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  • The oceans cover some 70 percent of our planet.

    譯者: Joan Liu 審譯者: Ya-Chun Chuang

  • And I think Arthur C. Clarke probably had it right

    海洋覆蓋地球表面七成多。

  • when he said that perhaps we ought to call our planet

    而且我認為亞瑟·克拉克 極可能是對的

  • Planet Ocean.

    他說也許我們應該叫地球

  • And the oceans are hugely productive,

    「海行星」

  • as you can see by the satellite image

    海洋是非常具有生產力的,

  • of photosynthesis, the production of new life.

    就像你們可以在這個衛星圖看到的光合作用,

  • In fact, the oceans produce half of the new life every day on Earth

    也就是生命新生。

  • as well as about half the oxygen that we breathe.

    事實上,地球每天的新生命超過一半是來自海洋,

  • In addition to that, it harbors a lot of the biodiversity on Earth,

    海洋亦產出約我們吸進氧氣的一半。

  • and much of it we don't know about.

    此外,海洋中還包含很多各式各樣的生物,

  • But I'll tell you some of that today.

    且很多生物仍然是不為我們所知的。

  • That also doesn't even get into the whole protein extraction

    但我今天會告訴你們其中的一部分。

  • that we do from the ocean.

    那甚至不包括我們從海洋裡所做的整個

  • That's about 10 percent of our global needs

    蛋白質萃取部份。

  • and 100 percent of some island nations.

    那大約是全球需求的百分之十,

  • If you were to descend

    且是某些海島國家需求的百分之百。

  • into the 95 percent of the biosphere that's livable,

    如果你深入

  • it would quickly become pitch black,

    95%生物存活的地方,

  • interrupted only by pinpoints of light

    你會馬上發現那裡一片漆黑,

  • from bioluminescent organisms.

    只有一些從螢光生物身上

  • And if you turn the lights on,

    所發出的微弱光芒。

  • you might periodically see spectacular organisms swim by,

    如果你把燈打開,

  • because those are the denizens of the deep,

    你有時也許可以看到一些很壯觀的生物游過,

  • the things that live in the deep ocean.

    因為那些是處在深處的居住者

  • And eventually, the deep sea floor would come into view.

    屬於住在深海的生物。

  • This type of habitat covers more of the Earth's surface

    最後,海底會進入眼簾。

  • than all other habitats combined.

    這種棲地在地球表面的面積

  • And yet, we know more about the surface of the Moon and about Mars

    比任何其它棲地加起來還多。

  • than we do about this habitat,

    直到目前為止,我們瞭解月球和火星表面

  • despite the fact that we have yet to extract

    比我們瞭解這種棲地還多。

  • a gram of food, a breath of oxygen or a drop of water

    即使我們仍未從那些星球上取得

  • from those bodies.

    任何一份食物、一口氧氣,

  • And so 10 years ago,

    或是一滴水。

  • an international program began called the Census of Marine Life,

    所以十年前,

  • which set out to try and improve our understanding

    一個叫作「海底生物調查」的全球性研究開始了,

  • of life in the global oceans.

    這個研究試圖加深我們對

  • It involved 17 different projects around the world.

    地球海洋生物的瞭解。

  • As you can see, these are the footprints of the different projects.

    這個計畫包括了17個子計畫。

  • And I hope you'll appreciate the level of global coverage

    如你所見,這是各個計畫的分布圖。

  • that it managed to achieve.

    我希望你們可以了解這個研究

  • It all began when two scientists, Fred Grassle and Jesse Ausubel,

    涵蓋的範圍之廣。

  • met in Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    這一切都從Fred Grassle和Jesse Ausubel這兩個科學家

  • where both were guests at the famed oceanographic institute.

    在麻省海洋機構的Woods Hole

  • And Fred was lamenting the state of marine biodiversity

    做客時相遇開始的,

  • and the fact that it was in trouble and nothing was being done about it.

