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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: erin wang 審譯者: Audrey Her

  • In 2002, a group of treatment activists met

    2002年 一群為愛滋病治療積極奔走的活躍人士

  • to discuss the early development of the airplane.

    聚在一起討論飛機早期的發展

  • The Wright Brothers, in the beginning of the last century,

    萊特兄弟在上世紀初

  • had for the first time managed

    首次成功實現

  • to make one of those devices fly.

    人工飛行

  • They also had taken out numerous patents

    萊特兄弟還為飛機的核心部件

  • on essential parts of the airplane.

    申報了大量的專利

  • They were not the only ones.

    當時 並非只有萊特兄弟這麼做

  • That was common practice in the industry,

    這種做法在業界普遍存在

  • and those who held patents on airplanes

    而這些飛行器專利的持有者

  • were defending them fiercely

    大力維護自己的專利權

  • and suing competitors left and right.

    對競爭者的任何侵權行為一定控訴到底

  • This actually wasn't so great for the development of the aviation industry,

    實際上這種做法不利於航空工業的發展

  • and this was at a time that in particular the U.S. government

    而當時 美國政府又特別希望

  • was interested in ramping up

    可以大幅提高

  • the production of military airplanes.

    軍用飛機的產量

  • So there was a bit of a conflict there.

    所以矛盾也就出現了

  • The U.S. government decided to take action,

    美國政府決定採取行動

  • and forced those patent holders

    強迫專利持有者

  • to make their patents available to share with others

    將其持有的專利與他人共享

  • to enable the production of airplanes.

    從而實現飛機的量產

  • So what has this

    那麼這兩者

  • got to do with this?

    又是如何產生聯繫的呢?

  • In 2002, Nelson Otwoma, a Kenyan social scientist,

    2002年 一位名叫Nelson Otwona的肯尼亞社會科學家

  • discovered he had HIV and needed access to treatment.

    被發現攜帶HIV病毒 需要接受治療

  • He was told that a cure did not exist.

    醫生告訴他愛滋病是無法治愈的

  • AIDS, he heard, was lethal,

    愛滋病是一種致命的疾病

  • and treatment was not offered. This was at a time

    沒有可以治愈愛滋病的療法 但實際上

  • that treatment actually existed in rich countries.

    當時在富裕的國家治療方法是存在的

  • AIDS had become a chronic disease.

    愛滋病已經變成一種慢性病

  • People in our countries here in Europe, in North America,

    在歐洲在北美 在我們的國家

  • were living with HIV, healthy lives.

    攜帶HIV病毒的人們也可以健康地生活

  • Not so for Nelson. He wasn't rich enough,

    但對於Nelson情況卻不是這樣

  • and not so for his three-year-old son, who he discovered a year later

    Nelson不是有錢人 他三歲的兒子更不是

  • also had HIV.

    在Nelson被診斷出HIV病毒後一年 他的兒子也被查出攜帶HIV

  • Nelson decided to become a treatment activist

    Nelson決定成為一名治療活躍人士

  • and join up with other groups.

    並加入了其他團體

  • In 2002, they were facing a different battle.

    在2002年 他們面臨的是一場不同的戰鬥

  • Prices for ARVs, the drugs needed to treat HIV,

    ARVs是一種用於治療HIV的藥物

  • cost about 12,000 [dollars] per patient per year.

    而當時ARVs的價格高達每名患者每年一萬兩千美元

  • The patents on those drugs were held

    西方的一些製藥公司

  • by a number of Western pharmaceutical companies

    持有這些藥物的專利權

  • that were not necessarily willing

    而這些製藥公司並不太希望

  • to make those patents available.

    將持有的專利與他人共享

  • When you have a patent, you can exclude

    只要持有專利便可以限制他人

  • anyone else from making, from producing or making

    製造或是生產

  • low-cost versions, for example,

    廉價的產品 比如說

  • available of those medications.

    生產廉價的藥品

  • Clearly this led to patent wars breaking out

    很顯然 這種做法觸發了

  • all over the globe.

    全球範圍內的專利戰

  • Luckily, those patents did not exist everywhere.

    幸運的是 這些專利並非無處不在

  • There were countries that did not recognize

    有一些國家 比如像印度

  • pharmaceutical product patents, such as India,

    並不承認醫藥產品專利

  • and Indian pharmaceutical companies

    一些印度製藥公司

  • started to produce so-called generic versions,

    開始生產所謂的

  • low-cost copies of antiretroviral medicines,

    通用版和廉價版的抗逆轉錄藥物

  • and make them available in the developing world,

    並將這些藥物投放到發展中國家

  • and within a year the price had come down

    一年之內 這些藥物的價格便從

  • from 10,000 dollars per patient per year

    每名患者每年一萬美元

  • to 350 dollars per patient per year,

    下降到每名患者每年350美元

  • and today that same triple pill cocktail

    而今天每名愛滋病患者每年只需花費60美元

  • is available for 60 dollars per patient per year,

    便可以接受三聯雞尾酒療法

  • and of course that started to have an enormous effect

    當然 產生的影響是巨大的

  • on the number of people who could afford access

    越來越多的患者

  • to those medicines.

