Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I've been fascinated for a lifetime

    譯者: Crystal Tu 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • by the beauty, form and function

    我一直都為

  • of giant bluefin tuna.

    大型黑鮪的型態與功能美

  • Bluefin are warmblooded like us.

    所吸引。

  • They're the largest of the tunas,

    黑鮪魚像我們一樣,都是恆溫動物,

  • the second-largest fish in the sea -- bony fish.

    是體型最大的鮪魚,

  • They actually are a fish

    也是海中第二大的硬骨魚。

  • that is endothermic --

    實際上,牠們是

  • powers through the ocean with warm muscles like a mammal.

    內溫魚類,

  • That's one of our bluefin at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

    像哺乳類一樣,以溫暖肌肉橫越海洋

  • You can see in its shape and its streamlined design

    這是我們在Monterrey灣海生館中的一隻黑鮪魚

  • it's powered for ocean swimming.

    你可以看到牠的流線體型

  • It flies through the ocean on its pectoral fins, gets lift,

    這是牠們長距游泳的動力來源

  • powers its movements

    藉由牠的胸鰭滑翔取得升力,橫越海洋

  • with a lunate tail.

    並以半月形的尾鰭

  • It's actually got a naked skin for most of its body,

    提供前進的動力

  • so it reduces friction with the water.

    牠的身體表面大多光溜溜的

  • This is what one of nature's finest machines.

    可以減少阻力

  • Now, bluefin

    這是自然界裡最棒的設計

  • were revered by Man

    黑鮪魚

  • for all of human history.

    在人類史中

  • For 4,000 years, we fished sustainably for this animal,

    一直備受尊崇

  • and it's evidenced

    四千年以來,我們以永續方式合理捕捉鮪魚

  • in the art that we see

    而這可從

  • from thousands of years ago.

    一千年前的

  • Bluefin are in cave paintings in France.

    史前藝術中得到證據

  • They're on coins

    黑鮪魚出現法國的洞穴壁畫上

  • that date back 3,000 years.

    以及三千年前的

  • This fish was revered by humankind.

    硬幣上

  • It was fished sustainably

    牠們受人類景仰

  • till all of time,

    好幾個世代以來,

  • except for our generation.

    人們合理的捕捉黑鮪

  • Bluefin are pursued wherever they go --

    除了我們這個世代以外

  • there is a gold rush on Earth,

    人們四處追捕黑鮪

  • and this is a gold rush for bluefin.

    現在地球上有個淘金潮,

  • There are traps that fish sustainably

    就是針對黑鮪魚

  • up until recently.

    我們擁有可以永續捕捉的網具,

  • And yet, the type of fishing going on today,

    直到最近,

  • with pens, with enormous stakes,

    現在的漁業捕撈,

  • is really wiping bluefin

    是用筆,夾帶著巨大利益,

  • ecologically off the planet.

    將黑鮪魚從

  • Now bluefin, in general,

    整個地球生態中抹除

  • goes to one place: Japan.

    一般來說,捕獲的黑鮪

  • Some of you may be guilty

    都會往日本送

  • of having contributed to the demise of bluefin.

    在你們之中

  • They're delectable muscle,

    也許有些人就是造成黑鮪滅絕的共犯

  • rich in fat --

    牠們易感的肌肉

  • absolutely taste delicious.

    富含脂肪,

  • And that's their problem; we're eating them to death.

    非常美味

  • Now in the Atlantic, the story is pretty simple.

    這就是問題所在,我們把牠給吃光了

  • Bluefin have two populations: one large, one small.

    在大西洋的狀況很簡單

  • The North American population

    黑鮪有兩個族群, 一大一小。

  • is fished at about 2,000 ton.

    北美族群的

  • The European population and North African -- the Eastern bluefin tuna --

    捕撈量大約在兩千噸左右。

  • is fished at tremendous levels:

    歐洲北非的族群 -- 俗稱東方黑鮪 --

  • 50,000 tons over the last decade almost every year.

    捕撈量相當巨大:

  • The result is whether you're looking

    在過去十年裡,幾乎年年超過五萬噸。

  • at the West or the Eastern bluefin population,

    因此,不論你檢視

  • there's been tremendous decline on both sides,

    西方還是東方黑鮪族群

  • as much as 90 percent

    兩者的數量都有顯著減少,

  • if you go back with your baseline

    下降幅度最多有九成

  • to 1950.

    如果以

  • For that, bluefin have been given a status

    1950年做基準線的話

  • equivalent to tigers, to lions,

    所以,人們認定黑鮪魚具有

  • to certain African elephants

    相當於老虎、獅子

  • and to pandas.

