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  • Everybody in our society's life is touched by cancer --

    譯者: Inder Peng(彭) 審譯者: Sunny Kan Ngai Hang

  • if not personally,

    在我的生活圈子中,每個人都有與癌症交手的機會

  • then through a loved one, a family member,

    如果不是個人親身經驗

  • colleague, friend.

    也會因為或是至愛或家庭成員,

  • And once our lives are touched by cancer,

    同事或朋友而與癌症交鋒

  • we quickly learn

    一旦我們的生活被癌症入侵後

  • that there are basically

    我們會很快瞭解

  • three weapons, or three tools, that are available

    目前基本上只有

  • to fight the disease:

    三個武器, 或者說三個工具, 可以

  • surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

    用來對抗癌症:

  • And once we get involved

    手術, 放射療法及化療

  • in the therapeutic decisions,

    而且一旦我們捲入

  • again either personally

    治療的決策群時,

  • or with our loved ones and family members,

    相同的, 不管是親身體驗

  • we also very quickly learn

    或因至愛或家庭成員

  • the benefits, the trade-offs and the limitations

    我們一樣會很快知道

  • of these tools.

    選擇任何一種治療方法, 有何好處? 有何損失?

  • I'm very thankful to Jay and to Mark

    及其極限。.

  • and the TEDMED team

    我非常感謝杰和馬克

  • for inviting me today

    當然還有TEDMED團隊

  • to describe a fourth tool, a new tool,

    能讓我今天在此

  • that we call Tumor Treating Fields.

    向大家介紹第四種治療癌症的工具--新工具

  • Tumor Treating Fields

    我們稱它為"腫瘤治療電能場"。

  • were invented by Dr. Yoram Palti,

    "腫瘤治療電能場"

  • professor emeritus at the Technion in Israel.

    是尤昂 帕提 博士所發明的

  • And they use low-intensity

    他是以色列理工學院的榮譽教授。

  • electric fields

    是利用低強度

  • to fight cancer.

    的電場

  • To understand how Tumor Treating Fields work,

    來對抗癌症。

  • we first need to understand

    想要瞭解"腫瘤治療電場" 如何運作

  • what are electric fields.

    我們必須要先瞭解

  • Let me first address

    什麼是電場?

  • a few popular misconceptions.

    讓我在此先呈清

  • First of all, electric fields

    幾個大家普遍的誤解

  • are not an electric current

    首先,電場

  • that is coursing through the tissue.

    不是電流

  • Electric fields

    穿越病人組織。

  • are not ionizing radiation,

    電場

  • like X-rays or proton beams,

    不是游離輻射

  • that bombard tissue

    像X 光或質子光束

  • to disrupt DNA.

    會摧毀轟炸病人的組織

  • And electric fields

    來破壞其DNA。

  • are not magnetism.

    電場

  • What electric fields are

    也非利用磁性來作用

  • are a field of forces.

    什麼是電場呢?電場是

  • And these forces

    “帶電粒子”在空間中所建立的“場”。

  • act on, attract, bodies

    是具有“作用力”

  • that have an electrical charge.

    作用, 吸引, 使病人體內

  • The best way to visualize an electric field

    產生電荷。

  • is to think of gravity.

    最好的例子去想像電場是

  • Gravity is also a field of forces

    把它看成重力(地球萬有引力)

  • that act on masses.

    重力也是相互作用的物理場

  • We can all picture astronauts in space.

    只是重力是有關於質量

  • They float freely in three dimensions

    我們可以想像在外太空中的太空人。

  • without any forces acting on them.

    在三度空間中, 他們自由浮動

  • But as that space shuttle

    不須任何力量去推動他們。

  • returns to Earth,

    但是當太空船

  • and as the astronauts enter the Earth's gravitational field,

    回航地球時

  • they begin to see the effects of gravity.

    像太空人進入地球的引力場,

  • They begin to be attracted towards Earth.

    他們開始感受到重力的影響。

  • And as they land,

    他們開始被吸引到地球。

  • they're fully aligned in the gravitational field.

    當他們登陸地球,

  • We're, of course, all stuck in the Earth's gravitational field right now.

    他們就完全被地球引力場所控制。

  • That's why you're all in your chairs.

    當然我們現在都被困在地球的引力場內。

  • And that's why we have to use our muscle energy

    這就是為什麼你們會全坐在椅子上。

  • to stand up, to walk around

    這就是為什麼我們必須使用肌肉的能量

  • and to lift things.

    才能站起來,走動

  • In cancer,

    和舉起任何東西。

  • cells rapidly divide

    對癌症而言,

  • and lead to uncontrolled tumor growth.

    細胞迅速分裂

  • We can think of a cell

    最後導致腫瘤生長快速失控。

  • from an electrical perspective

    讓我們想像一個細胞

  • as if it's a mini space station.

    從電氣角度的眼光來看

  • And in that space station

    彷彿是一個小型的太空站。

  • we have the genetic material, the chromosomes,

    在那個太空站中

  • within a nucleus.

    有我們的遺傳物質,染色體,

  • And out in the cytoplasmic soup

    存在一個細胞核內

  • we have special proteins

    外層的細胞質湯包中

  • that are required for cell division

    有些特殊的蛋白質

  • that float freely in this soup

    是細胞分裂時所需要的

  • in three dimensions.

    這些蛋白質在此湯中

  • Importantly, those special proteins

    向四面八方自由浮動

  • are among the most highly charged objects

    重要的是,這些特殊的蛋白質

  • in our body.

