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  • Translator: Morton Bast Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha

    譯者: Jefferson Wang 審譯者: Geoff Chen

  • It's time to start designing for our ears.

    是時候開始為我們的耳朵而設計了(聽覺)。

  • Architects and designers tend to focus

    建築師與設計師們似乎有個趨勢

  • exclusively on these.

    都專注設計給這個 - (眼睛,視覺)。

  • They use these to design with and they design for them,

    他們以視覺為考量去設計出一些只著重視覺觀感的設計,

  • which is why we end up sitting in restaurants that look

    這也是為什麼餐廳看起來像這樣

  • like this — (loud crowd noise) — and sound like this,

    但聽起來卻是這樣(吵雜聲),

  • shouting from a foot away to try and be heard

    必須大聲說話,試圖讓距離一尺外

  • by our dinner companion,

    共進晚餐的朋友聽見,

  • or why we get on airplanes -- (flight attendant announcements) -- which cost 200 million pounds,

    又或者為什麼在造價 2 億的飛機上 (空服員廣播聲)

  • with somebody talking through an old-fashioned telephone handset

    卻聽到這樣經由老式話筒接收

  • on a cheap stereo system,

    再由廉價的立體聲系統傳出的廣播,

  • making us jump out of our skins.

    十分令人感到不舒服。

  • We're designing environments that make us crazy. (Laughter)

    我們正設計些會讓我們發瘋的環境。 (笑聲)

  • And it's not just our quality of life which suffers.

    這不只是降低我們的生活品質。

  • It's our health,

    我們的健康,

  • our social behavior, and our productivity as well.

    我們的社會行為以及我們的生產力都會受到影響。

  • How does this work? Well, two ways.

    這是為什麼呢? 原因可分為兩方面。

  • First of all, ambience. I have a whole TEDTalk about this.

    首先,週遭環境。 這部份在我另一個 TED 演講中有較完整的說明。

  • Sound affects us physiologically, psychologically,

    聲音無時無刻都影響著我們的生理、心理、

  • cognitively and behaviorally all the time.

    我們的認知以及我們的行為。

  • The sound around us is affecting us

    即使我們沒有意識到,

  • even though we're not conscious of it.

    我們周圍的聲音還是影響著我們。

  • There's a second way though, as well.

    再來就是第二方面 - 干擾。

  • That's interference. Communication requires sending

    溝通必須有傳送以及接收,

  • and receiving, and I have another whole TEDTalk

    這我也在另一個 TED 演講中講到

  • about the importance of conscious listening,

    有意識的聆聽的重要性,

  • but I can send as well as I like,

    但即使我可以好好把訊息傳遞出去

  • and you can be brilliant conscious listeners.

    而你也做為一個很好的有意識的聆聽者,

  • If the space I'm sending it in is not effective,

    只要我們所處的空間環境不理想

  • that communication can't happen.

    就無法有效地溝通。

  • Spaces tend to include noise and acoustics.

    空間包括噪音以及音響效果。

  • A room like this has acoustics, this one very good acoustics.

    像這個場地有很好的音響效果。

  • Many rooms are not so good.

    很多其他場地的音響效果就沒這麼好了。

  • Let me give you some examples from a couple of areas

    讓我舉幾個例子來說 --

  • which I think we all care about: health and education.

    我想這是大家都關心的領域:健康和教育。

  • (Hospital noises) When I was visiting my terminally ill father

    (醫院的噪音) 當我到醫院探望我病危的父親時

  • in a hospital, I was asking myself,

    我問了自己一個問題 --

  • how does anybody get well in a place that sounds like this?

    人們怎麼能在這樣的環境中康復呢?

  • Hospital sound is getting worse all the time.

    醫院的噪音愈來愈嚴重。

  • Noise levels in hospitals have doubled

    在過去幾年醫院的噪音程度翻了一倍,

  • in the last few years, and it affects not just the patients

    這不只是影響病人,

  • but also the people working there.

    也影響到在醫院工作的人。

  • I think we would like for dispensing errors to be zero,

    我們都希望配藥出錯率為零

  • wouldn't we? And yet, as noise levels go up, so do

    不是嗎? 然而隨著噪音程度的上升,

  • the errors in dispensing made by the staff in hospitals.

    醫院員工的配藥出錯率也會上升。

  • Most of all, though, it affects the patients,

    首當其衝的還是病人,

  • and that could be you, it could be me.

    而這可能會是你也可能會是我。

  • Sleep is absolutely crucial for recovery.

    睡眠是康復過程中最重要的一環。

  • It's when we regenerate, when we rebuild ourselves,

    是我們再生、自我復原的時候,

  • and with threatening noise like this going on,

    然而在這種吵雜的環境下

  • your body, even if you are able to sleep, your body

    就算你可以睡得著,你的身體也會告訴你

  • is telling you, "I'm under threat. This is dangerous."

