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  • Let me share with you today an original discovery.

    譯者: Marie Wu 審譯者: Terry Lin

  • But I want to tell it to you the way it really happened --

    我今天要告訴各位一項新的發現,

  • not the way I present it in a scientific meeting,

    我要以事件發生的原貌呈現給各位,

  • or the way you'd read it in a scientific paper.

    我不想讓你們有參與科學會議報告、

  • It's a story about beyond biomimetics,

    或是閱讀科學期刊的感覺。

  • to something I'm calling biomutualism.

    這件事超越了生物模仿學,

  • I define that as an association between biology and another discipline,

    我把它叫做「互惠生物學」。

  • where each discipline reciprocally advances the other,

    我把這個學科定義為生物學與其他學科間的互動,

  • but where the collective discoveries that emerge are beyond any single field.

    每一個學科都會互相受惠於其他學科,

  • Now, in terms of biomimetics,

    但是集眾學科之力,其成果將超越單一學科領域。

  • as human technologies take on more of the characteristics of nature,

    以生物模仿學來說,

  • nature becomes a much more useful teacher.

    由於人類科技從自然界學習到許多東西,

  • Engineering can be inspired by biology

    大自然就成了一個全能的老師。

  • by using its principles and analogies when they're advantageous,

    工程學則受生物學之啟發,

  • but then integrating that with the best human engineering,

    在運用生物學的原理和功能後獲益良多。

  • ultimately to make something actually better than nature.

    將二者相結合之後,

  • Now, being a biologist, I was very curious about this.

    最終我們將能發展出超越大自然的科技。

  • These are gecko toes.

    身為一個生物學家,我對這個很好奇,

  • And we wondered how they use these bizarre toes

    這些是壁虎的腳趾,

  • to climb up a wall so quickly.

    我們很好奇為什麼他們能用這麼神奇的腳趾

  • We discovered it. And what we found was

    在牆上迅速地爬行。

  • that they have leaf-like structures on their toes,

    我們發現,

  • with millions of tiny hairs that look like a rug,

    他們的腳趾有像樹葉一樣的結構,

  • and each of those hairs has the worst case of split-ends possible:

    上面長滿了數以百萬計的細微毛髮,就像毛毯一樣。

  • about 100 to 1000 split ends that are nano-size.

    這些細微的毛髮末端嚴重地分叉,

  • And the individual has 2 billion of these nano-size split ends.

    每一個末端都有一百到一千個奈米級的分叉。

  • They don't stick by Velcro or suction or glue.

    一隻壁虎身上大約有二億個這種奈米級的分叉。

  • They actually stick by intermolecular forces alone,

    他們不是靠魔鬼氈、吸力或是黏膠去吸附在牆上,

  • van der Waals forces.

    而是利用分子間的作用力來吸附,

  • And I'm really pleased to report to you today

    又稱范氏引力。

  • that the first synthetic self-cleaning, dry adhesive has been made.

    我很高興告訴各位,

  • From the simplest version in nature, one branch,

    世界上第一個人工合成、完全不沾黏的乾性黏著劑已經誕生了。

  • my engineering collaborator, Ron Fearing, at Berkeley,

    從自然界的壁虎身上,

  • had made the first synthetic version.

    和我一起共同研究的工程學家Ron Fearing,

  • And so has my other incredible collaborator,

    在柏克萊製作了第一個人工合成的仿壁虎黏著劑。

  • Mark Cutkosky, at Stanford --

    還有另一個與我一起研究的科學家

  • he made much larger hairs than the gecko,

    Mark Cutkosky,

  • but used the same general principles.

    在史丹福製作了比壁虎大上許多的毛髮,

  • And here is its first test.

    但也運用相同的原理。

  • (Laughter)

    這是他們的第一次測試。

  • That's Kellar Autumn, my former Ph.D. student,

    (笑聲)

  • professor now at Lewis and Clark,

    那是Kellar Autumn,之前是我的博士班學生,

  • literally giving his first-born child up for this test.

    目前在路易斯暨克拉克大學擔任教授,

  • (Laughter)

    他把他的老大拿來測試。

  • More recently, this happened.

    (笑聲)

  • Man: This the first time someone has actually climbed with it.

    最近,還有這件事。

  • Narrator: Lynn Verinsky, a professional climber,

    男人:這是第一次有人用這種東西進行攀爬。

  • who appeared to be brimming with confidence.