    、某些非洲象

  • These fish have been proposed

    和熊貓的地位。

  • for an endangered species listing in the past two months.

    並在過去兩個月裡,提議將黑鮪魚

  • They were voted on and rejected

    列入瀕臨滅絕生物表中

  • just two weeks ago,

    兩週前的表決結果

  • despite outstanding science

    未通過

  • that shows from two committees

    即使有兩個委員會提供

  • this fish meets the criteria of CITES I.

    大量的科學證據表示

  • And if it's tunas you don't care about,

    此魚符合CITES I (瀕危生物公約) 標準。

  • perhaps you might be interested

    如果你不在乎黑鮪

  • that international long lines and pursing

    或許你會對以下這些有興趣:

  • chase down tunas and bycatch animals

    國際延繩釣和圍網

  • such as leatherbacks, sharks,

    不只捕撈鮪魚,同時也會抓到其他動物

  • marlin, albatross.

    如革龜、鯊魚、

  • These animals and their demise

    還有旗魚和信天翁

  • occurs in the tuna fisheries.

    這些動物的死亡

  • The challenge we face

    常因鮪魚漁業而起

  • is that we know very little about tuna,

    我們現在所面臨的挑戰是

  • and everyone in the room knows what it looks like

    我們對鮪魚所知不多:

  • when an African lion

    在座各位都知道

  • takes down its prey.

    一隻非洲獅

  • I doubt anyone has seen a giant bluefin feed.

    將其獵物撲倒時,是甚麼樣子,

  • This tuna symbolizes

    但我不相信有人看過一隻巨大的黑鮪魚捕食

  • what's the problem for all of us in the room.

    這隻鮪魚代表的是

  • It's the 21st century, but we really have only just begun

    我們共同的問題

  • to really study our oceans in a deep way.

    現在是二十一世紀,但我們才剛剛開始

  • Technology has come of age

    真正深入地研究海洋

  • that's allowing us to see the Earth from space

    當今的科技已成熟到

  • and go deep into the seas remotely.

    能讓我們自外太空看地球,

  • And we've got to use these technologies immediately

    並從遠端深入海洋。

  • to get a better understanding

    而我們得馬上運用這些科技

  • of how our ocean realm works.

    來了解

  • Most of us from the ship -- even I --

    海洋是如何運作的

  • look out at the ocean and see this homogeneous sea.

    大多數在船上的人,包括我在內

  • We don't know where the structure is.

    所看到的海的是一個單調的平面

  • We can't tell where are the watering holes

    不了解海洋的結構

  • like we can on an African plain.

    也無法像在非洲大平原上那樣

  • We can't see the corridors,

    分辨出哪裡是汲水區

  • and we can't see what it is

    看不出生態廊道所在

  • that brings together a tuna,

    也不曉得

  • a leatherback and an albatross.

    是甚麼力量將鮪魚、

  • We're only just beginning to understand

    革龜和信天翁聚集在一起。

  • how the physical oceanography

    我們才剛開始了解

  • and the biological oceanography

    在海洋裡,物理和

  • come together

    生物因素

  • to create a seasonal force

    如何結合

  • that actually causes the upwelling

    產生季節性的動力

  • that might make a hot spot a hope spot.

    造成湧升流

  • The reasons these challenges are great

    產生生物熱點,帶來生存希望

  • is that technically it's difficult to go to sea.

    這是很艱鉅的挑戰

  • It's hard to study a bluefin on its turf,

    因為直接進到海裡有技術上的困難

  • the entire Pacific realm.

    我們很難在黑鮪魚的地盤

  • It's really tough to get up close and personal with a mako shark

    也就是整個太平洋裡做研究

  • and try to put a tag on it.

    要靠近鯖鯊到非常親密的距離

  • And then imagine being Bruce Mate's team from OSU,

    然後試著把標識器固定上去,是非常困難的

  • getting up close to a blue whale

    想像你是奧瑞岡州立大學Bruce Mate博士團隊的一員,

  • and fixing a tag on the blue whale that stays,

    要接近一隻藍鯨,

  • an engineering challenge

    並把標識器牢牢固定在藍鯨身上

  • we've yet to really overcome.

    這是很大的技術挑戰

  • So the story of our team, a dedicated team,

    而我們依舊未能克服這點

  • is fish and chips.

    所以我們團隊,這個專注奉獻的團隊

  • We basically are taking

    做的事情不出就是魚和晶片

  • the same satellite phone parts,

    我們利用晶片,也就是

  • or the same parts that are in your computer, chips.

    與衛星電話

  • We're putting them together in unusual ways,

    以及你電腦裡相同的零件

  • and this is taking us into the ocean realm

    用獨特的方式組合

  • like never before.

