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  • So there are a few things

    譯者: Adrienne Lin 審譯者: Geoff Chen

  • that bring us humans together in the way that an election does.

    有幾件事

  • We stand in elections; we vote in elections;

    是選舉期間大家都會做的事

  • we observe elections.

    我們選舉時發表立場、投票、

  • Our democracies rely on elections.

    觀察選情

  • We all understand why we have elections,

    我們的民主仰賴選舉

  • and we all leave the house on the same day

    我們都明白為何需要選舉

  • to go and vote.

    我們都會在選舉當天出門

  • We cherish the opportunity to have our say,

    投出神聖的一票

  • to help decide the future of the country.

    我們珍惜自己發聲的機會、

  • The fundamental idea is that politicians

    決定自己國家未來的機會

  • are given mandate to speak for us,

    最基本的概念就是,政治家

  • to make decisions on our behalf

    被賦予任務,替我們發聲、

  • that affect us all.

    為我們作出

  • Without that mandate, they would be corrupt.

    會影響我們的決定

  • Well unfortunately, power corrupts,

    如果沒有任務的交付,就會腐敗

  • and so people will do lots of things

    但不幸的是,權力會產生腐敗

  • to get power and to stay in power,

    所以人們做出一些事

  • including doing bad things to elections.

    來獲得權力、持續保有權力

  • You see, even if the idea

    包括選舉時做些卑鄙手段

  • of the election is perfect,

    所以,即使選舉這概念

  • running a countrywide election is a big project,

    非常完美

  • and big projects are messy.

    一個全國的選舉規模龐大

  • Whenever there is an election,

    規模大就亂

  • it seems like something always goes wrong,

    只要有選舉

  • someone tries to cheat,

    好像一定會出差錯一樣

  • or something goes accidentally awry --

    有人作弊、

  • a ballot box goes missing here,

    總有事情不符預期--

  • chads are left hanging over here.

    票箱遺失、

  • To make sure as few things as possible go wrong,

    候選人畫記不清楚等等

  • we have all these procedures around the election.

    為儘可能確保事情不出錯

  • So for example, you come to the polling station,

    我們選舉有很多過程

  • and a poll station worker asks for your ID

    比方說,你來到投票所

  • before giving you a ballot form

    選舉工作人員檢查你的身份證

  • and asking you to go into a voting booth

    才會給你選票

  • to fill out your vote.

    然後要你走進投票間

  • When you come back out, you get to drop your vote

    填寫你的選票

  • into the ballot box

    當你走出投票間,將選票

  • where it mixes with all the other votes,

    投入票箱

  • so that no one knows how you voted.

    和其他人的選票混在一起

  • Well, what I want us to think about for a moment

    藉此就沒人知道你投了誰

  • is what happens after that,

    那我要各位想一下

  • after you drop your vote into the ballot box.

    接下來會發生什麼事

  • And most people would go home

    在選票投進票箱後

  • and feel sure that their vote has been counted,

    很多人就回家

  • because they trust

    確信他們的選票會被計算

  • that the election system works.

    因為他們信任

  • They trust that election workers and election observers

    選舉制度

  • do their jobs and do their jobs correctly.

    他們信任選舉工作人員、監票員

  • The ballot boxes go to counting places.

    有正確做好他們的工作

  • They're unsealed and the votes are poured out

    票箱會送到指定地點

  • and laboriously counted.

    清算拆封後倒出

  • Most of us have to trust

    之後人工計算

  • that that happens correctly for our own vote,

    我們大多數人都信任

  • and we all have to trust that that happens correctly

    自己的選票正確無誤被算入

  • for all the votes in the election.

    我們必須相信過程會正確無誤

  • So we have to trust a lot of people.

    所有選票都正確計算

  • We have to trust a lot of procedures.

    我們得相信很多人哪

  • And sometimes we even have to trust computers.

    我們得相信這些過程

  • So imagine hundreds of millions of voters

    有時候還得相信電腦

  • casting hundreds of millions of votes,

    所以,想像成千上萬的選民

  • all to be counted correctly

    投出成千上萬的選票

  • and all the things that can possibly go wrong

    都必須正確計算

  • causing all these bad headlines,

    這麼多事都可能出錯

  • and you cannot help but feel exhausted at the idea

    導致這些頭條的出現

  • of trying to make elections better.

    你一定會覺得,讓選舉過程更完善

  • Well in the face of all these bad headlines,

    這過程很難達成

  • researchers have taken a step back

    看到這些糟糕的頭條新聞

  • and thought about how we can do elections differently.

    已經有人重新研究、

  • They've zoomed out and looked at the big picture.

    思考要如何規劃選舉

  • And the big picture is this:

    他們往後退一步,重審大局

  • elections should be verifiable.

    大局就是:

  • Voters should be able to check

    選舉應該要能核對

  • that their votes are counted correctly,

    選民應該要能檢查

  • without breaking election secrecy,

    自己的選票是否以正確算入

  • which is so very important.