    旁白:Lynn Verinsky是個職業攀爬者,

  • Lynn Verinsky: Honestly, it's going to be perfectly safe. It will be perfectly safe.

    看起來充滿自信。

  • Man: How do you know?

    Lynn Verinsky: 老實說,這很安全,絕對沒問題。

  • Lynn Verinsky: Because of liability insurance. (Laughter)

    男人:你怎麼知道?

  • Narrator: With a mattress below and attached to a safety rope,

    Lynn Verinsky: 因為我有買保險。

  • Lynn began her 60-foot ascent.

    旁白:下面有安全墊,再綁上安全索,

  • Lynn made it to the top in a perfect pairing

    Lynn開始往上爬,她要爬60呎。

  • of Hollywood and science.

    Lynn爬上終點,

  • Man: So you're the first human being to officially emulate a gecko.

    就像好萊塢與科學的完美結合。

  • Lynn Verinsky: Ha! Wow. And what a privilege that has been.

    男人:你是第一個真正模仿壁虎的人。

  • Robert Full: That's what she did on rough surfaces.

    Lynn Verinsky: 哈!哇!那真是榮幸!

  • But she actually used these on smooth surfaces --

    Robert Full: 她爬的是粗糙的表面,

  • two of them -- to climb up, and pull herself up.

    但是她也曾利用這個爬上平滑的表面,

  • And you can try this in the lobby,

    分成二個動作,先吸附住,再把自己拉上去。

  • and look at the gecko-inspired material.

    你們可以在外面的大廳試試這個東西,

  • Now the problem with the robots doing this

    看看壁虎啟發我們做出了什麼東西。

  • is that they can't get unstuck,

    現在的問題是,我們在機器人身上裝設了這種材料,

  • with the material.

    但機器人的手一旦吸附住表面,

  • This is the gecko's solution. They actually peel their toes away

    就拿不下來了。

  • from the surface, at high rates,

    這是壁虎的作法,他們會把自己的腳趾從表面上「剝」下來,

  • as they run up the wall.

    用很快的速度,

  • Well I'm really excited today to show you

    好讓他們爬上牆壁。

  • the newest version of a robot, Stickybot,

    我很高興可以向你們展示

  • using a new hierarchical dry adhesive.

    最新版本的機器人,

  • Here is the actual robot.

    我們將新開發出來的乾式黏著劑運用在這上面。

  • And here is what it does.

    這就是機器人,

  • And if you look,

    它可以做到這樣,

  • you can see that it uses

    如果你仔細看,

  • the toe peeling,

    你會發現

  • just like the gecko does.

    它也把腳趾從表面上「剝」下來,

  • If we can show some of the video, you can see it climbing up the wall.

    就像壁虎一樣。

  • (Applause)

    如果我們可以把影片再放長一點,你就會看到它爬到牆壁上了。

  • There it is.

    (掌聲)

  • And now it can go on other surfaces because of the new adhesive

    你看,

  • that the Stanford group was able to do

    因為有這種新的黏著劑,所以它可以爬上其他表面,

  • in designing this incredible robot.

    這是史丹福團隊設計的

  • (Applause)

    了不起的機器人。

  • Oh. One thing I want to point out is, look at Stickybot.

    (掌聲)

  • You see something on it. It's not just to look like a gecko.

    噢,我想要講一件事,看看那個機器人,

  • It has a tail. And just when you think you've figured out nature,

    你會看到有一個東西在上面,它不只是看起來像一隻壁虎而已,

  • this kind of thing happens.

    它還有尾巴。你以為你夠瞭解大自然了,

  • The engineers told us, for the climbing robots,

    但其實不是。

  • that, if they don't have a tail,

    工程師告訴我們,

  • they fall off the wall.

    如果不幫這隻會爬的機器人裝上尾巴,

  • So what they did was they asked us

    它就會從牆上掉下來。

  • an important question.

    所以他們提出了一個

  • They said, "Well, it kind of looks like a tail."

    重要的問題,

  • Even though we put a passive bar there.

    他們說:「嗯,這看起來像條尾巴。」

  • "Do animals use their tails when they climb up walls?"

    即使我們只是裝飾性地裝了一條沒有作用的尾巴在那裡。

  • What they were doing was returning the favor,

    「動物在爬牆的時候會用到尾巴嗎?」

  • by giving us a hypothesis to test,

    他們這麼做反而是幫了我們一個忙,

  • in biology, that we wouldn't have thought of.