    將能夠負擔起藥物費用

  • Treatment programs became possible,

    有可能接受治療

  • funding became available, and the number of people

    有能力支付費用 並且服用抗逆轉錄藥物患者的

  • on antiretroviral drugs started to increase very rapidly.

    人數開始大幅增長

  • Today, eight million people

    現在有800萬人口

  • have access to antiretroviral drugs.

    能夠拿到抗逆轉錄藥物

  • Thirty-four million are infected with HIV.

    而感染HIV病毒的患者有三千四百萬

  • Never has this number been so high,

    這個數字是前所未有的

  • but actually this is good news,

    但事實上這是好消息

  • because what it means is people stop dying.

    因為這意味著人們的死亡率在降低

  • People who have access to these drugs stop dying.

    能夠獲得藥物治療的人便可免於一死

  • And there's something else.

    除此之外

  • They also stop passing on the virus.

    病毒攜帶者也不會繼續傳染給其他人

  • This is fairly recent science that has shown that.

    最新的科學研究已經表明了這一點

  • What that means is we have the tools

    這就意味著

  • to break the back of this epidemic.

    我們已經有辦法可以抑制愛滋病毒的傳播

  • So what's the problem?

    那麼 問題是什麽呢?

  • Well, things have changed.

    嗯 情況已經變了

  • First of all, the rules have changed.

    首先 規則變了

  • Today, all countries are obliged to provide

    現今 所有國家都必須為藥物申報專利

  • patents for pharmaceuticals that last at least 20 years.

    每項專利的時限最少為20年

  • This is as a result of the intellectual property rules

    世貿組織的知識產權法

  • of the World Trade Organization.

    促成了這一結果

  • So what India did is no longer possible.

    所以 印度的做法不再可行

  • Second, the practice of patent-holding companies have changed.

    其次 持有專利的公司也改變了自己的做法

  • Here you see the patent practices

    這張圖顯示的是 世貿組織出臺知識產權法規之前

  • before the World Trade Organization's rules, before '95,

    也就是1995年之前 抗逆轉錄藥物出現之前

  • before antiretroviral drugs.

    藥物專利申報的情況

  • This is what you see today,

    而這張圖顯示了現在藥物專利的申報情況

  • and this is in developing countries, so what that means is,

    這是在發展中國家 也就意味著

  • unless we do something deliberate

    除非我們能夠慎重考慮

  • and unless we do something now,

    馬上採取一些行動

  • we will very soon be faced with another drug price crisis,

    否則要不了多久就會發現 我們將面臨另一場藥物價格危機

  • because new drugs are developed,

    因為不斷在開發新藥 不斷有新藥投入市場

  • new drugs go to market, but these medicines are patented

    但這些藥物都有專利限制

  • in a much wider range of countries.

    而且這些專利被更多國家認可

  • So unless we act, unless we do something today,

    因此 除非我們現在馬上採取行動

  • we will soon be faced [with] what some have termed

    否則很快我們便將面臨

  • the treatment time bomb.

    一些人所說的治療時間炸彈

  • It isn't only the number of drugs that are patented.

    不僅僅是申報專利藥物的數量

  • There's something else that can really scare

    使得通用製藥商退避三舍

  • generic manufacturers away.

    還有一些其他的因素

  • This shows you a patent landscape.

    從這裡 可以看到專利分佈圖

  • This is the landscape of one medicine.

    這是一種藥物的專利分佈圖

  • So you can imagine that if you are a generic company

    因此 可以想像如果你是一家通用製藥公司

  • about to decide whether to invest

    正要決定是否投資開發一項產品

  • in the development of this product, unless you know

    那麼除非你知道

  • that the licenses to these patents

    確實可以獲得

  • are actually going to be available,

    這項產品的專利許可

  • you will probably choose to do something else.

    否則你可能另有打算

  • Again, deliberate action is needed.

    再次強調 我們必須慎重考慮並採取行動

  • So surely

    因此 可以肯定的是

  • if a patent pool could be established

    如果通過成立一個專利聯盟

  • to ramp up the production of military airplanes,

    可以大幅提升軍用飛機的量產

  • we should be able to do something similar

    那麼我們也應該能夠用類似的方式

  • to tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    解決HIV或愛滋病毒的傳播

  • And we did.

    我們確實做到了

  • In 2010, UNITAID established the Medicines Patent Pool

    2010年 國際藥品採購機制(UNITAID)成立了

  • for HIV.

    HIV藥物專利聯盟

  • And this is how it works:

    它的運作方式是這樣的

  • Patent holders, inventors

    研發新藥物的專利持有者 藥物發明者

  • that develop new medicines

    為新發明的藥物

  • patent those inventions,

    申報專利

  • but make those patents available

    但向藥物專利聯盟開放這些新藥物的專利許可權

  • to the Medicines Patent Pool. The Medicines Patent Pool

    藥物專利聯盟再將這些專利許可權

  • then license those out to whoever needs access to those patents.

    授權給任何有需要的人

  • That can be generic manufacturers.

    可能是通用製藥商

  • It can also be not-for-profit drug development agencies,

    也可能是非盈營利藥物開發機構

  • for example.

