrasing of those words and phrases

    我都以這些字的旋律和分句,

  • and I turned them into musical parts to use in these short compositions.

    轉成音樂的因素,從而寫成短曲。

  • And I like to write bass lines,

    我喜歡寫低音音樂,

  • so they both ended up kind of as bass lines.

    所以以上的兩個短曲都是低音的。

  • Now, this is based on the work of Jason Moran and others

    根據賈森莫蘭及同事的研究,

  • who work intimately with music and language,

    他們是音樂及語言研究專家,

  • but it's also something I've had in my head since I was a kid,

    也是我從小時候一直關注的,

  • how musical my parents sounded

    就是我父母

  • when they were speaking to each other and to us.

    彼此對談與跟我們對話時 具音樂性的腔調。

  • It was from them and from Amhariña that I learned

    正是他們講的阿姆哈拉語 讓我推出一個觀念,

  • that we are awash in musical expression

    就是語言充滿了音樂風格,

  • with every word, every sentence that we speak,

    在每一句我們說出的話,

  • every word, every sentence that we receive.

    在每一句我們聽到的話。

  • Perhaps you can hear it in the words I'm speaking even now.

    你們或許可以在我現在說出的 每一句話中領會到。

  • Finally, we go to the 1950s United States

    最後,我要談一首 1950 年 美國的音樂作品,

  • and the most seminal work of 20th century avant-garde composition:

    為 20 世紀前衛派 最具影響力的曲子:

  • John Cage's "4:33,"

    約翰·凱吉之《4′33″》,

  • written for any instrument or combination of instruments.

    寫給任何樂器或任何組合樂器。

  • The musician or musicians are invited to walk onto the stage

    演奏家受邀上舞台,

  • with a stopwatch and open the score,

    帶著碼錶並把樂譜打開,

  • which was actually purchased by the Museum of Modern Art --

    此樂譜已被當代藝術博物館 收購作展覽專用——

  • the score, that is.

    只有樂譜,就這樣。

  • And this score has not a single note written

    這張樂譜上沒有任何音符,

  • and there is not a single note played

    演奏家在整整 4 分 33 秒的時間 也不彈任何一個音。

  • for four minutes and 33 seconds.

    (觀眾)在又生氣又著迷的狀態下,

  • And, at once enraging and enrapturing,

    凱吉告訴我們就算琴弦不被彈,

  • Cage shows us that even when there are no strings

    鋼琴弦不被敲,

  • being plucked by fingers or hands hammering piano keys,

    音樂還是顯現, 對, 音樂還是顯現。

  • still there is music, still there is music,

    音樂依舊顯現。

  • still there is music.

    所以這首裡面的音樂是什麼呢?

  • And what is this music?

    在遠處有某人打噴嚏。

  • It was that sneeze in the back.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    這首音樂就是觀眾的日常音景:

  • It is the everyday soundscape that arises from the audience themselves:

    咳嗽、歎氣、耳語、 打噴嚏、衣服摩擦之聲音,

  • their coughs, their sighs, their rustles, their whispers, their sneezes,

    屋子、木板牆、木頭地板

  • the room, the wood of the floors and the walls

    因熱脹冷縮發出吱嘎作響的聲音,

  • expanding and contracting, creaking and groaning

    水管劈劈啪啪也來湊一腳。

  • with the heat and the cold,

    雖然此曲充滿爭議性, 而且一直備受爭議,

  • the pipes clanking and contributing.

    凱奇的觀點就是沒有真正的無聲。

  • And controversial though it was, and even controversial though it remains,

    甚至在最無聲的環境中, 我們還是能聽到及感受到

  • Cage's point is that there is no such thing as true silence.

    我們心跳的聲音。

  • Even in the most silent environments, we still hear and feel the sound

    這個世界充滿音樂表達。

  • of our own heartbeats.

    基本上我們一直沉浸在音樂裡。

  • The world is alive with musical expression.

    我自己也有可以說是重混 約翰·凱吉的經驗瞬間。

  • We are already immersed.

    就在幾個月前,

  • Now, I had my own moment of, let's say, remixing John Cage

    我站在爐子前煮著扁豆的時候,

  • a couple of months ago

    那時已經很晚, 可是到了該攪拌的時刻,

  • when I was standing in front of the stove cooking lentils.

    所以我打開鍋蓋,

  • And it was late one night and it was time to stir,

    把蓋子放在旁邊的流理台上,

  • so I lifted the lid off the cooking pot,

    蓋子就滾來滾去

  • and I placed it onto the kitchen counter next to me,

    發出這種聲音。

  • and it started to roll back and forth

    (金屬蓋子碰撞流理台的噹啷聲)

  • making this sound.