    當Fred正在感歎海洋生物

  • Well, from that discussion grew this program

    事實上已經面臨危機而且沒有任何實行的解決措施時。

  • that involved 2,700 scientists

    這個計畫就是從那次討論開始實行

  • from more than 80 countries around the world

    包含了來自全球超過

  • who engaged in 540 ocean expeditions

    80個國家的2,700個科學家,

  • at a combined cost of 650 million dollars

    研究540個海域,

  • to study the distribution, diversity and abundance

    經費超過六億五千萬元,

  • of life in the global ocean.

    來研究全球海裡生物的分布、

  • And so what did we find?

    多樣性、和豐富性。

  • We found spectacular new species,

    所以我們找到什麼呢?

  • the most beautiful and visually stunning things everywhere we looked --

    我們發現許多令人嘆為觀止的新物種,

  • from the shoreline to the abyss,

    比我們看過的任何生物都更美麗驚艷。

  • form microbes all the way up to fish and everything in between.

    從海岸線到深海,

  • And the limiting step here wasn't the unknown diversity of life,

    包含從微生物一路到魚類等。

  • but rather the taxonomic specialists

    而這之中的限速步驟並不是未知的生物多樣性,

  • who can identify and catalog these species

    而是分類學家

  • that became the limiting step.

    試圖鑑定並分類這些物種,

  • They, in fact, are an endangered species themselves.

    這才是限速步驟。

  • There are actually four to five new species

    他們,事實上,就是一種面臨絕種的物種。

  • described everyday for the oceans.

    每天事實上大約有四到五個新物種

  • And as I say, it could be a much larger number.

    在海洋中被發現。

  • Now, I come from Newfoundland in Canada --

    如我所說的,還可以是個更大的數字。

  • It's an island off the east coast of that continent --

    我來自加拿大的紐芬蘭,

  • where we experienced one of the worst fishing disasters

    那是一個位於大陸東邊海岸的島嶼,

  • in human history.

    也是我們的歷史上其中一個遭遇過

  • And so this photograph shows a small boy next to a codfish.

    嚴重濫捕的地方。

  • It's around 1900.

    可以看到這張照片有個小男孩在一條鱈魚旁邊。

  • Now, when I was a boy of about his age,

    大約是19世紀左右。

  • I would go out fishing with my grandfather

    當我跟這個小男孩大概一樣大的時候,

  • and we would catch fish about half that size.

    我會跟我祖父去釣魚,

  • And I thought that was the norm,

    然後我們會抓到只有這張照片尺寸一半的魚。

  • because I had never seen fish like this.

    而我當時認為那是很正常的,

  • If you were to go out there today, 20 years after this fishery collapsed,

    因為我從來沒有看過這樣大的魚。

  • if you could catch a fish, which would be a bit of a challenge,

    在漁業瓦解二十年後的今天,如果你再去釣魚,

  • it would be half that size still.

    如果你可以順利抓到一隻魚,這是有點挑戰的,

  • So what we're experiencing is something called shifting baselines.

    那隻魚的大小也會是我當時釣魚的一半。

  • Our expectations of what the oceans can produce

    所以我們正在經歷的是一個叫做變換底線的過程。

  • is something that we don't really appreciate

    我們期待在海裡可以產生的東西

  • because we haven't seen it in our lifetimes.

    是一個我們無法真正體會的事情,

  • Now most of us, and I would say me included,

    因為我們從未在我們的一生中看過。

  • think that human exploitation of the oceans

    現在大部份的人們,也包括我,

  • really only became very serious

    會認為人類對海洋的浩劫

  • in the last 50 to, perhaps, 100 years or so.

    大約是在過去50年、100年或更早

  • The census actually tried to look back in time,

    才開始嚴重起來的。

  • using every source of information they could get their hands on.

    這個調查試圖利用所有能找到的資訊

  • And so anything from restaurant menus

    來回溯過去的時間點。

  • to monastery records to ships' logs

    因此他們從餐廳菜單

  • to see what the oceans looked like.

    到修道院的船行紀錄,

  • Because science data really goes back

    來瞭解當時海洋的情形。

  • to, at best, World War II, for the most part.

    因為科學數據大部分至多回溯到

  • And so what they found, in fact,

    第二次世界大戰。

  • is that exploitation really began heavily with the Romans.

    而他們發現事實上

  • And so at that time, of course, there was no refrigeration.

