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  • This story starts: I was at a friend's house,

    故事是這樣開頭的:我當時在一個朋友家,

  • and she had on her shelf a copy of the DSM manual,

    她書櫃上有一本 DSM 手冊,

  • which is the manual of mental disorders.

    也就是精神疾病診斷與統計手冊。

  • It lists every known mental disorder.

    裡頭列出每個已知的精神疾病。

  • And it used to be, back in the '50s, a very slim pamphlet.

    在 1950 年代的時候,這只是一本很薄的手冊。

  • And then it got bigger and bigger and bigger,

    接著它愈變愈厚

  • and now it's 886 pages long.

    現在它已經有 886 頁這麼多了。

  • And it lists currently 374 mental disorders.

    目前列出 374 種精神疾病。

  • So I was leafing through it,

    我匆匆翻閱一下,

  • wondering if I had any mental disorders,

    好奇我有沒有任何精神疾病,

  • and it turns out I've got 12.

    結果我得了12種。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I've got generalized anxiety disorder,

    我有廣泛性焦慮症,

  • which is a given.

    這大家都知道。

  • I've got nightmare disorder,

    我有夢魘症,

  • which is categorized

    這被歸類為

  • if you have recurrent dreams of being pursued or declared a failure --

    如果你定期作有關被追趕或者被稱為失敗者的夢 --

  • and all my dreams involve people chasing me down the street

    而我所有的夢都涉及人們在街上追趕我,

  • going, "You're a failure."

    那麼:「你是個失敗者。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I've got parent-child relational problems,

    我還有親子關係問題,

  • which I blame my parents for.

    這要怪到我父母頭上。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I'm kidding. I'm not kidding.

    我在開玩笑。我是認真的。

  • I'm kidding.

    我是在開玩笑。

  • And I've got malingering.

    我還會裝病。

  • And I think it's actually quite rare

    我覺得同時擁有

  • to have both malingering and generalized anxiety disorder,

    詐病和廣泛性焦慮症是很不尋常的事,

  • because malingering tends to make me feel very anxious.

    因為詐病時容易使我感覺非常焦慮。

  • Anyway I was looking through this book,

    於是我當時在翻閱這本手冊,

  • wondering if I was much crazier than I thought I was,

    好奇我是否比想像中更瘋狂,

  • or maybe it's not a good idea to diagnose yourself with a mental disorder

    或者如果你不是受過訓練的專業人士,

  • if you're not a trained professional,

    診斷你自己的精神疾病不是個好主意,

  • or maybe the psychiatry profession has a strange desire

    又或者精神病學有個奇怪的慾望

  • to label what's essentially normal human behavior as a mental disorder.

    將本來正常的人類行為貼上精神疾病的標籤。

  • I didn't know which of these things was true,

    我不知道什麼才是真的,

  • but I thought it was kind of interesting.

    但我覺得這滿有趣的。

  • And I thought maybe I should meet a critic of psychiatry

    我想說或許我可以跟精神學批判家見面,

  • to get their view.

    了解他們的想法。

  • Which is how I ended up having lunch with the Scientologists.

    這也是我為什麼最後會和山達基教徒吃午餐的原因。

  • It was a man called Brian

    這位男子名叫 Brian,

  • who runs a crack team of Scientologists

    他經營一個有聲有色的山達基教徒團隊,

  • who are determined to destroy psychiatry wherever it lies.

    他們下定決心要摧毀所有的精神病學。

  • They're called the CCHR.

    他們被稱為國際公民人權委員會。

  • And I said to him, "Can you prove to me

    我跟他說:「你能向我證明

  • that psychiatry is a pseudo-science that can't be trusted?"

    精神病學是不能相信的假科學嗎?」

  • And he said, "Yes, we can prove it to you."

    他說:「可以,我們可以證明給你看。」

  • And I said, "How?"

    我說:「怎麼做?」

  • And he said, "We're going to introduce you to Tony."

    他說:「我們會介紹你給 Tony。」

  • And I said, "Who's Tony?"

    我說:「Tony 是誰?」

  • And he said, "Tony's in Broadmoor."

    他說:「Tony 在布羅德莫。」

  • Now Broadmoor is Broadmoor Hospital.

    布羅德莫指的是布羅德莫醫院。

  • It used to be known as the Broadmoor Asylum for the Criminally Insane.

    以前被稱為布羅德莫精神病院,用來監禁發瘋的罪犯。

  • It's where they send the serial killers

    連續殺人犯

  • and the people who can't help themselves.