    「我正受到威脅、這裡是危險的。」

  • And the quality of sleep is degraded, and so is our recovery.

    於是睡眠的品質下降了,康復的速度也下降了。

  • There are just huge benefits to come

    以聽覺的角度進行設計

  • from designing for the ears in our health care.

    只會為我們的醫療保健帶來極大的益處。

  • This is an area I intend to take on this year.

    這是我今年打算涉及的領域:

  • Education.

    教育。

  • When I see a classroom that looks like this,

    當我看到像這樣的教室,

  • can you imagine how this sounds?

    你能想像上課聽起來怎樣嗎?

  • I am forced to ask myself a question.

    我不禁問自己一個問題:

  • ("Do architects have ears?") (Laughter)

    (「建築師們有耳朵嗎?」) (笑聲)

  • Now, that's a little unfair. Some of my best friends

    這樣說有點不公平,畢竟我有一些摯友就是建築師,

  • are architects. (Laughter) And they definitely do have ears.

    (笑聲) 而他們也都有耳朵。

  • But I think sometimes they don't use them

    但我覺得有時候他們在設計時並沒有考量到耳朵的部份。

  • when they're designing buildings. Here's a case in point.

    這就是個實際的例子。

  • This is a 32-million-pound flagship academy school

    這是一所耗資 3200 萬英鎊的旗艦學校,

  • which was built quite recently in the U.K. and designed

    最近剛在英國落成

  • by one of Britain's top architects.

    而且是由一位英國頂尖的建築師設計的。

  • Unfortunately, it was designed like a corporate

    不幸的是,它被設計的像個企業總部,

  • headquarters, with a vast central atrium

    有個大型的中庭,

  • and classrooms leading off it with no back walls at all.

    然後教室緊接著中庭而且沒有背牆。

  • The children couldn't hear their teachers.

    孩子們根本聽不到老師在講什麼。

  • They had to go back in and spend 600,000 pounds

    後來只好又花了 60 萬英鎊加建背牆。

  • putting the walls in. Let's stop this madness

    請停止這種開放式教室瘋狂的設計吧!

  • of open plan classrooms right now, please.

    拜託,請立刻停止吧!

  • It's not just these modern buildings which suffer.

    不只這種新式設計有問題,

  • Old-fashioned classrooms suffer too.

    舊式的教室也有這種問題。

  • A study in Florida just a few years ago found

    在一個佛羅里達州沒幾年前的研究發現

  • that if you're sitting where this photograph was taken

    如果你坐在拍攝這張照片的地方 -- 第四排,

  • in the classroom, row four, speech intelligibility

    語言的辨別理解度

  • is just 50 percent.

    僅剩下 50%。

  • Children are losing one word in two.

    孩子們只能聽到一半的內容。

  • Now that doesn't mean they only get half their education,

    當然這不代表他們只接受到一半的教育,

  • but it does mean they have to work very hard

    但卻表示他們必須花更多心力

  • to join the dots and understand what's going on.

    把前後連貫才有辦法理解內容。

  • This is affected massively by reverberation time,

    這絕大部分是受到回響的時間影響,

  • how reverberant a room is.

    看這個空間的回響程度而定。

  • In a classroom with a reverberation time of 1.2 seconds,

    在一個回響時間 1.2 秒的教室中 -- 這是很常見的情況,

  • which is pretty common, this is what it sounds like.

    聲音聽起來是像這樣的。

  • (Inaudible echoing voice)

    (無法辨別、有回響的語音)

  • Not so good, is it?

    不是很好,對吧?

  • If you take that 1.2 seconds down to 0.4 seconds

    如果藉由裝設一些改善音響效果的裝置、

  • by installing acoustic treatments, sound absorbing materials

    吸音材料等,將回響時間由 1.2 秒降到 0.4 秒,

  • and so forth, this is what you get.

    可以得到這樣的結果。

  • Voice: In language, infinitely many words can be written

    語音:在語言中,由一小組的字母

  • with a small set of letters. In arithmetic,

    就可以寫出無限多的詞彙。

  • infinitely many numbers can be composed

    在數學中,由幾個數字再加上 "0"

  • from just a few digits with the help of the simple zero.

    就可以組合成無限多個數值。

  • Julian Treasure: What a difference.

    Julian Treasure: 如此大的差異。

  • Now that education you would receive,

    這樣的教育你就可以接收到了。

  • and thanks to the British acoustician Adrian James

    剛才的情況模擬是由英國聲學專家 Adrian James 所提供。

  • for those simulations. The signal was the same,

    在剛才的兩個情況中,

  • the background noise was the same.