    讓我們就這個假設進行測試,

  • So of course, in reality, we were then panicked,

    因為我們這些生物學家壓根也沒想到這件事。

  • being the biologists, and we should know this already.

    這當然讓我們覺得很緊張,

  • We said, "Well, what do tails do?"

    因為身為生物學家的我們,早就應該知道這件事才對。

  • Well we know that tails store fat, for example.

    於是我們想:「嗯,尾巴有什麼用途?」

  • We know that you can grab onto things with them.

    我們知道尾巴儲存脂肪,

  • And perhaps it is most well known

    或是可以用尾巴勾住某個東西讓自己不要掉下去,

  • that they provide static balance.

    或是如同大家都知道的,

  • (Laughter)

    尾巴是用來保持平衡的。

  • It can also act as a counterbalance.

    (笑聲)

  • So watch this kangaroo.

    尾巴可以用來保持平衡,

  • See that tail? That's incredible!

    讓我們看看這隻袋鼠,

  • Marc Raibert built a Uniroo hopping robot.

    看到它的尾巴了嗎?真的很不可思議!

  • And it was unstable without its tail.

    Marc Raibert仿袋鼠做了一個跳動機器人,

  • Now mostly tails limit maneuverability,

    如果沒有裝上尾巴,就不能保持穩定。

  • like this human inside this dinosaur suit.

    大部分的尾巴都會妨礙行動,

  • (Laughter)

    就像這個穿上恐龍裝的人一樣。

  • My colleagues actually went on to test this limitation,

    (笑聲)

  • by increasing the moment of inertia of a student, so they had a tail,

    我的同事還針對這一點進行了測試,

  • and running them through and obstacle course,

    測試延長慣性作用的時間,所以他們讓一個學生裝上象徵性的尾巴,

  • and found a decrement in performance,

    然後在一群障礙物裡跑,

  • like you'd predict.

    發現速度都降低了。

  • (Laughter)

    就跟大家想得一樣。

  • But of course, this is a passive tail.

    (笑聲)

  • And you can also have active tails.

    但是,這是個沒有作用的尾巴,

  • And when I went back to research this, I realized

    你也可以換上有功能的尾巴。

  • that one of the great TED moments in the past,

    當我回去研究這個問題的時候,

  • from Nathan,

    我發現以前Nathan曾發表一個

  • we've talked about an active tail.

    TED演說,

  • Video: Myhrvold thinks tail-cracking dinosaurs

    就談到了具有功能的尾巴。

  • were interested in love, not war.

    影片:Myhrvold認為揮動尾巴的恐龍,

  • Robert Full: He talked about the tail being a whip for communication.

    其實是要追求異性,而不是要打架。

  • It can also be used in defense.

    Robert Full: 他認為像鞭子一樣揮動的尾巴,其實是在傳遞訊息,

  • Pretty powerful.

    也可以用來防衛,

  • So we then went back and looked at the animal.

    很有力的工具。

  • And we ran it up a surface.

    所以我們再回來看看壁虎,

  • But this time what we did is we put a slippery patch

    我們把它趕上一堵牆壁,

  • that you see in yellow there.

    但我們在牆上補了一塊

  • And watch on the right what the animal is doing with its tail

    黃色的光滑板子,

  • when it slips. This is slowed down 10 times.

    然後注意看右邊,看看壁虎在快要滑下來的時候,

  • So here is normal speed.

    它的尾巴會發生什麼作用。我們把影片速度放慢十倍,

  • And watch it now slip,

    這是正常速度,

  • and see what it does with its tail.

    現在它要滑下來了,

  • It has an active tail that functions as a fifth leg,

    看它的尾巴在做什麼。

  • and it contributes to stability.

    它的尾巴發揮了第五隻腳的作用,

  • If you make it slip a huge amount, this is what we discovered.

    讓它可以保持平衡。

  • This is incredible.

    如果你把光滑的區域再放大多一點,就會看到這種情形,

  • The engineers had a really good idea.

    真的很不可思議!

  • And then of course we wondered,

    這些工程師的想法真的很棒!

  • okay, they have an active tail, but let's picture them.

    我們當然會想,

  • They're climbing up a wall, or a tree.

    好,他們的尾巴有作用,那麼再想想看,

  • And they get to the top and let's say there's some leaves there.