    還有不能自救的人們被送到這裡。

  • And I said to Brian, "What did Tony do?"

    我跟 Brian說;「Tony 做了什麼事?」

  • And he said, "Hardly anything.

    他說:「沒做什麼。

  • He beat someone up or something,

    他打了某人一頓之類的,

  • and he decided to fake madness to get out of a prison sentence.

    然後他決定假裝他發瘋了所以不用坐牢。

  • But he faked it too well, and now he's stuck in Broadmoor

    但是他裝得太像了,現在他被困在布羅德莫,

  • and nobody will believe he's sane.

    沒有人相信他是神智正常。

  • Do you want us to try and get you into Broadmoor to meet Tony?"

    你想要我們試著將你送進布羅德莫醫院和 Tony 見面嗎?」

  • So I said, "Yes, please."

    我回答:「是的,請這麼做。」

  • So I got the train to Broadmoor.

    於是我火車到布羅德莫。

  • I began to yawn uncontrollably around Kempton Park,

    當我到肯普頓公園附近時,我開始無法控制地打呵欠。

  • which apparently is what dogs also do when anxious --

    很明顯就像狗焦慮時會做的事 --

  • they yawn uncontrollably.

    牠們不能控制地打呵欠。

  • And we got to Broadmoor.

    於是我們到了醫院。

  • And I got taken through gate after gate after gate after gate

    我被引導通過一道接著一道接著一道的大門,

  • into the wellness center,

    才進入健康中心,

  • which is where you get to meet the patients.

    你可以在這裡和病人見面。

  • It looks like a giant Hampton Inn.

    裝潢看起來像是超大的漢普頓飯店。

  • It's all peach and pine and calming colors.

    所間皆是粉橘色,木頭色和令人安穩的顏色。

  • And the only bold colors are the reds of the panic buttons.

    唯一大膽的顏色是緊急按鈕的紅色。

  • And the patients started drifting in.

    接著病患開始進來。

  • And they were quite overweight and wearing sweatpants

    他們明顯地過胖,穿著寬鬆的運動長褲,

  • and quite docile looking.

    看起來很溫馴。

  • And Brian the Scientologist whispered to me,

    身為山達基教徒的 Brian 在我耳邊低聲說,

  • "They're medicated,"

    「他們有接受藥物控制。」

  • which to the Scientologists is like the worst evil in the world,

    這對山達基教徒們就像是世界上最邪惡的事,

  • but I'm thinking it's probably a good idea.

    但我心想這或許是最好的做法。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And then Brian said, "Here's Tony."

    接著 Brian 說:「Tony 來了。」

  • And a man was walking in.

    於是一個男人走進來。

  • And he wasn't overweight, he was in very good physical shape.

    他沒有過胖,他體態非常好。

  • And he wasn't wearing sweatpants,

    他也沒有穿寬鬆的運動褲,

  • he was wearing a pinstriped suit.

    他穿著細直條紋的西裝。

  • And he had his arm outstretched

    而且他的手臂向外延展,

  • like someone out of The Apprentice.

    像是電視實境節目《誰是接班人》裡面的人物。

  • He looked like a man who wanted to wear an outfit

    他看起來像是一個把精心打扮體面

  • that would convince me that he was very sane.

    想要說服我他很清醒的人。

  • And he sat down.

    他坐了下來。

  • And I said, "So is it true that you faked your way in here?"

    我說:「所以你裝瘋混進來這裡是真的嗎?」

  • And he said, "Yep. Yep. Absolutely. I beat someone up when I was 17.

    他說:「對,對,當然。我 17 歲時打了某人一頓。

  • And I was in prison awaiting trial,

    當時我在監獄裡等審判,

  • and my cellmate said to me,

    我的牢友跟我說:

  • 'You know what you have to do?

    「你知道你該怎麼做嗎?

  • Fake madness.

    假裝你瘋了。

  • Tell them you're mad. You'll get sent to some cushy hospital.

    告訴他們你發瘋了。你就會被送到很可以過得很輕鬆的醫院。

  • Nurses will bring you pizzas.

    護士會送披薩給你吃。

  • You'll have your own Playstation.'"

    你會有你自己的 PS 遊戲機。」

  • So I said, "Well how did you do it?"

    於是我說:「你當時是怎麼做的?」

  • He said, "I asked to see the prison psychiatrist.