    (噹啷聲停止)

  • (Sound of metal lid clanking against a counter)

    我瞬間凍住。

  • (Clanking ends)

    我想:「蓋子搖擺聲 真是好酷好怪!」

  • And it stopped me cold.

    所以在扁豆熟了,也吃完了之後,

  • I thought, "What a weird, cool swing that cooking pan lid has."

    我馬上帶著鍋子到後院的錄音房,

  • So when the lentils were ready and eaten,

    錄出來此曲子。

  • I hightailed it to my backyard studio,

    (音樂,包括蓋子聲音及歌聲)

  • and I made this.

    (音樂停止)

  • (Music, including the sound of the lid, and singing)

    約翰·凱吉沒有意思要告訴音樂家

  • (Music ends)

    將任何背景聲音寫成曲子。

  • Now, John Cage wasn't instructing musicians

    他的意思是,我們周圍環境本身

  • to mine the soundscape for sonic textures to turn into music.

    已經常常產生聲音,

  • He was saying that on its own,

    非常多量、豐沛,

  • the environment is musically generative,

    我們已經被音樂圍繞著。

  • that it is generous, that it is fertile,

    音樂家、音樂研究家、 手術醫生及聽力專家查爾斯·理姆

  • that we are already immersed.

    是約翰霍普金斯大學教授,

  • Musician, music researcher, surgeon and human hearing expert Charles Limb

    他專長研究音樂及腦部。

  • is a professor at Johns Hopkins University

    他也定出一個理論,

  • and he studies music and the brain.

    指出很可能,非常有可能,

  • And he has a theory

    人類聽力系統是為了聽音樂而進化,

  • that it is possible -- it is possible --

    因為這比聽懂語言 這個簡單目的複雜的多。

  • that the human auditory system actually evolved to hear music,

    如果這論點是正確的,

  • because it is so much more complex than it needs to be for language alone.

    意思是我們天生就是要聽音樂的,

  • And if that's true,

    而且我們到處都可以找到音樂,

  • it means that we're hard-wired for music,

    音樂沙漠是不可能存在的,

  • that we can find it anywhere,

    因為我們一直身在音樂綠洲中。

  • that there is no such thing as a musical desert,

    這真是絕妙。

  • that we are permanently hanging out at the oasis,

    我們可以把這些聲音加進創作中, 不過這些已經在演奏了。

  • and that is marvelous.

    他不是告訴我們不要學音樂。

  • We can add to the soundtrack, but it's already playing.

    還是要學音樂,還是要追溯 你的聲音族譜,並享受這場探險。

  • And it doesn't mean don't study music.

    可是有一種聲音族譜 是我們都屬於的。

  • Study music, trace your sonic lineages and enjoy that exploration.

    下次你在尋找打擊樂的靈感時,

  • But there is a kind of sonic lineage to which we all belong.

    就近去聽你的車輪在高速公路上

  • So the next time you are seeking percussion inspiration,

    碾過稀少的凹凸處的聲音;

  • look no further than your tires, as they roll over the unusual grooves

    或者去聽你家右邊的爐頭,

  • of the freeway,

    在打火點燃時

  • or the top-right burner of your stove

    發出的卡嗒聲。

  • and that strange way that it clicks

    要尋找旋律的靈感時,

  • as it is preparing to light.

    就近去聽早晨或傍晚之鳥叫聲,

  • When seeking melodic inspiration,

    或者是強調語音之自然悠揚聲音。

  • look no further than dawn and dusk avian orchestras

    我們是聽眾,也是作曲家,

  • or to the natural lilt of emphatic language.

    我們可用現有的聲音資源。

  • We are the audience and we are the composers

    我們創作,創作,一直創作,

  • and we take from these pieces

    因為知道大自然或語言或音景

  • we are given.

    可以帶來永恆靈感,

  • We make, we make, we make, we make,

    只要我們認真聆聽。

  • knowing that when it comes to nature or language or soundscape,

    感謝大家!

  • there is no end to the inspiration --

    (鼓掌聲)

  • if we are listening.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

As a singer-songwriter,

我身為歌手兼作曲家,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 聲音 語言 鳥類 叫聲 蓋子

【TED】Meklit Hadero:日常聲音的意外之美(日常聲音的意外之美|Meklit Hadero)。 (【TED】Meklit Hadero: The unexpected beauty of everyday sounds (The unexpected beauty of everyday sounds | Meklit Hadero))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字