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  • This video is sponsored by Squarespace.

    這部影片是由 Squarespace 贊助播出

  • Sign up with the link in the description

    點擊說明處的連結來註冊

  • to get a free trial and 10% off your first purchase.

    以獲得試用版本以及九折的首購優惠

  • Hey guys, I'm giving away some Freedom in Thought t-shirts.

    嗨大家!我會送出一些 Freedom in Thought 圓領汗衫

  • If you want to enter to win one,

    如果你想要進來贏走它,

  • just follow me on Twitter, Instagram and reply to one of these posts with your shirt size.

    只要在 Twitter 和 Instagram 上追蹤我,並在貼文當中留下你衣服的尺寸

  • I have sizes ranging from small to double XL.

    我的尺寸有從小號到特大號

  • The winners will be chosen by next week.

    下禮拜會選出獲獎者

  • [Music]

  • In my last essay, we discussed the importance of critical thinking.

    在我上個短文中,我們討論了批判性思考的重要性。

  • Now it's time to answer the trillion dollar question:

    現在我們要回答一個價值上兆的問題

  • How do you become a critical thinker?

    如何成為一個會批判性思考的人?

  • I should reiterate that I am talking about critical thinking

    我得先重申,我說的批判性思考

  • in the sense that it is a personality trait and not a skill.

    從某種意義上說,是一種人格特質而不是一種技能

  • The tendency to think critically about the world emerges from

    要去批判性思考的這種傾向起源於

  • having the proper character traits.

    有適當的性格特徵

  • I think the following traits serve as a good starting point.

    我認為以下特徵是很好的開始

  • "Open and fair-mindedness, inquisitiveness, flexibility,

    「開放、公正、好奇心強、靈活性強、

  • a propensity to seek reason, a desire to be well-informed

    喜歡追根究底、渴望消息靈通,

  • and a respect for and willingness to entertain diverse viewpoints."

    尊重和樂於接受各種不同的觀點。」

  • Emily Lai, Pearson Assessments

    Emily Lai, Pearson Assessments

  • There is no quick hack to becoming a critical thinker,

    成為一個批判性思考者沒有捷徑

  • but there are some habits that

    但有些習慣

  • one can build to alter their character in the right direction.

    是一個人可以先建立起來以將自己的性格往正確的方向做修正

  • Habit number one: Read a lot and read widely.

    習慣一:大量且廣泛地閱讀

  • Exposing yourself to unique points of view

    將自己暴露在一個特別的觀點

  • is a good way to spark constant curiosity and to stay open-minded.

    是個維持好奇心以及保持心胸寬廣的態度的好方法

  • Well-read people understand that

    好的閱讀者都知道

  • there are multiple ways to look at a problem

    可以用好幾種方法去看待一個問題

  • and multiple lenses with which to view the world.

    以及好多個觀點去看這個世界

  • Habit number two: Don't jump to conclusions.

    習慣二:不要妄下結論

  • A good critical thinker has built up

    一個好的批判性思考者都建立了

  • the habit of not jumping to conclusions, especially in the absence of data.

    不要隨便跳到結論的習慣,特別是在沒有足夠數據的時候

  • They only make a judgement once they have studied a topic in some depth

    他們只會在他們對一主題有深入研究之後才會做判斷

  • and can justify their position with sound reasoning.

    並有嚴謹的邏輯證明自己的立場

  • Habit number three: Create systems, not goals.

    習慣三:創造系統,而非目標

  • For example, creating a system, habit, or ritual that promotes writing every day

    比方說,為了每天精進自己的寫作能力而創造一個系統、習慣或是儀式

  • is more effective than setting the goal of writing an essay a week.

    會比設定一週一作文還來得有效。

  • A system can be measured, refined and optimized. A goal cannot.

    系統可以被測量、改進和優化。目標則不行

  • I can work on the inputs of my system to create better quality and quantity of outputs.