    他說:「我要求要見監獄的精神醫生。

  • And I'd just seen a film called 'Crash'

    我當時剛看完一齣叫《超速性追緝》的電影,

  • in which people get sexual pleasure from crashing cars into walls.

    當中人們藉由開車撞牆達到性愛的愉悅。

  • So I said to the psychiatrist,

    所以我跟那位精神醫生說,

  • 'I get sexual pleasure from crashing cars into walls.'"

    「我從開車撞牆中得到性愛的愉悅。」

  • And I said, "What else?"

    我說:「還有呢?」

  • He said, "Oh, yeah. I told the psychiatrist

    他說:「喔,對了,我告訴那位精神醫生

  • that I wanted to watch women as they died

    我想要看女人死亡

  • because it would make me feel more normal."

    因為那會讓我感到更正常。」

  • And I said, "Where'd you get that from?"

    我說:「你從哪得到這想法?」

  • He said, "Oh, from a biography of Ted Bundy

    他說:「從泰德邦迪 (美國七十年代連續殺人犯) 的傳記,

  • that they had at the prison library."

    監獄圖書館有這本書。」

  • Anyway he faked madness too well, he said.

    反正他說他裝瘋裝得太像了,

  • And they didn't send him to some cushy hospital.

    所以他們沒有將他送到一些可以混得很輕鬆的醫院。

  • They sent him to Broadmoor.

    他們將他送到布羅德莫。

  • And the minute he got there,

    當他一到達這裡,

  • he said he took one look at the place, asked to see the psychiatrist,

    他說他看了這個地方一眼,要求要見精神醫生,

  • said, "There's been a terrible misunderstanding.

    他要說:「有一個很嚴重的誤會。

  • I'm not mentally ill."

    我沒有精神異常。」

  • I said, "How long have you been here for?"

    我說:「你在這裡多久了?」

  • He said, "Well, if I'd just done my time in prison for the original crime,

    他說:「嗯,如果我要為我原本犯的罪坐牢的話,

  • I'd have got five years.

    必須被關五年。

  • I've been in Broadmoor for 12 years."

    我已經在布羅德莫12年了。」

  • Tony said that it's a lot harder to convince people you're sane

    Tony 說要說服別人你是神智正常的

  • than it is to convince them you're crazy.

    比你瘋了還要困難得多。

  • He said, "I thought the best way to seem normal

    他說:「我心想表現正常的最佳方式是

  • would be to talk to people normally about normal things

    跟人們正常地聊普通的事情,

  • like football or what's on TV.

    像是足球或者電視上的節目。

  • I subscribe to New Scientist,

    我訂閱了《新科學家》雜誌,

  • and recently it had an article

    最近雜誌上有一則文章

  • about how the U.S. Army was training bumblebees to sniff out explosives.

    關於美國軍隊正在訓練大黃蜂能嗅出爆裂物。

  • So I said to a nurse,

    於是我告訴一位護士:

  • 'Did you know that the U.S. army is training bumblebees

    『你知道美國軍隊正在訓練大黃蜂

  • to sniff out explosives?'

    能嗅出爆裂物嗎?』

  • When I read my medical notes,

    當我讀我自己的診療紀錄時,

  • I saw they'd written:

    我看到他們寫了:

  • 'Believes bees can sniff out explosives.'"

    『相信蜜蜂可以嗅出爆裂物。』」

  • He said, "You know, they're always looking out

    他說:「你知道嗎,他們總是

  • for non-verbal clues to my mental state.

    為我的精神狀態找尋不能用言語表達的線索。

  • But how do you sit in a sane way?

    但你要怎麼神智清楚地坐著?

  • How do you cross your legs in a sane way?

    但你要怎麼神智清楚地翹腿?

  • It's just impossible."

    這根本就不可能。」

  • And when Tony said that to me,

    當 Tony 跟我說時,

  • I thought to myself, "Am I sitting like a journalist?

    我心想:「我現在像個記者坐著嗎?

  • Am I crossing my legs like a journalist?"

    我像個記者翹腳嗎?」

  • He said, "You know, I've got the Stockwell Strangler on one side of me

    他說:「你知道嗎,我的一邊是斯托克維爾殺人案兇手,

  • and I've got the 'Tiptoe Through the Tulips' rapist on the other side of me.

    另一邊是約會強暴犯。

  • So I tend to stay in my room a lot because I find them quite frightening.

    所以我傾向於多待在我的房間裡,因為我覺得他們很嚇人。

  • And they take that as a sign of madness.