    卻又不打破不記名原則

  • And that's the tough part.

    因為這原則很重要

  • How do we make an election system completely verifiable

    而且很難達成

  • while keeping the votes

    我們要如何讓整個選舉系統能夠核對

  • absolutely secret?

    同時不破壞

  • Well, the way we've come up with

    保密原則?

  • uses computers

    我們想到的方法就是

  • but doesn't depend on them.

    使用電腦

  • And the secret is the ballot form.

    但不依賴它們

  • And if you look closely at these ballot forms,

    秘密就是選票設計

  • you'll notice that the candidate list

    你看看這些選票

  • is in a different order on each one.

    你會注意到候選人名單

  • And that means, if you mark your choices on one of them

    每張顯示的都不一樣

  • and then remove the candidate list,

    這表示,你選好心中的候選人後

  • I won't be able to tell from the bit remaining

    私下候選人名單

  • what your vote is for.

    其他人將完全看不出

  • And on each ballot form there is this encrypted value

    你選了誰

  • in the form of this 2D barcode

    每張選票都有加密

  • on the right.

    用這個二維條碼

  • And there's some complicated cryptography

    右邊這裡

  • going on in there,

    條碼中隱含了

  • but what's not complicated

    複雜的密碼學

  • is voting with one of these forms.

    唯一不複雜的

  • So we can let computers do all the complicated cryptography for us,

    就是使用選票的方法

  • and then we'll use the paper for verification.

    我們可以讓電腦幫我們用複雜的密碼學

  • So this is how you vote.

    但用紙張做為核對

  • You get one of these ballot forms at random,

    這就是投票方式

  • and then you go into the voting booth,

    你隨機拿了選票

  • and you mark your choices,

    進入投票間

  • and you tear along a perforation.

    畫下你的候選人

  • And you shred the candidate list.

    撕下另一半

  • And the bit that remains, the one with your marks --

    將候選人名單撕碎

  • this is your encrypted vote.

    剩下的部份,你填寫的部份

  • So you let a poll station worker

    就是已經加密的票

  • scan your encrypted vote.

    之後交給工作人員

  • And because it's encrypted,

    掃描你那加密的票

  • it can be submitted, stored

    因為已經加密

  • and counted centrally

    選票可以送出、儲存、

  • and displayed on a website

    中央計算選票

  • for anyone to see, including you.

    並公告於網路上

  • So you take this encrypted vote

    讓人人都可以觀看

  • home as your receipt.

    你可以帶走這張加密的選票

  • And after the close of the election,

    作為收據

  • you can check that your vote was counted

    選舉結束後

  • by comparing your receipt

    你可以檢查選票是否被算入了

  • to the vote on the website.

    只要用手上的收據

  • And remember, the vote is encrypted

    比對網站上的選票即可

  • from the moment you leave the voting booth,

    記得,選票是加密的

  • so if an election official wants to find out how you voted,

    從你離開投票間那刻

  • they will not be able to.

    所以,如果選舉工作人員想知道你投誰

  • If the government wants to find out how you voted,

    是不可能的

  • they won't be able to.

    如果政府想知道你投給誰

  • No hacker can break in

    是不可能的

  • and find out how you voted.

    連駭客也無法

  • No hacker can break in and change your vote,

    查出你投給誰

  • because then it won't match your receipt.

    駭客無法駭進系統竄改選票

  • Votes can't go missing

    因為如此的話就與收據不符

  • because then you won't find yours when you look for it.

    選票不會不見

  • But the election magic doesn't stop there.

    因為到時候若找不到就能發現了

  • Instead, we want to make the whole process

    但選舉的魔法不止於此

  • so transparent

    我門希望能做的整個選舉過程的

  • that news media and international observers

    透明化

  • and anyone who wants to

    及是新聞媒體、全世界觀望的

  • can download all the election data

    所有人都能

  • and do the count themselves.

    下載選舉數據

  • They can check that all the votes were counted correctly.

    然後自己做計算

  • They can check

    可以自己檢查選票是否正確計算

  • that the announced result of the election

    可以檢查

  • is the correct one.

    選舉結果的宣布

  • And these are elections

    是否正確

  • by the people, for the people.

    這樣的選舉才是

  • So the next step for our democracies

    由人民而選、為人民而選

  • are transparent

    所以民主的下一步就是

  • and verifiable elections.

    透明化、

  • Thank you.

    可驗證的選舉

  • (Applause)

    謝謝

So there are a few things

譯者: Adrienne Lin 審譯者: Geoff Chen

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 選票 選舉 候選人 計算 正確

TED】David Bismark:電子投票無欺詐(David Bismark:電子投票無欺詐)。 (【TED】David Bismark: E-voting without fraud (David Bismark: E-voting without fraud))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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