    從羅馬時期漁業濫捕就開始嚴重了。

  • So fishermen could only catch

    在那個年代,冰箱還不存在。

  • what they could either eat or sell that day.

    所以漁人只會抓

  • But the Romans developed salting.

    他們當天可以賣掉或吃掉的量。

  • And with salting,

    但羅馬人發明出醃漬法。

  • it became possible to store fish and to transport it long distances.

    有了醃漬法,

  • And so began industrial fishing.

    存放及長途漁獲運輸變成可行了。

  • And so these are the sorts of extrapolations that we have

    因此開啟了工業漁業。

  • of what sort of loss we've had

    這些是我們目前的推斷,

  • relative to pre-human impacts on the ocean.

    根據早期人類對海洋的衝擊

  • They range from 65 to 98 percent

    牽連到我們現在的損失。

  • for these major groups of organisms,

    他們將百分之65到98的受到危害的

  • as shown in the dark blue bars.

    主要生物族群

  • Now for those species the we managed to leave alone, that we protect --

    用深藍色長條顯示。

  • for example, marine mammals in recent years and sea birds --

    然後那些我們已經開始維護的物種,

  • there is some recovery.

    以近年來的海洋哺乳動物和海鳥來說,

  • So it's not all hopeless.

    開始有復原的跡象。

  • But for the most part, we've gone from salting to exhausting.

    所以也不是完全沒有希望。

  • Now this other line of evidence is a really interesting one.

    但其他絕大部份,我們已經歷了大量醃漬到資源枯竭。

  • It's from trophy fish caught off the coast of Florida.

    現在另一個證據是非常有趣的。

  • And so this is a photograph from the 1950s.

    這是在佛羅里達海岸捕捉到的漁獲。

  • I want you to notice the scale on the slide,

    這是1950年代的照片。

  • because when you see the same picture from the 1980s,

    我要你們注意旁邊的比例尺,

  • we see the fish are much smaller

    因為當我們看1980年代的相同照片時,

  • and we're also seeing a change

    我們可以看到魚明顯地變小,

  • in terms of the composition of those fish.

    且我們也看到

  • By 2007, the catch was actually laughable

    魚的結構有些不同。

  • in terms of the size for a trophy fish.

    到了2007,這些漁獲的大小

  • But this is no laughing matter.

    已經有點可笑了。

  • The oceans have lost a lot of their productivity

    但這並不是件好笑的事。

  • and we're responsible for it.

    海洋已經喪失了很大部份的生產力,

  • So what's left? Actually quite a lot.

    且我們得為此負責。

  • There's a lot of exciting things, and I'm going to tell you a little bit about them.

    接下來談什麼?事實上還有很多可以聊。

  • And I want to start with a bit on technology,

    而且我要來跟你們聊一點關於這些計畫的趣事。

  • because, of course, this is a TED Conference

    我要從科技面來開始談,

  • and you want to hear something on technology.

    因為這是TED會議,

  • So one of the tools that we use to sample the deep ocean

    你們自然會想要聽到一些關於科技的東西。

  • are remotely operated vehicles.

    我們用來採集深海樣本

  • So these are tethered vehicles we lower down to the sea floor

    的其中一種工具是遙控汽車。

  • where they're our eyes and our hands for working on the sea bottom.

    我們將這些綁在一起的運載工具降到海床,

  • So a couple of years ago, I was supposed to go on an oceanographic cruise

    讓他們成為我們在海底工作的雙眼和雙手。

  • and I couldn't go because of a scheduling conflict.

    像幾年前,我原本要去一趟海洋地質之旅,

  • But through a satellite link I was able to sit at my study at home

    但因為時間上調度的問題無法參加。

  • with my dog curled up at my feet, a cup of tea in my hand,

    但透過一個衛星連結,我可以坐在我家書房繼續我的研究。

  • and I could tell the pilot, "I want a sample right there."

    我的狗就盤在我的腳邊,手上還拿著一杯茶,

  • And that's exactly what the pilot did for me.

    跟艦長說:「我要這裡的樣本。」

  • That's the sort of technology that's available today

    艦長就會完全照做。

  • that really wasn't available even a decade ago.