    如果他們爬上一堵牆,或一棵樹,

  • And what would happen if they climbed on the underside of that leaf,

    然後爬到頂端有樹葉的部分,

  • and there was some wind, or we shook it?

    如果他們爬到樹葉背面的時候,

  • And we did that experiment, that you see here.

    剛好有風吹過來,或者我們搖晃那個樹幹,結果會怎樣?

  • (Applause)

    所以我們做了那個實驗,你看看。

  • And this is what we discovered.

    (掌聲)

  • Now that's real time. You can't see anything.

    這是我們拍攝的影片,

  • But there it is slowed down.

    用正常速度播放,你什麼都看不到,

  • What we discovered was the world's fastest air-righting response.

    所以放慢速度。

  • For those of you who remember your physics, that's a zero-angular-momentum

    我們看到世界上最快的空中翻轉,

  • righting response. But it's like a cat.

    你們如果還記得一點物理常識的話,這就是角動量為零的反應。

  • You know, cats falling. Cats do this. They twist their bodies.

    但它的動作看起來像貓,

  • But geckos do it better.

    就像貓掉下來的反應,貓也會這樣,他們會旋轉自己的身體。

  • And they do it with their tail.

    但是壁虎做得更好,

  • So they do it with this active tail as they swing around.

    因為他們會運用自己的尾巴。

  • And then they always land in the sort of superman skydiving posture.

    當他們在旋轉的時候,有用到尾巴的力量,

  • Okay, now we wondered, if we were right,

    所以降落的時候就像超人在空中下降的姿勢一樣。

  • we should be able to test this in a physical model, in a robot.

    接下來我們想,如果我們想得沒錯,

  • So for TED we actually built a robot,

    我們應該在實體模型上測試一下,就是在機器人上測試。

  • over there, a prototype, with the tail.

    為了TED,我們真的打造了一個機器人,

  • And we're going to attempt the first air-righting response

    是原型機器人,有尾巴的哦。

  • in a tail, with a robot.

    所以我們打算在這個有尾巴的機器人身上,

  • If we could have the lights on it.

    測試第一次的空中翻轉。

  • Okay, there it goes.

    請打開燈光,

  • And show the video.

    好,可以開始了。

  • There it is.

    請看影片,

  • And it works just like it does in the animal.

    就是這樣,

  • So all you need is a swing of the tail to right yourself.

    就像是動物的動作一樣。

  • (Applause)

    所以你只需要一條尾巴來幫助你旋轉。

  • Now, of course, we were normally frightened

    (掌聲)

  • because the animal has no gliding adaptations,

    我們會覺得驚訝,

  • so we thought, "Oh that's okay. We'll put it in a vertical wind tunnel.

    是因為壁虎並沒有滑翔的本領,

  • We'll blow the air up, we'll give it a landing target, a tree trunk,

    所以我們想:「好吧,我們把壁虎放進一個垂直的風管,

  • just outside the plexi-glass enclosure, and see what it does.

    吹氣上來,然後設定一個降落點,就設定一個樹幹吧...

  • (Laughter)

    放在塑膠玻璃圍籬的外面,看看它的反應如何。」

  • So we did. And here is what it does.

    (笑聲)

  • So the wind is coming from the bottom. This is slowed down 10 times.

    我們真的做了,請看影片。

  • It does an equilibrium glide. Highly controlled.

    風會從底下吹上來,這是速度放慢十倍的影片,

  • This is sort of incredible. But actually it's quite beautiful,

    它滑翔得非常平穩,控制得非常好,

  • when you take a picture of it.

    真是令人不敢相信!你如果替它照張相,

  • And it's better than that, it -- just in the slide -- maneuvers in mid-air.

    其實還挺美的呢!

  • And the way it does it, is it takes its tail

    還不只這樣,在它滑動的時候,它還可以在空中轉向,

  • and it swings it one way to yaw left, and it swings its other way to yaw right.

    它將尾巴擺動向一邊

  • So we can maneuver this way.

    好向左偏轉,然後再擺動向另一邊再向右偏轉,

  • And then -- we had to film this several times to believe this --

    就是靠這個動作來轉向的。

  • it also does this. Watch this.

    還有,我們看了好幾次影片才相信它會做這個動作,

  • It oscillates its tail up and down like a dolphin.

    看,它還會做這個動作,

  • It can actually swim through the air.

    它會像海豚一樣上下擺動尾巴,

  • But watch its front legs. Can you see what they are doing?