    我可以在我系統的輸入端下功夫以改善我產出的品質和數量

  • A goal only focuses on the outputs.

    目標只專注在產出

  • To improve the quality of my writing,

    為了改善我寫作的品質

  • I created checklist that I can run through after completing each essay.

    我會創一個在我每次寫完作文後可以檢視的清單

  • Every time I use my system, I create better essays.

    每當我使用我的系統,我都會寫出更好的文章

  • With every essay I finish, I go back and refine my system.

    我每寫一篇文章,我就會回去修改我的系統

  • It's a feedback loop that can be measured and improved.

    這是一個可以被測量以及精進的回饋輪迴

  • Habit number four: Argue with yourself.

    習慣四:與自己辯論

  • Great thinkers routinely and intelligently try to counter their own arguments.

    優秀的思考者會規律性地、明智地反駁對自己的論點

  • They go back and forth until

    他們會一直做這件事直到

  • only the most rational and strongest argument exists based on the knowledge they have.

    在他們認知內最合理、最有力的論點出現

  • This is also the mission of any good scientists.

    這也是好科學家的任務

  • The scientist tries to prove themselves wrong, not right.

    科學家會試圖證明自己是錯的,而不是對的

  • When they continually fail to do so,

    當他們無法證明自己是錯的

  • it's very likely that only the truth remains.

    那就有可能剩下來的東西就是真理

  • Habit number five: Be willing to change your opinion, be unattached to information,

    習慣五:願意改變自己的意見,不要依賴資訊

  • have the willingness to change an opinion in the face of better data.

    在有更好的數據支持時樂意改變自己的意見

  • Habit number six: Write.

    習慣六:書寫

  • Writing is thinking.

    在書寫時就是在思考

  • The better we get at writing, the better we get at thinking.

    我們越會書寫就越會思考

  • Writing also helps us separate what we actually know from what we think we know.

    書寫會讓我們將「我們真的知道的」跟「我們以為我們知道的」分開

  • Habit number seven: Seek adversity.

    習慣七:尋求逆境

  • This one is controversial, but I believe it's the most powerful.

    這點有爭議,但我認為非常有用

  • The main reason schools fail to teach critical thinking

    學校沒有教批判性思維的主要原因

  • is because they don't create the optimal environment to foster the correct character traits.

    在於他們沒有創造一個適合培養正確人格特性的環境

  • Schools are overly standardized and structured.

    學校太制式化跟架構化了

  • The rules are very rigid.

    規則很僵硬

  • Once students understand the rules, school becomes a game.

    一旦學生了解了規則,學校就變成了遊戲

  • Once they've established a game strategy that works,

    一旦他們建立了一套可行的遊戲策略

  • they can play the game very passively and get by.

    他們可以非常被動地在這遊戲過關

  • Most students quickly learn the bare minimum amount of effort required to get a job.

    大部分的學生很快就學到了花最小力氣找到工作的方法

  • And then they have no incentive to work harder and to think actively.

    在這之後他們就沒有了認真工作、積極思考的動機了

  • But if you take them out of that game, if you break the immersion,

    但如果你把他們抓出遊戲,如果你打破這封閉的環境

  • they are now forced to think critically.

    他們就會被迫進行批判性思考

  • In adversity, they learn to create new rules and break old ones.

    在逆境中,他們學會創造新規並打破舊規

  • They have to because it's either do or die.

    他們必須這麼做,否則就會被淘汰

  • The shift from a passive thinker to an active thinker

    從被動的思考者變成一個主動的思考者

  • is very subtle on the surface because it happens internally.

    表面的變化是非常微小的,因為這會發生在內在

  • It requires internal conviction, a strong belief in oneself.

    它需要信念,對自己很強的信念

  • Regardless of how many tips I give someone to become a critical thinker,

    儘管我給想要變成批判性思考者的人許多小技巧

  • It ultimately has to come from a deep desire within.

