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  • It's 427 BCE and the worst internal conflict ever to occur

    這是西元前 427 年,也正是古希臘史上發生過

  • in the ancient Greek world is in its fourth year.

    最慘烈的內戰的第四年

  • The Peloponnesian War is being fought

    伯羅奔尼撒戰役正在進行中

  • between the city-states of Athens and Sparta, as well as their allies.

    敵對雙方為雅典城邦和斯巴達城邦,以及他們彼此的盟友

  • The Athenians can't match the formidable Spartan army on land.

    雅典人抵不過斯巴達人強大的陸上部隊

  • So they've abandoned the countryside

    所以他們放棄了鄉間領地

  • and moved inside the walls surrounding their city and port,

    轉而搬入圍繞他們城市和港口的城墻內

  • now provisioned by a superior fleet and extensive maritime empire.

    並且有一支優良的艦隊和廣泛的海上帝國

  • The cramped conditions have taken a toll

    戰爭帶來了一定程度的傷亡

  • and a recent plague wiped out a third of the population.

    近期發生的瘟疫也帶走了三分之一的人口

  • But city life goes on.

    但城市生活依然繼續著

  • Archias and Dexileia live in the center of Athens.

    Archias 和 Dexileia 住在雅典城的中心

  • As a painter of high-class pottery,

    作為一位高級陶器的彩繪師傅

  • Archias is relatively well-off and takes great interest in the city's affairs.

    Archias 相對比較富裕,並且積極於參與城內事務

  • Dexileia, on the other hand, can't participate in politics or own property.

    另一方面, Dexileia 則不能參政或是擁有個人資產

  • The couple are grateful to the gods that three of their four children,

    這對夫婦感謝眾神庇佑他們四個孩子中的三個

  • a son and two daughters,

    一個兒子和兩個女兒

  • have survived past infancy.

    順利活過了幼年期

  • Many parents see daughters as a liability

    多數父母將女兒視為負擔

  • since they require dowries to find husbands.

    因為要嫁女兒必須付嫁妝

  • But Archias is confident that his wealth

    但 Archias 相信他的財富

  • will allow him to make good matches for them without going bankrupt.

    足夠讓他幫女兒找到好人家,而且不會有破產的風險

  • Like many Athenians, the family owns slaves.

    和許多雅典家庭一樣,這個家一樣有奴隸

  • Originally from Thrace, they were captured in war.

    他們是來自 Thrace 的戰俘

  • Thratta does most of the housework and helps raise the children.

    Thratta 負責大多數的家務事還有幫忙照顧小孩

  • Philon is a paidagôgos,

    Philon 則是私人導師

  • who supervises the son's education, teaching him reading and writing.

    負責監督兒子的教育,教導他讀書寫作

  • Archias is up early because there's a meeting of the Ekklêsia,

    Archias 一早就起來了,為的是去參加 Ekklêsia 會議

  • the assembly of citizens,

    也就是公民集會

  • taking place at dawn.

    在黎明時舉辦

  • Before setting out, he burns incense

    出發之前,他先燒了香

  • and pours a libation at the small shrine in the courtyard

    然後倒一小杯奠酒到庭院的小神龕

  • on behalf of his entire household.

    代表全家人祈福

  • Dexileia will remain at home all day, teaching her daughters domestic skills.

    Dexileia 會整天在家,教導女兒操辦家事

  • Later, she'll retire to the inner courtyard for some fresh air.

    晚點她會到中庭喘口氣,呼吸新鮮空氣

  • When Archias arrives at the agora,

    當 Archias 抵達市場

  • the civic and commercial heart of the city,

    也就是城市的商貿中心時

  • he finds the square swarming with his fellow citizens,

    他發現廣場上擠滿了他的公民夥伴們

  • native-born adult males who have completed military training.

    這些都是已經完成軍事訓練的當地成年男子

  • Attached to the central monument is a noticeboard with the meeting's agenda.