    然後便這可以將我們帶到前所未經的

  • And for the first time,

    大海裡

  • we're able to watch the journey of a tuna beneath the ocean

    這是人們第一次

  • using light and photons

    實際觀察鮪魚在海面下的移動路徑

  • to measure sunrise and sunset.

    藉由光和光子

  • Now, I've been working with tunas for over 15 years.

    去測量日升日落,取得時間資料

  • I have the privilege of being a partner

    我與鮪魚為伍已有十五年了

  • with the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

    很榮幸能與

  • We've actually taken a sliver of the ocean,

    合作

  • put it behind glass,

    截取一部分的大海

  • and we together

    放進水槽裡

  • have put bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna on display.

    然後一起

  • When the veil of bubbles lifts every morning,

    將黑鮪與黃鰭鮪展示起來

  • we can actually see a community from the Pelagic ocean,

    每天早上當泡沫消散後

  • one of the only places on Earth

    便能親眼目睹一個遠洋的生物群聚

  • you can see giant bluefin swim by.

    這是地球上少數

  • We can see in their beauty of form and function,

    能讓你見到巨大黑鮪悠遊的地方

  • their ceaseless activity.

    讚嘆牠那型態與功能的美

  • They're flying through their space, ocean space.

    以及毫不停歇的驚人活動力

  • And we can bring two million people a year

    牠們在海洋裡飛翔著

  • into contact with this fish

    這個展覽每年可以吸引兩百萬人

  • and show them its beauty.

    和牠們接觸

  • Behind the scenes is a working lab at Stanford University

    欣賞鮪魚的美

  • partnered with the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

    這裡的幕後推手是史丹佛大學的一間實驗室

  • Here, for over 14 or 15 years,

    與Monterrey灣水族館

  • we've actually brought in

    十餘年來

  • both bluefin and yellowfin in captivity.

    我們真的將

  • We'd been studying these fish,

    黑鮪和黃鰭鮪帶進水族館中

  • but first we had to learn how to husbandry them.

    要研究這些魚之前

  • What do they like to eat?

    得先學習如何飼養牠們

  • What is it that they're happy with?

    牠們喜歡吃什麼?

  • We go in the tanks with the tuna -- we touch their naked skin --

    什麼事能讓牠們開心起來?

  • it's pretty amazing. It feels wonderful.

    我們跳進養著鮪魚的水槽裡,摸著牠們的光滑的皮膚

  • And then, better yet,

    那感覺非常美妙,棒極了

  • we've got our own version of tuna whisperers,

    而且更棒的是

  • our own Chuck Farwell, Alex Norton,

    我們有我們自己的馴魚員

  • who can take a big tuna

    Chuck Farwell和Alex Norton

  • and in one motion,

    可以將一隻巨大的鮪魚

  • put it into an envelope of water,

    用一個動作

  • so that we can actually work with the tuna

    便放到水籠裡

  • and learn the techniques it takes

    讓我們實際觀察鮪魚

  • to not injure this fish

    並學習需要如何

  • who never sees a boundary in the open sea.

    避免傷害這些

  • Jeff and Jason there, are scientists

    在汪洋裡不知邊界的大魚

  • who are going to take a tuna

    Jeff和Jason兩位科學家負責

  • and put it in the equivalent of a treadmill, a flume.

    把鮪魚

  • And that tuna thinks it's going to Japan, but it's staying in place.

    放到一個作用類似跑步機的水槽

  • We're actually measuring its oxygen consumption,

    讓鮪魚以為牠要游到日本,但其實只是原地踏步

  • its energy consumption.

    同時測量氧氣和

  • We're taking this data and building better models.

    能量消耗

  • And when I see that tuna -- this is my favorite view --

    利用這些資料來建立更完善的鮪魚移動模式

  • I begin to wonder:

    每當我看到鮪魚 -- 我喜歡從這個角度想 --

  • how did this fish solve the longitude problem before we did?

    就會開始思考

  • So take a look at that animal.

    牠們是如何早我們一步解決經度位置的問題

  • That's the closest you'll probably ever get.

    仔細觀察這個動物

  • Now, the activities from the lab

    這大概是你能離牠最近的距離

  • have taught us now how to go out in the open ocean.

    現在,實驗室研究得到的訊息

  • So in a program called Tag-A-Giant

    讓我們知道怎樣在野外研究牠們

  • we've actually gone from Ireland to Canada,

    在 "大魚標記" 的計畫中,

  • from Corsica to Spain.

    從愛爾蘭到加拿大,

  • We've fished with many nations around the world

    從科西嘉島到西班牙都有我們的足跡

  • in an effort to basically

    和世界上許多國家一起出海捕魚,

  • put electronic computers

    努力把

  • inside giant tunas.

