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  • There's a play so powerful that an old superstition says

    有一齣戲,它極具影響力,甚至,古老的迷信曾說

  • its name should never even be uttered in a theater,

    它的名字永不能在劇院裡全盤說出

  • a play that begins with witchcraft and ends with a bloody severed head,

    這是一齣劇始於巫術,而止於一個血腥的斷頭

  • a play filled with riddles, prophesies, nightmare visions,

    這是一齣劇關於謎語、預言、夢魘

  • and lots of brutal murder,

    與許多殘忍的謀殺

  • a play by William Shakespeare sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Play"

    這是一齣威廉.莎士比亞的戲,他有時稱為「那部蘇格蘭話劇」

  • or the "Tragedy of Macbeth."

    或「馬克白的悲劇」

  • First performed at the Globe Theater in London in 1606,

    它在 1606 年的時候,第一次在倫敦的環球劇場演出

  • "Macbeth" is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy.

    「馬克白」是莎士比亞最短的悲劇

  • It is also one of his most action-packed.

    也是他最精采生動的一個

  • In five acts, he recounts a story of a Scottish nobleman

    在五幕的劇情裡,他講述了一個蘇格蘭貴族

  • who steals the throne,

    搶奪王位

  • presides over a reign of terror,

    並用恐懼統治一切

  • and then meets a bloody end.

    最後以一個血腥的結局收場

  • Along the way, it asks important questions about ambition,

    一路上,它探討了許多重要的問題像是野心

  • power,

    權力

  • and violence

    與暴力

  • that spoke directly to the politics of Shakespeare's time

    他們全部直接講述了莎士比亞當代的政治

  • and continue to echo in our own.

    並持續令我們引發反響

  • England in the early 17th century was politically precarious.

    17 世紀初,英國正處於政治動盪的時候

  • Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 without producing an heir,

    伊莉莎白女王在沒有子嗣的情況下,死於 1603 年

  • and in a surprise move,

    出於一個意料之外的舉動

  • her advisors passed the crown to James Stewart, King of Scotland.

    她的顧問將王位傳給了蘇格蘭王 James Stewart

  • Two years later, James was subject to an assassination attempt

    兩年後,有人企圖暗殺 James

  • called the Gunpowder Plot.

    這被稱為火藥陰謀

  • Questions of what made for a legitimate king

    什麼才能促成一個正當的國王的疑慮

  • were on everyone's lips.

    被大家議論紛紛

  • So Shakespeare must have known he had potent material

    所以,莎士比亞當時一定知道他有這有利的素材

  • when he conflated and adapted the stories

    他彙整並改編成一個故事

  • of a murderous 11th century Scottish King named Macbeth

    關於 在兇殘的 11 世紀裡,一個叫馬克白的蘇格蘭王

  • and those of several other Scottish nobles.

    以及許多其他蘇格蘭貴族

  • He found their annals in Hollinshed's "Chronicles,"

    他在《霍林希德編年史》裡找到他們的紀載

  • a popular 16th century history of Britain and Ireland.

    這是一部知名的英國與愛爾蘭 16 世紀史記

  • Shakespeare would also have known he needed to tell his story

    莎士比亞也知道他的故事的講述方式

  • in a way that would immediately grab the attention

    必須足以立即引起

  • of his diverse and rowdy audience.

    他吵雜且多元的觀眾的注意

  • The Globe welcomed all sections of society.

    環球劇場歡迎社會各階層的人們

  • Wealthier patrons watched the stage from covered balconies

    有錢的觀眾從有遮陰的露臺上看劇

  • while poorer people paid a penny to take in the show

    而較貧窮的觀眾付一便士

  • from an open-air section called the pit.

    在一個通稱池子的開放式空間觀賞

  • Talking, jeering, and cheering was common during performances.

    討論、嘲笑和歡呼在表演當中是稀鬆平常的事

  • There are even accounts of audiences throwing furniture when plays were flops.

    有記錄顯示如果這場劇徹底失敗了,觀眾甚至會扔家具上台

  • So "Macbeth" opens with a literal bang.

    所以,馬克白的開場如字面上一樣的「蹦」一聲

  • Thunder cracks and three witches appear.

    雷霆乍響,三位女巫現身

  • They announce they're searching

    他們宣稱自己正在尋找

  • for a Scottish nobleman and war hero named Macbeth,

    一位戰爭英雄的蘇格蘭貴族,叫做馬克白

  • then fly off while chanting a curse that predicts a world gone mad.

    他們隨即飛走並反覆吟唱著,預言說世界將會崩壞

  • "Fair is foul and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air."

    「好即是壞,壞即是好。我們徘徊在雲霧與濁氣中。」

  • As seen later, they find Macbeth and his fellow nobleman Banquo.