    在中央紀念碑上有一個告示板,宣佈今日的集會討論事項

  • Today, there's only one item of discussion:

    今天,只有一件事要討論

  • what to do with the people of Mytilene,

    那就是該如何處置 Mytilene 的人民

  • a city on the island of Lesbos

    Mytilene 是 Lesbos 島上的一座城市

  • where a revolt against Athenian rule has just been put down.

    那裡剛有一陣反抗雅典統領的暴動被平息下來

  • The meeting takes place on a hill west of the acropolis known as the Pnyx.

    集會舉辦在衛城西方一座名叫 Pnyx 的山丘上

  • The word meanstightly packed,"

    Pnyx 一詞有「擁擠」的意味

  • and the crowd of 5,000 citizens makes it clear why.

    不難想象這名字從何而來,因為公民集會的參與者高達五千名

  • The heralds purify the hill by sprinkling its boundary with pig's blood

    傳令官用豬血標示集會界限,同時藉此淨化山丘

  • and call for order.

    然後呼召大家聚集

  • As everyone sits on benches facing the platform,

    當大家坐在面向平台的長凳時

  • the presiding officer opens the meeting with the words:

    主席用一句話來開始這次的會議

  • Tis agoreuein bouleutai?”

    “Tis agoreuein bouleutai?”

  • Who wishes to address the assembly?”

    「誰想上台表達意見?」

  • One by one, citizens speak, some advising mercy, others bent on vengeance.

    一個接一個,公民們開始上台發表,有人建議施與恩惠,其他則支持給予報仇

  • A motion is proposed to execute all the Mytileneans

    其中一項建議是處決所有的 Mytilene 人民

  • and enslave their women and children

    然後奴役他們的婦女和孩童

  • because they betrayed their Athenian allies during a time of war.

    畢竟他們在戰時背叛了他們的雅典盟友

  • A majority raises their right hands in favor.

    大多數人舉起右手表示同意

  • Once the meeting's over, Archias heads back to the agora to buy food and wine.

    一旦會議結束, Archias 返回市場採買食物和酒

  • Hundreds have gathered there to discuss the results,

    上百人聚集在那裡,討論會議的結果

  • many unhappy with the decision.

    其中許多人不滿意最後的決定

  • When Archias returns home, he tells Dexileia about the debate.

    當 Archias 回到家,他和 Dexileia 討論今天會議上的辯論

  • She thinks that killing the innocent as well as the guilty

    她覺得連同罪人一同殺害無辜者

  • is harsh and counterproductive,

    太過嚴厲而且沒什麼好處

  • and tells him as much.

    並且如此告訴他

  • Around dusk, Archias goes to a friend's house for a symposium.

    黃昏時, Archias 前去朋友家參加酒宴

  • The nine men drink wine and discuss the meeting well into the night.

    九個男人聚在一起徹夜喝酒並且討論當天的會議

  • Archias shares his wife's opinion urging mercy, and his friends eventually agree.

    Archias 提出他老婆憐憫人心的意見,最終他的朋友們也都贊同了

  • Before dawn, something unprecedented happens.

    在破曉前,一件前所未有的事情發生了

  • Heralds circulate throughout Athens

    傳令官在雅典人之間穿梭

  • announcing the council has called another meeting.

    宣佈要再舉辦一次會議

  • The second debate is equally heated,

    第二次的討論過程一樣火熱

  • but a new resolution, to execute only the leaders of the revolt,

    但最終決定只處決暴動領導人的動議

  • narrowly passes.

    以些微差距險些通過了

  • Yet there's a problem

    然而還有個問題

  • a ship with orders to carry out the first resolution

    在前一天,船隻已經被發排去

  • was dispatched the previous day.

    執行前一次會議的決定

  • And so another ship quickly sets sail to countermand the order

    所以另一艘船趕緊出發去撤回前一道命令

  • a race of democracy against time.

    這是一場民主和時間的賽跑

It's 427 BCE and the worst internal conflict ever to occur

這是西元前 427 年,也正是古希臘史上發生過

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 會議 雅典 女兒 討論 公民

【TED-ed】當一天古雅典人 (A day in the life of an ancient Athenian - Robert Garland)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 10 日
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