    聲音訊號以及背景噪音都沒有變動。

  • All that changed was the acoustics of the classroom

    唯一改變的就只有

  • in those two examples.

    教室的音響效果。

  • If education can be likened to watering a garden,

    如果把教育比喻作在花園澆水 -- 這是蠻合理的比喻,

  • which is a fair metaphor, sadly, much of the water

    很遺憾的,大部分的水分

  • is evaporating before it reaches the flowers,

    在澆到花之前就蒸發掉了,

  • especially for some groups,

    這情形對某些類別的人更是如此,

  • for example, those with hearing impairment.

    例如: 聽力受損的人。

  • Now that's not just deaf children. That could be any child

    這不只是指失聰的孩子,還包括感冒、

  • who's got a cold, glue ear, an ear infection,

    漿液性中耳炎、耳道感染甚至花粉症的孩子。

  • even hay fever. On a given day, one in eight children

    任一天,每八個孩子就有一個

  • fall into that group, on any given day.

    是以上這個類別的人。

  • Then you have children for whom English is a second language,

    再加上英語為第二語言的孩子

  • or whatever they're being taught in is a second language.

    或是以任何第二語言學習的孩子。

  • In the U.K., that's more than 10 percent of the school population.

    在英國就有超過 10% 的孩子是如此。

  • And finally, after Susan Cain's wonderful TEDTalk in February,

    最後,在聽過 Susan Cain 在二月份精彩的 TED 演講之後,

  • we know that introverts find it very difficult to relate

    我們知道生性內向的人很難在吵雜的環境中

  • when they're in a noisy environment doing group work.

    在團體作業中取得共鳴。

  • Add those up. That is a lot of children

    以上這些加總起來。實在很多孩子

  • who are not receiving their education properly.

    都沒有確實地接受到完整的教育。

  • It's not just the children who are affected, though.

    然而,不只是孩子們受到影響。

  • (Noisy conversation) This study in Germany found

    (吵雜的對話聲) 這個在德國的研究發現

  • the average noise level in classrooms is 65 decibels.

    教室中平均的噪音程度是 65 分貝。

  • I have to really raise my voice to talk over 65 decibels

    我必須提高我的音量才有辦法在 65 分貝的環境中被聽到,

  • of sound, and teachers are not just raising their voices.

    而老師們也不只是提高他們的音量。

  • This chart maps the teacher's heart rate

    這個圖表對照出老師的心跳速率

  • against the noise level.

    跟噪音程度的關係。

  • Noise goes up, heart rate goes up.

    噪音程度提升時心跳速率也會上升。

  • That is not good for you.

    這對身體是不好的。

  • In fact, 65 decibels is the very level at which this big survey

    事實上,在這個噪音與健康的研究中也指出,

  • of all the evidence on noise and health found that, that is

    65 分貝也正好是噪音誘發心肌梗塞

  • the threshold for the danger of myocardial infarction.

    的閾值 (臨界值)。

  • To you and me, that's a heart attack.

    對你我來說,就是指心臟病。

  • It may not be pushing the boat out too far to suggest

    我們甚至可以說,老師們

  • that many teachers are losing significant life expectancy

    每天在這樣的環境中教學

  • by teaching in environments like that day after day.

    就是在縮短他們的壽命。

  • What does it cost to treat a classroom

    把教室的回響時間降到 0.4 秒

  • down to that 0.4-second reverberation time?

    到底要花多少錢呢?

  • Two and a half thousand pounds.

    2,500 英鎊。

  • And the Essex study which has just been done in the U.K.,

    剛在英國艾塞克斯 (Essex) 完成的一個研究指出,

  • which incidentally showed that when you do this,

    這樣的改造不只是

  • you do not just make a room that's suitable

    創造一個更適合那些聽力受損孩子的環境,

  • for hearing-impaired children, you make a room

    更可以顯著提升孩子們的

  • where behavior improves, and results improve significantly,

    行為表現以及學習成效。

  • this found that sending a child out of area to a school

    研究也指出,如果學校沒有這樣的教室環境

  • that does have such a room, if you don't have one,

    而把孩子送到別區中有這樣教室環境的學校,

  • costs 90,000 pounds a year.

    每年需花費 90,000 英鎊。

  • I think the economics are pretty clear on this.

    我想,這從經濟的角度來看也很清楚了吧。

  • I'm glad that debate is happening on this.

    我很高興人們開始思考、討論這個議題。

  • I just moderated a major conference in London

    幾個禮拜前我在倫敦 (London) 主持了一個

  • a few weeks ago called Sound Education,

    大型會議,主題是「聲音教育」,

  • which brought together top acousticians,

    吸引了許多頂尖聲學專家、

  • government people, teachers, and so forth.