    而他們將那視為瘋狂的一種徵象。

  • They say it proves that I'm aloof and grandiose."

    他們說那證明了我很冷漠又誇張。」

  • So only in Broadmoor would not wanting to hang out with serial killers

    所以只有在布羅德莫,不想跟連續殺人犯相處

  • be a sign of madness.

    會被視為瘋狂的徵象。

  • Anyway he seemed completely normal to me -- but what did I know?

    反正我覺得他十分正常 -- 但是我怎麼知道?

  • And when I got home I emailed his clinician, Anthony Maden.

    當我回到家,我傳 email 給他的臨床醫生,Anthony Maden。

  • I said, "What's the story?"

    我說:「到底有什麼故事?」

  • And he said, "Yep. We accept that Tony faked madness to get out of a prison sentence

    他說:「沒錯,我們接受 Tony 假裝發瘋以逃避牢獄之災,

  • because his hallucinations that had seemed quite cliché to begin with

    因為他那陳腔老調的幻想

  • just vanished the minute he got to Broadmoor.

    在他抵達布羅德莫的時候就消失了。

  • However, we have assessed him.

    然而,我們重新評估他。

  • And we have determined that what he is is a psychopath."

    我們判斷他是個精神病患者。」

  • And in fact, faking madness

    事實上,假裝發瘋

  • is exactly the kind of cunning and manipulative act of a psychopath.

    就是那種精神病患會操作的狡猾手段。

  • It's on the checklist: cunning and manipulative.

    這有列在檢查表上:狡猾和會操控的。

  • So faking your brain going wrong

    於是假裝你的腦袋不正常

  • is evidence that your brain has gone wrong.

    變成你的腦袋不正常的證據。

  • And I spoke to other experts,

    我跟其他專家談過,

  • and they said the pinstriped suit -- classic psychopath.

    他們說細直條紋的西裝 -- 典型精神病患。

  • Speaks to items one and two on the checklist --

    講到檢查表上的第一和第二項 --

  • glibness, superficial charm and grandiose sense of self-worth.

    能言善道,表面的魅力和誇大的自我價值。

  • And I said, "Well, what, he didn't want to hang out with the other patients?"

    我說:「什麼,就因為他不想跟其他病患相處?」

  • Classic psychopath -- it speaks to grandiosity and also lack of empathy.

    典型的精神病患 -- 代表浮誇且不具有同理心。

  • So all the things that had seemed most normal about Tony

    於是所有有關 Tony 看似正常的事,

  • was evidence, according to his clinician,

    根據他的臨床醫生,

  • that he was mad in this new way.

    都是他新的瘋狂形式的證據。

  • He was a psychopath.

    他是一個精神病患。

  • And his clinician said to me,

    而且他的臨床醫生跟我說,

  • "If you want to know more about psychopaths,

    「如果你想要知道更多有關精神病患的事,

  • you can go on a psychopath spotting course

    你可以參加發現精神病患的課程,

  • run by Robert Hare who invented the psychopath checklist."

    由發明精神病患檢查表的 Robert Hare 授課。」

  • So I did.

    於是我照做。

  • I went on a psychopath spotting course,

    我參加了一個發現精神病患的課程,

  • and I am now a certified --

    所以我是個有證照的 --

  • and I have to say, extremely adept --

    還有我必須說,非常內行的 --

  • psychopath spotter.

    發現精神病患的人。

  • So here's the statistics:

    統計數據是

  • One in a hundred regular people is a psychopath.

    一百個正常人之中,有一個是精神病患。

  • So there's 1,500 people in his room.

    這裡有 1500 個人。

  • Fifteen of you are psychopaths.

    所以你們當中有 15 個人是精神病患。

  • Although that figure rises to four percent

    當對象是執行長和企業領導人時,

  • of CEO's and business leaders.

    這數值提高到百分之四。

  • So I think there's a very good chance

    於是我認為很有可能的是

  • there's about 30 or 40 psychopaths in this room.

    這房間裡有大概 30 個或 40 個精神病患。

  • It could be carnage by the end of the night.

    今晚到最後可能是一場大屠殺。

  • (Laughter) (Laughs)

    (笑聲)

  • Hare said the reason why is because capitalism at its most ruthless

    Hare 說原因是最殘酷的資本主義

  • rewards psychopathic behavior --

    帶來了精神病患的行為 --

  • the lack of empathy, the glibness,

    缺乏同理心,油嘴滑舌,

  • cunning, manipulative.