    這是現今才有的科技,

  • So it allows us to sample these amazing habitats

    這些科技在十年前甚至還不存在。

  • that are very far from the surface

    所以這讓我們可以在這些離海面和光源

  • and very far from light.

    很遠卻令人驚艷的棲地

  • And so one of the tools that we can use to sample the oceans

    來採集樣本。

  • is acoustics, or sound waves.

    其中一個我們可以用來採集樣本的工具是

  • And the advantage of sound waves

    聲音,也就是聲波。

  • is that they actually pass well through water, unlike light.

    聲波的優點是

  • And so we can send out sound waves,

    他們能輕易透過水傳聲, 不像光一樣。

  • they bounce off objects like fish and are reflected back.

    所以我們可以發射聲波,

  • And so in this example, a census scientist took out two ships.

    聲波會碰到像魚之類的生物反射回來。

  • One would send out sound waves that would bounce back.

    所以在這個例子裡,一個調查員帶了兩艘船出去。

  • They would be received by a second ship,

    第一艘船會發射聲波

  • and that would give us very precise estimates, in this case,

    之後反射回來的聲波會被第二艘船接收,

  • of 250 billion herring

    這會給我們很精準的估計值,在這個例子中

  • in a period of about a minute.

    兩千五百億隻鯡魚

  • And that's an area about the size of Manhattan Island.

    在一分鐘內就被偵測出來

  • And to be able to do that is a tremendous fisheries tool,

    那大概有一個曼哈頓島這麼大。

  • because knowing how many fish are there is really critical.

    能這麼做對漁業來說是很有用,

  • We can also use satellite tags

    因為知道有多少魚是非常重要的。

  • to track animals as they move through the oceans.

    我們也可以用衛星定位

  • And so for animals that come to the surface to breathe,

    來追蹤在海裡移動的動物。

  • such as this elephant seal,

    也可用在那些會到水面上呼吸的動物,

  • it's an opportunity to send data back to shore

    例如這隻海象,

  • and tell us where exactly it is in the ocean.

    衛星定位可以將資料回傳給岸上

  • And so from that we can produce these tracks.

    並且顯示牠在海裡的位置。

  • For example, the dark blue

    這可以讓我們用來繪製路線圖。

  • shows you where the elephant seal moved in the north Pacific.

    舉例來說,深藍色的點

  • Now I realize for those of you who are colorblind, this slide is not very helpful,

    告訴你這隻海象搬到北太平洋。

  • but stick with me nonetheless.

    我知道對色盲的人來說,這張投影片並沒有很有用,

  • For animals that don't surface,

    但還是跟著我聽下去。

  • we have something called pop-up tags,

    對那些不到水面上的動物,

  • which collect data about light and what time the sun rises and sets.

    我們有一個叫做彈出標簽的東西,

  • And then at some period of time

    它會收集光線的資料和日出日落的時間。

  • it pops up to the surface and, again, relays that data back to shore.

    然後在某些時段,

  • Because GPS doesn't work under water. That's why we need these tools.

    它會彈上海面上,將這些資料傳回岸上。

  • And so from this we're able to identify these blue highways,

    因為GPS無法在水裡使用,所以我們才需要這些工具。

  • these hot spots in the ocean,

    因此利用這些資訊,我們可以找出這些藍色路徑,

  • that should be real priority areas

    這些海底熱點,

  • for ocean conservation.

    應該是海洋保育

  • Now one of the other things that you may think about

    優先採取的地帶。

  • is that, when you go to the supermarket and you buy things, they're scanned.

    另外一件你們可能會想到的是

  • And so there's a barcode on that product

    當你們去超市買東西的時候,這些東西會經過掃描。

  • that tells the computer exactly what the product is.

    因為這些物品上有條碼,

  • Geneticists have developed a similar tool called genetic barcoding.

    會告訴電腦物品是什麼。

  • And what barcoding does

    基因學家也發明了相似的工具叫做基因條碼。

  • is use a specific gene called CO1

    這些條碼利用一個叫做

  • that's consistent within a species, but varies among species.

    CO1的基因,

  • And so what that means is we can unambiguously identify

    這個基因在同種類中是相同的,但在不同種類中卻不同。

  • which species are which

    這代表我們可以很清楚的分辨

  • even if they look similar to each other,

    不同的物種,

  • but may be biologically quite different.