    但這一切都來自發自內心的渴望

  • Most great women and men have gone through adversity.

    許多偉大的女性、男性都走過困境

  • Why? Because adversity generates a lot of internal conviction.

    為什麼?因為困境使人產生許多內部信念

  • This internal conviction drives them and constantly shifts them into active modes of thinking .

    這種內部信念驅使著他們,不斷將他們轉換到積極的思考方式

  • Instead of living defensively, they attack life with ferocity.

    他們不防禦性地過活,他們猛烈地攻擊生命

  • They know they're gonna die one day. Time is running out.

    他們知道自己有一天會死。時間正在一點一滴流逝

  • They don't know when that day will come, so they attack life.

    他們不知道那天什麼時候會到來,所以他們主動出擊

  • They race against death because they have a purpose to fulfill.

    他們跟死亡賽跑,因為他們有目標要去達成

  • I like to think of critical thinking as a tendency and not a skill.

    我喜歡將批判性思考當作一種傾向而非技能

  • Great thinkers constantly tend towards critical thinking in their daily lives.

    傑出的思考者在日常生活中會不斷地傾向批判性地思考事情

  • If school doesn't teach students critical thinking, where are people learning it?

    如果說學校不教批判性思考,那人們是從哪裡習得的呢?

  • Life, adversity, books, the Internet.

    生活中、困境裡、書上、網路上

  • These people become critical thinkers despite school not because of it.

    這些人不是因為學校而成為批判性思考家

  • They learn it because they have to.

    他們是因為有需要所以才去學

  • I believe that one day schools will catch up into a better job of fostering this environment,

    我相信有一天,學校會跟上腳步,會去培育一個這樣的環境

  • but, thankfully, we always have the power to put ourselves in a position to learn it.

    但,謝天謝替地,我們都有能力讓自己去學習

  • Thanks to Squarespace.

    感謝 Squarespace

  • Anyone who clicks the link in the description will get a free trial and 10% off their first purchase.

    點在說明欄位裡面的連結的人都會得到免費試用的版本,以及九成的首購優惠

  • Squarespace allows you to make beautiful websites with their all-in-one platform.

    Squarespace 讓你可以在多合一的平台做出漂亮的網站

  • You don't need to know any coding at all to get started,

    你不需要會寫的程式就可以開始

  • and they have beautiful award-winning templates.

    他們有漂亮的、獲獎的模板

  • When I first started Freedom in Thought, it began as a blog for engineering students,

    當 Freedom in Thought 剛開始時,他是一個給工程系學生的部落格

  • and the platform I used to set up that blog with Squarespace.

    當時我就是用 Squarespace 來建立部落格

  • They made it easy for me to get a good looking website up,

    他們讓人很容易就可以做出漂亮的網站、

  • and just get started with the writing and publishing.

    上手及發布

  • I now use them to run three of my websites: Engineering Worth for engineering students,

    我現在用他來經營我的三個網站:給工程系學生的 Engineering Worth、

  • Freedom in Thought, and my own personal and professional website.

    Freedom in Thought 以及我自己的專業網站

  • Whether you're a musician, designer, entrepreneur or student,

    無論你是音樂家、設計師、企業家或學生

  • a good professional web site is a must, and Squarespace can help you set one up easily.

    你都需要一個專業的網站,而 Squarespace 幫你輕鬆建立一個

  • Again, click the link in the description to get a free trial and 10% off your first purchase.

    一樣,點擊說明欄的連結去獲得免費試用的機會和九成的首購優惠

  • As always, thanks for watching, and I'll see you next time.

    不免俗地,感謝收看,下次再見

This video is sponsored by Squarespace.

這部影片是由 Squarespace 贊助播出

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 批判性 思考 習慣 書寫 信念 學校

高效率思考者的七個習慣 (7 Habits of Highly Effective Thinkers)

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    林恩立 發佈於 2017 年 12 月 16 日
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