    奸詐,愛操弄的。

  • In fact, capitalism, perhaps at its most remorseless,

    事實上,毫無悔意的資本主義

  • is a physical manifestation of psychopathy.

    是一種精神病態的心理操作。

  • It's like a form of psychopathy

    像是一種會影響我們全部人的

  • that's come down to affect us all.

    精神病態模式。

  • And Hare said to me, "You know what? Forget about some guy at Broadmoor

    Hare 跟我說:「你知道嗎?忘掉在布羅德莫

  • who may or may not have faked madness.

    某個可能有或沒有假裝發瘋的人。

  • Who cares? That's not a big story.

    誰在乎啊?那不是大新聞。

  • The big story," he said, "is corporate psychopathy.

    大新聞,」他接著說:「是企業的精神病態。

  • You want to go and interview yourself some corporate psychopaths."

    你會想要去採訪一些企業裡的精神病患。」

  • So I gave it a try. I wrote to the Enron people.

    於是我嘗試了。我寫信給安隆案相關人士。

  • I said, "Could I come and interview you in prison

    我說:「我是否可以到監獄採訪你,

  • to find out it you're psychopaths?"

    以確認你是不是精神病患?」

  • And they didn't reply.

    他們沒有回信。

  • So I changed tack.

    所以我改變策略。

  • I emailed "Chainsaw Al" Dunlap,

    我寄 email 給日光企業(Sunbeam)前總裁「鏈鋸」艾爾‧鄧樂普("Chainsaw" Al Dunlap),

  • the asset stripper from the 1990s.

    1990 年代的資產剝奪者。

  • He would come into failing businesses and close down 30 percent of the workforce,

    他會接手式微的企業且刪減百分之三十的人力,

  • just turn American towns into ghost towns.

    將美國的城鎮變成無人居住的鬼城。

  • And I emailed him and I said,

    於是我寄 email 給他,我說:

  • "I believe you may have a very special brain anomaly

    「我相信你應該有個非常特別的異常頭腦,

  • that makes you special

    所以你很特別,

  • and interested in the predatory spirit and fearless.

    而且你對掠奪的精神很有興趣,沒有懼怕。

  • Can I come and interview you

    我可否來採訪你

  • about your special brain anomaly?"

    有關你特別的異常頭腦?」

  • And he said, "Come on over."

    他回覆:「來吧。」

  • So I went to Al Dunlap's grand Florida mansion

    所以我去 Al Dunlap 位在的佛羅里達的大宅,

  • that was filled with sculptures of predatory animals.

    裡頭充滿掠奪性動物的雕像。

  • There were lions and tigers.

    有獅子和老虎。

  • He was taking me through the garden.

    他帶我走過花園。

  • There were falcons and eagles.

    有隼和鷹。

  • He was saying to me, "Over there you've got sharks."

    他跟我說:「在那裡你可以看到鯊魚。」

  • He was saying this in a less effeminate way.

    他用比較不柔弱的語氣說話。

  • "You've got more sharks and you've got tigers."

    「你可看到更多的鯊魚,還有老虎。」

  • It was like Narnia.

    那簡直就像納尼亞。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And then we went into his kitchen.

    接著我們走進他的廚房。

  • Now Al Dunlap would be brought in to save failing companies.

    Al Dunlap 總是被帶來拯救快倒閉的公司。

  • He'd close down 30 percent of the workforce.

    他會刪減百分之三十的人力。

  • And he'd quite often fire people with a joke.

    而且他開除人時通常會開點玩笑。

  • For instance, one famous story about him,

    舉例來說,他有個有名的故事,

  • somebody came up to him and said, "I've just bought myself a new car."

    有個人來到他面前說:「我剛買給我自己一台新車。」

  • And he said, "You may have a new car,

    他接著說:「你可能有一台新車,

  • but I'll tell you what you don't have, a job."

    但我會告訴你你沒有的,就是工作。」

  • So in his kitchen -- he was standing there with his wife, Judy,

    於是我們在他的廚房中 --他和他的太太 Judy 站在一起,

  • and his bodyguard Sean -- and I said, "You know how I said in my email

    還有他的保鑣 Sean -- 於是我說:「就如同我在 email 中所說,

  • that you might have a special brain anomaly that makes you special?"

    你可能有個特別的異常頭腦,使你變得特別?」

  • He said, "Yeah, it's an amazing theory.

    他說:「是的,這是個驚人的理論。