    即使他們看起來很像,

  • Now one of the nicest examples I like to cite on this

    但在生物性質上卻是很不同的。

  • is the story of two young women, high school students in New York City,

    用其中一個我喜歡的例子來說,

  • who worked with the census.

    一個在紐約市的兩個女高中生

  • They went out and collected fish from markets and from restaurants in New York City

    與調查計畫合作的故事

  • and they barcoded it.

    他們去紐約市的魚市場和餐廳蒐集魚

  • Well what they found was mislabeled fish.

    然後掃描魚。

  • So for example,

    他們發現有很多被標錯名稱的魚。

  • they found something which was sold as tuna, which is very valuable,

    舉例來說,

  • was in fact tilapia, which is a much less valuable fish.

    他們找到一些被當成很有價值的鮪魚販售,

  • They also found an endangered species

    但實際上卻是低於鮪魚價值很多的吳郭魚。

  • sold as a common one.

    他們也有找到一個瀕臨絕種的種類

  • So barcoding allows us to know what we're working with

    以很常見的物種拍賣。

  • and also what we're eating.

    所以條碼化可以讓我們瞭解我們是在研究

  • The Ocean Biogeographic Information System

    以及食用哪些物種。

  • is the database for all the census data.

    海洋生物地理資訊系統

  • It's open access; you can all go in and download data as you wish.

    是用來儲存這些調查的資料庫。

  • And it contains all the data from the census

    他是開放性的,你們大家都可以去那邊下載你們想要的資料。

  • plus other data sets that people were willing to contribute.

    它包含了「海洋生物調查」的所有數據

  • And so what you can do with that

    加上其它人們願意貢獻的資料。

  • is to plot the distribution of species and where they occur in the oceans.

    所以你們可以利用這些資料

  • What I've plotted up here is the data that we have on hand.

    來瞭解物種的分類和他們分布在海洋的位置。

  • This is where our sampling effort has concentrated.

    這邊是我用我們現有的資料繪製的圖。

  • Now what you can see

    這是用我們主要集中心力的的採樣的地方。

  • is we've sampled the area in the North Atlantic,

    你們可以看到

  • in the North Sea in particular,

    我們在北大西洋蒐集樣本,

  • and also the east coast of North America fairly well.

    主要在北海,

  • That's the warm colors which show a well-sampled region.

    在北美洲東部海洋也蒐集到很多。

  • The cold colors, the blue and the black,

    暖色系顯示樣本數很多的地區。

  • show areas where we have almost no data.

    冷色系, 像是藍色和黑色,

  • So even after a 10-year census,

    代表我們幾乎沒有資料。

  • there are large areas that still remain unexplored.

    所以就算經過了十年的調查,

  • Now there are a group of scientists living in Texas, working in the Gulf of Mexico

    仍然有很多地區沒有被勘查過。

  • who decided really as a labor of love

    有一群在墨西哥海灣工作的德州科學家

  • to pull together all the knowledge they could

    成為工作狂熱者,

  • about biodiversity in the Gulf of Mexico.

    將他們所知道關於墨西哥海灣的

  • And so they put this together, a list of all the species,

    所有生物資訊統整。

  • where they're known to occur,

    所以他們整理出一張所有生物的清單,

  • and it really seemed like a very esoteric, scientific type of exercise.

    上面標註他們出沒的地方

  • But then, of course, there was the Deep Horizon oil spill.

    這看起來真的很深奧、純科學的活動。

  • So all of a sudden, this labor of love

    但後來有了墨西哥灣漏油事故。

  • for no obvious economic reason

    突然間,這份對工作的熱愛所產生的清單

  • has become a critical piece of information

    在顯然不是經濟因素所產生的情況下

  • in terms of how that system is going to recover, how long it will take

    成為一個很重要的資訊,

  • and how the lawsuits

    像是這個系統要如何恢復,得花多久時間?

  • and the multi-billion-dollar discussions that are going to happen in the coming years

    和這些訴訟的後續

  • are likely to be resolved.

    以及在未來幾年好幾億的討論等