    電腦放進

  • We've actually tagged 1,100 tunas.

    巨大鮪魚的身體裡

  • And I'm going to show you three clips,

    我們已經標記了1,100隻鮪魚

  • because I tagged 1,100 tunas.

    我現在要給大家看三個短片,

  • It's a very hard process, but it's a ballet.

    那1,100隻鮪魚都是我標記的

  • We bring the tuna out, we measure it.

    這個步驟非常困難,就像芭蕾一樣精巧

  • A team of fishers, captains, scientists and technicians

    我們先將鮪魚拉出水麵,進行各種測量

  • work together to keep this animal out of the ocean

    一個包括漁夫、船長、科學家與技術員集結而成的團隊

  • for about four to five minutes.

    共同合作讓大魚能離開水中

  • We put water over its gills, give it oxygen.

    大約四到五分鐘

  • And then with a lot of effort, after tagging,

    在牠的鰓上倒水,給牠氧氣

  • putting in the computer,

    然後費盡一番功夫標記完後

  • making sure the stalk is sticking out so it senses the environment,

    再把電腦放進去

  • we send this fish back into the sea.

    確定感應桿有露出來,這樣才能偵測外界環境

  • And when it goes, we're always happy.

    然後就把這隻魚放回海中

  • We see a flick of the tail.

    當牠游走時,大家都很開心

  • And from our data that gets collected,

    看牠的尾鰭輕擺

  • when that tag comes back,

    從回收到的標識器中

  • because a fisher returns it

    所收集的資訊

  • for a thousand-dollar reward,

    喔,這是因為當漁夫發現並歸還標識器的話

  • we can get tracks beneath the sea

    可以得到一千美金的酬金

  • for up to five years now,

    我們可以追蹤海下活動

  • on a backboned animal.

    達到五年之久

  • Now sometimes the tunas are really large,

    這些資料都是從一隻脊椎動物身上來的

  • such as this fish off Nantucket.

    有時候鮪魚相當巨大,

  • But that's about half the size

    比如說這隻Nantucket灣外捕到的魚

  • of the biggest tuna we've ever tagged.

    不過那大約只有我們標記過

  • It takes a human effort,

    最大那隻鮪魚的一半大

  • a team effort, to bring the fish in.

    這需要人力,

  • In this case, what we're going to do

    要整組人同心協力,才可將魚抓起來

  • is put a pop-up satellite archival tag on the tuna.

    在這裡,我們將會

  • This tag rides on the tuna,

    把一個上脫型衛星標識器放到鮪魚身上

  • senses the environment around the tuna

    這標識器待在鮪魚背上

  • and actually will come off the fish,

    感受到鮪魚周圍的環境,

  • detach, float to the surface

    最後從魚身上脫落

  • and send back to Earth-orbiting satellites

    離開魚身,然後浮到海面

  • position data estimated by math on the tag,

    並將資料傳送到繞地運行的衛星上

  • pressure data and temperature data.

    包括計算所得的位置資訊

  • And so what we get then from the pop-up satellite tag

    以及壓力與溫度數據

  • is we get away from having to have a human interaction

    從上脫型衛星標識器裡,我們可以

  • to recapture the tag.

    不用透過人工接觸

  • Both the electronic tags I'm talking about are expensive.

    進行標記回收

  • These tags have been engineered

    我提到的這兩種電子標識器都很昂貴

  • by a variety of teams in North America.

    而這些標識器

  • They are some of our finest instruments,

    是北美許多團隊的心血結晶

  • our new technology in the ocean today.

    是目前我們在海洋中

  • One community in general

    運用的最先端科技

  • has given more to help us than any other community.

    有一個漁業社群

  • And that's the fisheries off the state of North Carolina.

    給我們的協助比其他人更多

  • There are two villages, Harris and Morehead City,

    那就是北卡羅萊納州的漁業社群

  • every winter for over a decade,

    那邊有兩個村莊,Harris和Morehead市,

  • held a party called Tag-A-Giant,

    在過去的十幾年裡,每年冬天都

  • and together, fishers worked with us

    會舉辦"大魚標記"派對

  • to tag 800 to 900 fish.

    漁民和我們合作

  • In this case, we're actually going to measure the fish.

    標記八九百隻魚

  • We're going to do something that in recent years we've started:

    這時,我們不僅進行各種測量

  • take a mucus sample.

    近年來我們更開始

  • Watch how shiny the skin is; you can see my reflection there.

    採集黏液樣本

  • And from that mucus, we can get gene profiles,

    看看這表皮多光滑,你還可以看到我的倒影