    隨後,他們找到了馬克白與他的貴族夥伴班戈

  • "All hail Macbeth," they prophesize, "that shalt be king hereafter!"

    「萬眾向你致敬,馬克白,」 他們預言說, 「你日後將成為國王!」

  • "King?" Macbeth wonders.

    「國王?」馬克白遲疑著

  • Just what would he have to do to gain the crown?

    他該如何去做以獲得皇位?

  • Macbeth and his wife Lady Macbeth

    馬克白夫人與他的妻子馬克白夫人

  • soon chart a course of murder, lies, and betrayal.

    迅速的密謀了謀殺、謊言與背叛

  • In the ensuing bloodbath,

    確保了這血洗的場面

  • Shakespeare provides viewers with some of the most memorable passages

    莎士比亞給了讀者許多英國文學中

  • in English literature.

    最值得回味的段落

  • "Out, damned spot! Out, I say!" Lady Macbeth cries when she believes

    「去掉!該死的血跡!我說,去掉!」馬克白夫人哭喊著

  • she can't wipe her victim's blood off her hands.

    此時,她相信她沒辦法將死者的血從手中抹除

  • Her obsession with guilt is one of many themes that runs through the play,

    她對於罪疚的執著是其中一個貫穿了整齣戲的元素

  • along with the universal tendency to abuse power,

    伴隨著對權力的濫用的普遍傾向

  • the endless cycles of violence and betrayal,

    暴力與背叛的無盡輪迴

  • the defying political conflict.

    以及無謂的政治鬥爭

  • As is typical with Shakespeare's language,

    就如典型的莎士比亞語言

  • a number of phrases that got their start in the play

    許多段落首次出現在劇本裡

  • have been repeated so many times that they now feel commonplace.

    卻被重複了無數次,以至於他們現在變成了慣用語

  • They include "the milk of human kindness,"

    這些段落包括了「人們的惻隱之心」

  • "what's done is done,"

    「木已成舟,覆水難收」

  • and the famous witches' spell,

    以及女巫有名的咒語

  • "Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn, and caldron bubble."

    「加倍再加倍,勞身又費神;釡底火烈烈,釡中沸滾滾。」

  • But Shakespeares saves the juiciest bit of all for Macbeth himself.

    但是,莎士比亞把最刺激的留給了馬克白自己

  • Towards the end of the play, Macbeth reflects on the universality of death

    當劇接近尾聲時,馬克白回顧了死亡的恆常性

  • and the futility of life.

    與生命的無勞

  • "Out, out, brief candle!" he laments.

    「滅了吧、滅了吧,這短暫的燭火!」他唾棄著

  • "Life's but a walking shadow,

    「人生不過是四處飄流的陰影」

  • a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage

    「舞台上可憐的演員, 不是趾高氣昂,便是愁苦煩躁」

  • and then is heard no more.

    「事過境遷,終將消失無影」

  • It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury

    「這段故事,由傻子講述,語氣激昂」

  • signifying nothing."

    「卻毫無意義」

  • Life may be a tale told my an idiot, but "Macbeth" is not.

    人生可能是個愚者在講述著,但《馬克白》可不是

  • Shakespeare's language and characters have entered our cultural consciousness

    莎士比亞的語言和腳色以罕見的手法

  • to a rare extent.

    滲入我們的文化意識

  • Directors often use the story to shed light on abuses of power,

    導演時常用故事去揭曉權力的濫用

  • ranging from the American mafia

    範圍從美國黑手黨

  • to dictators across the globe.

    到全世界的獨裁者

  • The play has been adapted to film many times,

    這齣戲被改編成電影無數次了

  • including Akira Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood,"

    包刮了黑澤明的《蜘蛛巢城》

  • which takes place in feudal Japan,

    它發生於日本封建時代

  • and a modernized version called "Scotland, PA,"

    另外一部則是現代的版本叫做 《蘇格蘭場》

  • in which Macbeth and his rivals

    這部裡,馬克白和他的對手

  • are managers of competing fast food restaurants.

    變成了競爭關係的速食餐廳的主管

  • No matter the presentation,

    無論用甚麼方式展現

  • questions of morality,

    這些關於道德

  • politics,

    政治

  • and power are still relevant today,

    以及權力的質疑仍與今日息息相關

  • and so, it seems, is Shakespeare's "Macbeth."

    因次,一切看來都是莎士比亞的《馬克白》

There's a play so powerful that an old superstition says

有一齣戲,它極具影響力,甚至,古老的迷信曾說

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 莎士比亞 講述 貴族 蘇格蘭 段落

【TED-Ed】你為什麼要讀《麥克白》?- Brendan Pelsue (【TED-Ed】Why should you read "Macbeth"? - Brendan Pelsue)

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    詹士緯 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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