    是極易帶電荷的物質之一

  • As cell division begins

    在我們體內

  • the nucleus disintegrates,

    當細胞開始分裂

  • the chromosomes line up

    細胞核解體,

  • in the middle of the cell

    在這細胞的正中間

  • and those special proteins

    染色體排起隊

  • undergo a three-dimensional sequence

    這些特殊的蛋白質

  • whereby they attach

    進行三度空間排列

  • and they literally click into place end-on-end

    在那兒它們附上

  • to form chains.

    然後文字上來說終端與終端點擊連結

  • These chains

    形成許多鍊條。

  • then progress and attach

    這些鍊條

  • to the genetic material

    然後進化並連接上

  • and pull the genetic material

    遺傳物質上

  • from one cell into two cells.

    然後拉扯著遺傳物質

  • And this is exactly how

    最後從一個細胞分裂成兩個細胞。

  • one cancer cell becomes two cancer cells,

    這正是為什麼

  • two cancer cells become four cancer cells,

    一個癌症細胞會變成兩個癌細胞,

  • and we have ultimately

    兩個癌細胞,成為四個癌細胞,

  • uncontrolled tumor growth.

    然後最終

  • Tumor Treating Fields

    腫瘤生長失控。

  • use externally placed transducers

    "腫瘤治療電場"

  • attached to a field generator

    使用體外傳感器

  • to create an artificial electric field

    連接到電場發電機

  • on that space station.

    創建一個人工電場

  • And when that cellular space station

    在那個"太空站"上。

  • is within the electric field,

    所以當細胞"太空站"

  • it acts on those highly charged proteins

    籠罩在電場中,

  • and aligns them.

    就會活化這些極易帶電荷的蛋白質

  • And it prevents them from forming those chains,

    控制它們

  • those mitotic spindles,

    並阻止他們形成鏈條,

  • that are necessary to pull the genetic material

    所謂的"有絲分裂紡錘體"

  • into the daughter cells.

    這是把遺傳物質拉進

  • What we see is that the cells will attempt to divide

    兩個子細胞所須要的蛋白質。

  • for several hours.

    這裡可看到的是,細胞會試圖分裂

  • And they will either enter into

    歷經好幾個小時。

  • this so-called cellular suicide,

    這些細胞不是將進入

  • programmed cell death,

    所謂的細胞自殺狀態,

  • or they will form unhealthy daughter cells

    是細胞自殺的機制系統,

  • and enter into apoptosis

    不然就形成不健康的子細胞

  • once they have divided.

    使細胞早衰進而死亡

  • And we can observe this.

    這是如果他們有分裂成功的結果。

  • What I'm going to show you next

    我們可以觀察到這一點。

  • are two in vitro experiments.

    接下去我要告訴你們的是

  • This is cultures, identical cultures,

    我們的兩個體外實驗。

  • of cervical cancer cells.

    這是培養皿 ,在一模一樣條件下,

  • And we've stained these cultures

    培養子宮頸癌細胞。

  • with a green florescent dye

    我們將

  • so that we can look at these proteins

    讓它們帶有綠色螢光染料

  • that form these chains.

    這樣我們就可以看見這些蛋白質

  • The first clip shows

    形成鏈條,

  • a normal cell division

    第一個剪輯顯示

  • without the Tumor Treating Fields.

    一個正常的細胞分裂

  • What we see

    未受"腫瘤治療電場"影響。

  • are, first of all, a very active culture,

    首先,我們可看到

  • a lot of divisions,

    這個培養皿裡的

  • and then very clear nuclei

    細胞分裂非常活躍,

  • once the cells have separated.

    當細胞分裂完成後

  • And we can see them dividing throughout.

    可看到很清楚的細胞核。

  • When we apply the fields --

    我們可以看到他們分裂的整個過程。

  • again, in the identical time-scale

    當我們應用"腫瘤治療電場" -

  • to the identical culture --

    在相同長度的記錄時間內

  • you're going to see something different.

    來觀察生長條件相同的對照組

  • The cells round up for division,

    你們就會看到不同的結果。

  • but they're very static in that position.

    這些細胞想要打起精神分裂成長,

  • We'll see two cells

    但事實上他們卻在那裡沒有進展。

  • in the upper part of the screen

    這是兩個細胞

  • attempting to divide.

    在屏幕的上部

  • The one within the circle manages.

    企圖分裂。

  • But see how much of the protein

    在圓圈內的那個。

  • is still throughout the nucleus,

    但, 看!有多少的蛋白質

  • even in the dividing cell.

    仍然貫穿圍繞細胞核,

  • The one up there can't divide at all.

    甚至在細胞分裂時。

  • And then this bubbling, this membrane bubbling,

    那個在上方位置的根本無法分裂

  • is the hallmark

    然後接著冒泡,細胞膜起泡,

  • of apoptosis in this cell.

    就是一個標誌

  • Formation of healthy mitotic spindles

    是此細胞將凋亡的特徵。

  • is necessary for division

    健康的有絲分裂紡錘體的形成

  • in all cell types.

    是細胞分裂繁殖必要的

  • We've applied Tumor Treating Fields

    每一種細胞都是如此

  • to over 20 different cancers in the lab,

    我們已經應用"腫瘤治療電場"

  • and we see this effect

    在實驗室中, 應用於超過20種不同的癌症,

  • in all of them.

    我們想確認它對各種不同癌症

  • Now importantly,

    的效果

  • these Tumor Treating Fields have no effect

    重要的是,現在我們已確認

  • on normal undividing cells.

    "腫瘤治療電場" 對正常未分裂的細胞

  • 10 years ago,

    沒有干擾效果。

  • Dr. Palti founded a company called Novocure

    10年前,

  • to develop his discovery

    帕提博士創辦Novocure公司

  • into a practical therapy for patients.

    以推展他的發現

  • In that time, Novocure's developed two systems --

    使其能應用到病人的實際治療。