    等等

  • Those manufacturers can then sell those medicines

    然後這些製藥商便能夠以極低的價格

  • at much lower cost to people who need access to them,

    向有需要的人和治療計劃

  • to treatment programs that need access to them.

    出售這些藥物

  • They pay royalties over the sales to the patent holders,

    通過銷售營利 他們向專利持有者支付版權費用

  • so they are remunerated for sharing their intellectual property.

    因此專利持有者也因為 分享自己的知識產權獲得報酬

  • There is one key difference

    這與飛機專利聯盟

  • with the airplane patent pool.

    唯一不同的地方在於

  • The Medicines Patent Pool is a voluntary mechanism.

    藥物專利聯盟是一個自發的機制

  • The airplane patent holders were not left a choice

    飛機專利持有者並沒有選擇的餘地

  • whether they'd license their patents or not.

    無論是否願意

  • They were forced to do so.

    他們都不得不授權自己的專利

  • That is something that the Medicines Patent Pool cannot do.

    藥物專利聯盟沒有權力強迫任何人

  • It relies on the willingness of pharmaceutical companies

    完全依賴製藥公司的自願自發

  • to license their patents and make them available

    向他人授權自己的專利權

  • for others to use.

    為他人所用

  • Today, Nelson Otwoma is healthy.

    今天 Nelson Otwoma可以健康地生活

  • He has access to antiretroviral drugs.

    他能夠接受抗逆轉錄藥物的治療

  • His son will soon be 14 years old.

    他的兒子也馬上要14歲了

  • Nelson is a member of the expert advisory group

    Nelson是藥物專利聯盟

  • of the Medicines Patent Pool,

    專家顧問團的一員

  • and he told me not so long ago,

    不久前他曾告訴我

  • "Ellen, we rely in Kenya and in many other countries

    “Ellen 在肯尼亞以及許多其他的國家

  • on the Medicines Patent Pool to make sure

    我們全都依賴藥物專利聯盟

  • that new medicines also become available to us,

    確保我們能夠獲得新藥

  • that new medicines, without delay, become available to us."

    確保我們能夠及時地獲得新藥物”

  • And this is no longer fantasy.

    這已經不再是空想

  • Already, I'll give you an example.

    這已經是現實 我和大家分享一個實例

  • In August of this year, the United States drug agency

    今年8月 美國藥品局

  • approved a new four-in-one AIDS medication.

    批准了一個新的四合一愛滋病藥物

  • The company, Gilead, that holds the patents,

    擁有該藥物專利權的Gilead公司

  • has licensed the intellectual property to the Medicines Patent Pool.

    已經向藥物專利聯盟授權該專利的使用許可

  • The pool is already working today, two months later,

    今天 僅僅兩個月後 聯盟已經在和通用製藥商合作

  • with generic manufacturers to make sure that this product

    確保這個產品

  • can go to market at low cost

    可以最低的成本 在需要的時刻地點

  • where and when it is needed. This is unprecedented.

    投放市場 這是前所未有的

  • This has never been done before.

    以前從未發生過

  • The rule is about a 10-year delay for a new product

    在以前 一劑新藥面世後通常需要十年的時間

  • to go to market in developing countries, if at all.

    才能投放發展中國家市場

  • This has never been seen before.

    以前從未有過

  • Nelson's expectations are very high,

    Nelson有非常高的期望

  • and quite rightly so. He and his son will need access

    也是理所當然的 他和他的兒子這終其一生中都需要

  • to the next generation of antiretrovirals

    下一代以及再下一代更新的

  • and the next, throughout their lifetime,

    抗逆轉錄藥物

  • so that he and many others in Kenya and other countries

    這樣他和許許多多生活在肯尼亞和其他國家的人們

  • can continue to live healthy, active lives.

    才能夠健康積極地生活下去

  • Now we count on the willingness of drug companies

    現在 我們依賴的是藥物公司的自願自發

  • to make that happen. We count on those companies

    我們依賴的是這些藥物公司能夠明白

  • that understand that it is in the interest, not only in the interest

    由對立轉向協作

  • of the global good, but also in their own interest,

    這不僅僅是符合全球利益的

  • to move from conflict to collaboration,

    也是符合他們自身利益的

  • and through the Medicines Patent Pool they can make that happen.

    通過藥物專利聯盟 這一切都有可能實現

  • They can also choose not to do that,

    當然他們也可以選擇不合作

  • but those that go down that road may end up

    但是可能會落得

  • in a similar situation the Wright brothers ended up with

    上世紀初萊特兄弟一樣的下場

  • early last century, facing forcible measures

    政府將會採取強制措施

  • by government. So they'd better jump now.

    所以 最好還是現在就行動

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝(掌聲)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

譯者: erin wang 審譯者: Audrey Her

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 專利 藥物 聯盟 申報 治療

【TED】Ellen 't Hoen:彙集醫療專利,拯救生命(Ellen't Hoen:彙集醫療專利,拯救生命)。 (【TED】Ellen 't Hoen: Pool medical patents, save lives (Ellen 't Hoen: Pool medical patents, save lives))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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