    政府人員及老師等來參與。

  • We're at last starting to debate this issue, and the benefits

    我們終於開始探討這個議題,

  • that are available for designing for the ears in education,

    而在教育的部份,為耳朵 (聽覺) 的設計所帶來益處

  • unbelievable.

    是非常驚人的。

  • Out of that conference, incidentally, also came

    這場會議也偶然地帶來了一款免費的程式,

  • a free app which is designed to help children study

    專門設計來幫助孩子

  • if they're having to work at home, for example,

    在家裡吵雜的環境中 (如廚房)

  • in a noisy kitchen.

    學習。

  • And that's free out of that conference.

    這套軟體是免費的。

  • Let's broaden the perspective a little bit

    讓我們放寬我們的焦點

  • and look at cities.

    看到了城市。

  • We have urban planners.

    我們有都市計劃的人員。

  • Where are the urban sound planners?

    那都市聲音規劃的人員呢?

  • I don't know of one in the world, and the opportunity is there

    我從未遇到過一個,而我們也確實有這個機會

  • to transform our experience in our cities.

    可以改善居住在都市中的經驗品質。

  • The World Health Organization estimates

    世界衛生組織 (WHO) 估計

  • that a quarter of Europe's population is having its sleep

    有 1/4 歐洲人口因為都市的噪音導致睡眠品質的下降。

  • degraded by noise in cities. We can do better than that.

    這都是我們可以改善的。

  • And in our offices, we spend a lot of time at work.

    又例如我們的辦公室,我們花很多時間在那工作。

  • Where are the office sound planners?

    那辦公室聲音規劃的人員呢?

  • People who say, don't sit that team next to this team,

    有人會說,不要把這兩組人排在一起

  • because they like noise and they need quiet.

    因為一組喜歡喧鬧另一組喜歡安靜。

  • Or who say, don't spend all your budget on a huge screen

    也有人會說,不要把預算全部

  • in the conference room,

    花在會議室的大螢幕然後

  • and then place one tiny microphone

    只在 30 人的會議桌中央

  • in the middle of a table for 30 people. (Laughter)

    裝設一支小小的麥克風。 (笑聲)

  • If you can hear me, you can understand me

    如果你可以聽清楚我說的話,不需要看到我就可以

  • without seeing me. If you can see me without hearing me,

    了解我想表達的事情。但如果你只看的到我卻聽不到,

  • that does not work.

    這是沒有用的。

  • So office sound is a huge area, and incidentally,

    所以我們知道辦公室的聲音效果很重要,

  • noise in offices has been shown to make people

    湊巧的是,辦公室的噪音也讓人變得冷漠、

  • less helpful, less enjoy their teamwork,

    變得較無法享受團隊工作的樂趣

  • and less productive at work.

    以及使生產力下降。

  • Finally, we have homes. We use interior designers.

    最後,看到我們的居家環境。我們有室內設計師。

  • Where are the interior sound designers?

    但室內聲音規劃的人員呢?

  • Hey, let's all be interior sound designers,

    讓我們都來做室內聲音的規劃吧,

  • take on listening to our rooms and designing sound

    讓我們開始聆聽我們的房間並設計一個讓聲音可以

  • that's effective and appropriate.

    適當、有效地傳遞的空間吧。

  • My friend Richard Mazuch, an architect in London,

    我的朋友 Richard Mazuch,一名倫敦的建築師,

  • coined the phrase "invisible architecture."

    創造了一個詞「隱形的建築設計」。

  • I love that phrase.

    我太愛這個詞了。

  • It's about designing, not appearance, but experience,

    它是指關注實際體驗、感受的設計而非只注重外表,

  • so that we have spaces that sound as good as they look,

    這樣才能讓空間的視覺效果跟聽覺效果兼具,

  • that are fit for purpose, that improve our quality of life,

    讓空間可以符合規劃的用途、提升我們的生活品質及健康、

  • our health and well being, our social behavior

    提升我們的社會行為

  • and our productivity.

    以及我們的生產力。

  • It's time to start designing for the ears.

    是時候開始為我們的耳朵而設計了(聽覺)。

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝。(掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝。(掌聲)

Translator: Morton Bast Reviewer: Thu-Huong Ha

譯者: Jefferson Wang 審譯者: Geoff Chen

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 噪音 教室 設計 孩子 環境

【TED】朱利安寶藏:建築師為什麼要用耳朵(朱利安寶藏:建築師為什麼要用耳朵? (【TED】Julian Treasure: Why architects need to use their ears (Julian Treasure: Why architects need to use their ears))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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