    就像在空中游泳一樣。

  • What does that mean for the origin of flapping flight?

    再看看它的前腳,看到它在做什麼嗎?

  • Maybe it's evolved from coming down from trees,

    像不像在振翅飛翔?

  • and trying to control a glide.

    或許這是由樹上下來的動作演化而來,

  • Stay tuned for that.

    然後它試著做得像滑翔一樣。

  • (Laughter)

    別轉台哦!

  • So then we wondered, "Can they actually maneuver with this?"

    (笑聲)

  • So there is the landing target. Could they steer towards it

    然後我們又想:「他們真的能夠控制方向嗎?」

  • with these capabilities? Here it is in the wind tunnel.

    所以我們設了一個降落點,看他們能不能降落在那裡?

  • And it certainly looks like it.

    現在它在風管裡,

  • You can see it even better from down on top.

    它好像很享受的樣子,

  • Watch the animal.

    你看到它上升的時候做得更好,

  • Definitely moving towards the landing target.

    看看這隻壁虎,

  • Watch the whip of its tail as it does it. Look at that.

    完全朝降落點前進。

  • It's unbelievable.

    看看它尾巴的擺動,你看看,

  • So now we were really confused,

    真是令人不敢相信!

  • because there are no reports of it gliding.

    我們有點搞不清楚了,

  • So we went, "Oh my god, we have to go to the field,

    因為以前從來沒有人說過壁虎會滑翔。

  • and see if it actually does this."

    所以我們想:「天啊!我們得到野外去,

  • Completely opposite of the way you'd see it on a nature film, of course.

    看看野外的壁虎是不是真的會滑翔。」

  • We wondered, "Do they actually glide in nature?"

    這完全和你看的野生動物影片製作的觀點相反,

  • Well we went to the forests of Singapore and Southeast Asia.

    我們想:「他們真的會在野外滑翔嗎?」

  • And the next video you see is the first time we've showed this.

    我們跑到新加坡和東南亞的森林裡去,

  • This is the actual video -- not staged, a real research video --

    等會兒你們將會看到首次公開播映的影片。

  • of animal gliding down. There is a red trajectory line.

    這是真實的野外影片,不是設計過的,

  • Look at the end to see the animal.

    是真的研究壁虎滑翔下來的影片--那兒有一條紅色的滑翔線,

  • But then as it gets closer to the tree,

    在末端可以看到壁虎,

  • look at the close-up. And see if you can see it land.

    當它靠近樹的時候,

  • So there it comes down. There is a gecko at the end of that trajectory line.

    要注意看特寫鏡頭,看看你是否能看到它降落的畫面。

  • You see it there? There? Watch it come down.

    它下來了,有一隻壁虎在滑翔線的末端,

  • Now watch up there and you can see the landing. Did you see it hit?

    看到了嗎?在那裡,它下來了,

  • It actually uses its tail too,

    你看上面的特寫鏡頭就會看到它降落的畫面,看到了嗎?

  • just like we saw in the lab.

    它真的有用它的尾巴幫忙,

  • So now we can continue this mutualism

    就像我們在實驗室裡看到的一樣。

  • by suggesting that they can make an active tail.

    所以我們可以繼續這種互惠的機制,

  • And here is the first active tail, in the robot,

    告訴這些工程師他們可以製作一條有作用的尾巴。

  • made by Boston Dynamics.

    這是第一個裝設有作用的尾巴的機器人,

  • So to conclude, I think we need to build biomutualisms, like I showed,

    由Boston Dynamics製作。

  • that will increase the pace of basic discovery in their application.

    結論是,我覺得我們應該建立生物互惠學的機制,就像我所展示的,

  • To do this though, we need to redesign education in a major way,

    這樣會增進基礎科學進步的腳步。

  • to balance depth with interdisciplinary communication,

    但要做到這一步,我們必須對教育做出重大改變,

  • and explicitly train people how to contribute to, and benefit from other disciplines.

    以加強各學科間溝通的深度,

  • And of course you need the organisms and the environment to do it.

    並讓各學科的專家有機會教學相長。

  • That is, whether you care about security, search and rescue or health,

    當然這需要環境的配合,以及適當的機制。

  • we must preserve nature's designs,

    不管你在不在乎安全、搜救、救援或健康,

  • otherwise these secrets will be lost forever.

    我們都必須保護大自然的設計,

  • And from what I heard from our new president,

    否則這些祕密將會永遠遺失。