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  • I'm gonna read you a list of 15 words, and after I'm done reading them,

    我會念 15 個單字給你們,念完後

  • I want you to write down as many as you can remember.

    請寫下你所有記得的單字

  • Ready to listen?

    準備好了嗎?

  • Okay.

    開始囉!

  • Sour.

    酸的

  • Nice.

    美好的

  • Candy.

    糖果

  • Honey.

    蜂蜜

  • Sugar.

  • Soda.

    汽水

  • Bitter.

    苦的

  • Chocolate.

    巧克力

  • Good.

    好的

  • Heart.

    心臟

  • Taste.

    味道

  • Cake.

    蛋糕

  • Tooth.

    牙齒

  • Tart.

  • Pie.

  • Okay. Now pause this video and write down as many as you can without cheating.

    好,請暫停影片然後寫下你所有記得的單字,不要作弊噢!

  • Even when you hit the point of getting stumped, close your eyes and think, and you'll likely recall a few more.

    即使已經想不太起來了,請把眼睛閉上再想一下,很可能就能再想到幾個

  • Ready to reveal?

    準備好看答案了嗎?

  • Now, some of you likely got the last few words I said,

    某些人應該有記得我最後說的幾個字

  • like tooth, tart, and pie.

    像是牙齒、塔和派

  • But did you remember the word "sweet"?

    但你有記得「甜的」這個字嗎?

  • Be honest. Because surprisingly,

    要誠實噢,因為,很驚人的

  • the majority of people are actually likely to write down the word sweet even though it was not on the list at all.

    大多數人都會寫下「甜的」這個字,即使它根本不在列表裡

  • And this is what we call a false memory.

    這就是我們所稱的「虛假記憶」

  • It's a psychological phenomenon where a person remembers something that didn't occur.

    這是一種心理學現象,人們會記得一些根本沒發生過的事

  • Like how many people vividly remember the Monopoly man having a monocle?

    有多少人可以清楚地記得地產大亨戴單邊眼鏡?

  • He never has.

    但其實他根本沒有戴

  • Or recall hearing the phrase "Luke, I am your father" when he only says "No, I am your father".

    那有人記得《星際大戰》中黑武士的名言「路克,我是你的父親」嗎?但他其實是說「不,我是你的父親」

  • Or the evil witch saying "Mirror mirror on the wall" when she says "Magic mirror on the wall".

    《白雪公主》裡的邪惡巫婆也不是說「鏡子啊鏡子」而是說「魔鏡啊魔鏡」

  • Memories are first formed in the hippocampus of the brain,

    記憶最一開始是在大腦的海馬迴被建立的

  • one of the only areas where brand new neurons are made regularly.

    這個地方也是唯一幾個會不斷生成新神經元的地方

  • This information is saved by altering neurons and creating synapses and connections.

    這樣的訊息能因神經元的不斷改變及神經鍵和連結的創造而被儲存下來

  • But it's often only focusing on the major details of your experience.

    但大多只會記住你的經驗的大方向

  • So you might remember the time, place, and person, but not necessarily the color of their hat.

    所以你可能會記得時間、地點和人,但不會記得他戴什麼顏色的帽子

  • However, your memories aren't perfect.

    然而,你的記憶並不是完美的

  • If you're introduced to new information between the time of you experiencing something, and when you try to recall it,

    如果在你「經歷某事」和「試著回想它」之間的時間,丟給你一些新的訊息

  • for example, if somebody else gives you a slightly different account of how things were,

    例如:如果某人稍微改了一下對於那件事的敘述

  • it can alter or even completely replace your memory.

    有可能可以改變甚至是完全取代你的記憶

  • And eventually these new memories gradually migrate further into the cortex becoming your truth.

    漸漸地,這些新的記憶就會進入你的大腦皮質區,最後成為事實

  • And each time you think about or misremember an event, the further you cement this new truth.

    每當你想起或是記錯原本的那件事,新的事實在腦中的印象就會加深

  • This simple effect can have pretty incredible consequences.

    這樣簡單的現象其實會有滿驚人的後果

  • Like eye witnesses for crimes or accidents recalling false details.

    像是目擊者很有可能會回報關於案件的錯誤細節

  • In fact, one study found that if they showed people a car accident and then ask two groups

    某項研究發現,給兩群人看一場車禍的過程

  • either:

    然後問他們

  • how fast were the cars going when they "bumped" into each other,

    車子「碰撞」時開得多快呢?

  • or

    或是問

  • how fast were the cars going when they "smashed" into each other.

    車子「砸」在一起的時候開得多快?

  • Those who heard the word "smashed", were more likely to report higher speeds.

    聽到「砸」的人較有可能回應較高的數值

  • This same verb also made them more likely to report that they saw broken glass in the accident even when there was none.

    這個動詞也會讓人以為車禍現場有碎玻璃,但其實沒有

  • In a similar study, a car was shown going through a stop sign, causing an accident.

    在一個很相似的調查中,一輛車因闖了「停止標誌」而造成車禍

  • But if a question was asked suggesting it was a yield sign,

    但若我們問了目擊者他闖的是否是「減速標誌」

  • many witnesses would confirm that it was a yield sign.

    很多人會說是

  • This is why eye witness accounts are less often used as evidence now unless they're corroborated and verified.

    這就是為什麼在現今,目擊者的口供較不會被用來當作證據,除非有經過查證

  • Finally, some studies have been able to successfully implant false childhood memories into test subjects.

    最後,某些研究顯示我們有辦法將假的兒時記憶植入受試者的腦中

  • Researchers would give the subjects four short narratives describing childhood events that happened to them,

    他們會給受試者四個短的故事,描述他們童年發生過的事

  • but without the subjects knowing one false memory was included about being lost in a shopping mall as a kid.

    但他們卻不知道其中一個關於小時候在百貨公司走丟的故事是假的

  • And yet, 25% of the test subjects reported remembering the false event.

    然而,有百分之二十五的受試者確實記得這個假的事件

  • Think your memory is better?

    你覺得自己的記憶比他們好嗎?

  • How did this video even start?

    這部影片是怎麼開頭的呢?

  • I mean, other than our logo which plays at the beginning of every video we make,

    除了我們每部影片前都會播的標題

  • can you remember what happened after that?

    之後發生了什麼事?

  • Except,

    只是

  • we didn't play the logo at the beginning of this video.

    在這部影片的開頭,我們並沒有播標題

  • And if you thought we did, I just gave you a false memory.

    如果你以為我們有,表示我成功的植入虛假記憶在你腦中了

  • Be sure to check out our newest videos by clicking the screen or using the links in the description,

    記得點擊螢幕或是下方的資訊欄去看看我們的最新影片

  • and subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

    也別忘記訂閱我們的頻道以觀看每週四的科學影片喲!

I'm gonna read you a list of 15 words, and after I'm done reading them,

我會念 15 個單字給你們,念完後

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這些單字,你能記得幾個呢? (Can You Remember This?)

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    Colleen Jao 發佈於 2017 年 07 月 10 日
影片單字