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  • I'm here today to talk about the two ideas that,

    我今天來這裡是要談談兩個概念,

  • at least based on my observations at Khan Academy,

    這兩個概念是基於我對 可漢學院的觀察。

  • are kind of the core, or the key leverage points for learning.

    有關於學習的核心, 或者說是學習的關鍵動機。

  • And it's the idea of mastery

    一個是觀念的掌握,

  • and the idea of mindset.

    另一個是思維方式。

  • I saw this in the early days working with my cousins.

    幾年前,我陪我親戚 一起讀書的時候,就觀察到

  • A lot of them were having trouble with math at first,

    他們之中很多人剛開始對 數學很頭疼,

  • because they had all of these gaps accumulated in their learning.

    原因是他們在學習過程中, 不斷積累還沒掌握的知識漏洞。

  • And because of that, at some point they got to an algebra class

    因此,當他們開始上代數課時,

  • and they might have been a little bit shaky on some of the pre-algebra,

    在初級代數的課程中 可能就跟不太上,

  • and because of that, they thought they didn't have the math gene.

    因此,他們會認為自己 沒有學習數學的天賦。

  • Or they'd get to a calculus class,

    或者他們之後上微積分課時,

  • and they'd be a little bit shaky on the algebra.

    才發現自己在代數環節上 的基礎也不太好。

  • I saw it in the early days

    我知道這件事 是在前些年的時候,

  • when I was uploading some of those videos on YouTube,

    當我在YouTube上, 上傳這些視頻的時候,

  • and I realized that people who were not my cousins were watching.

    我才搞懂,原來看我影片的 不只有我的親戚。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And at first, those comments were just simple thank-yous.

    一開始,有些留言 只是些簡單的謝謝。

  • I thought that was a pretty big deal.

    我認為這樣真的很棒。

  • I don't know how much time you all spend on YouTube.

    我不知道你們都花 多少時間在YouTube上。

  • Most of the comments are not "Thank you."

    因為後來大多數的留言 並不是「謝謝」。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They're a little edgier than that.

    他們越來越激動了。

  • But then the comments got a little more intense,

    但之後的留言變得越來越有深度,

  • student after student saying that they had grown up not liking math.

    越來越多的學生反映, 他們之前是在不喜歡數學的環境下長大。

  • It was getting difficult as they got into more advanced math topics.

    進入高等數學後就更加痛苦了。

  • By the time they got to algebra,

    當他們開始上代數的時候,

  • they had so many gaps in their knowledge they couldn't engage with it.

    他們的知識中已累積太多漏洞 以至於他們無法投入在課堂之中。

  • They thought they didn't have the math gene.

    他們會自以為沒有數學頭腦。

  • But when they were a bit older,

    但當他們長大後,

  • they took a little agency and decided to engage.

    他們有了一點動力 並決定要好好念書了,

  • They found resources like Khan Academy

    他們找到了像可汗學院 這樣的資源,

  • and they were able to fill in those gaps and master those concepts,

    能夠幫他們填補過去的 學習漏洞並掌握概念,

  • and that reinforced their mindset that it wasn't fixed;

    從此改變了他們的思維方式, 糾正了他們的定式思維;

  • that they actually were capable of learning mathematics.

    他們才知道其實他們自己 也有能力可以學好數學的。

  • And in a lot of ways, this is how you would master a lot of things in life.

    在很多方面,這也是 你要如何掌握你人生事物的方法。

  • It's the way you would learn a martial art.

    這就像你學習武術一樣。

  • In a martial art, you would practice the white belt skills

    在武術當中,如果有必要,

  • as long as necessary,

    你必須一直練習白帶的技巧。

  • and only when you've mastered it

    只有當你們掌握了它,

  • you would move on to become a yellow belt.

    你才能進階到黃帶。

  • It's the way you learn a musical instrument:

    這也是你們學習樂器的方式:

  • you practice the basic piece over and over again,

    一遍遍練習最基礎的曲目,

  • and only when you've mastered it,

    只有當你們掌握了它,

  • you go on to the more advanced one.

    你才會去挑戰更難的曲目。

  • But what we point out --

    但我要說的是:

  • this is not the way a traditional academic model is structured,

    這並非傳統學習模式的架構,

  • the type of academic model that most of us grew up in.

    也不是我們成長過程中 所使用的學習方式。

  • In a traditional academic model,

    在傳統學習模式當中,

  • we group students together, usually by age,

    我們一般會將 同年齡的學生聚集在一起,

  • and around middle school,

    在中學時期,

  • by age and perceived ability,

    透過年齡和外顯的學習能力 把學生分組,

  • and we shepherd them all together at the same pace.

    然後我們以齊頭式的教育 引領他們。

  • And what typically happens,

    常常發生的是,

  • let's say we're in a middle school pre-algebra class,

    假設我們身處某中學的 初級代數課堂中,

  • and the current unit is on exponents,

    現在上的課程是指數,

  • the teacher will give a lecture on exponents,

    老師就此內容來上課,

  • then we'll go home, do some homework.

    之後,我們回家, 做了一些相關的習題。

  • The next morning, we'll review the homework,

    第二天早上, 我們會批改這些作業。

  • then another lecture, homework, lecture, homework.

    之後又是上課、做作業、 上課、做作業。

  • That will continue for about two or three weeks,

    這大概會持續兩到三周,

  • and then we get a test.

    然後考試。

  • On that test, maybe I get a 75 percent,

    在考試中, 我也許只會75%的題目,

  • maybe you get a 90 percent,

    你也許會90%,

  • maybe you get a 95 percent.

    或是95%。

  • And even though the test identified gaps in our knowledge,

    即使考試能幫助 判斷我們知識的漏洞,

  • I didn't know 25 percent of the material.

    我還是存在25%不知道的內容。

  • Even the A student, what was the five percent they didn't know?

    即使得A的學生, 仍有5%不懂的內容。

  • Even though we've identified the gaps,

    即使我們找到了那些漏洞,

  • the whole class will then move on to the next subject,

    課堂還是會繼續, 進入下一個主題,

  • probably a more advanced subject that's going to build on those gaps.

    可能是更加覆雜的內容, 但卻建立在我們知識漏洞之上。

  • It might be logarithms or negative exponents.

    可能會是對數函數, 或者是負指數函數。

  • And that process continues, and you immediately start to realize

    老師一直講課, 然後你會突然間發現,

  • how strange this is.

    這一切怎麽那麽的陌生。

  • I didn't know 25 percent of the more foundational thing,

    我明明還有25% 的基礎知識不懂,

  • and now I'm being pushed to the more advanced thing.

    現在卻被迫繼續學 更加深奧的東西。

  • And this will continue for months, years, all the way until at some point,

    這會持續數月或數年, 直到某一刻,

  • I might be in an algebra class or trigonometry class

    我可能會在代數或 是三角函數課堂上

  • and I hit a wall.

    遇到麻煩。

  • And it's not because algebra is fundamentally difficult

    這並非因為代數學本身很困難,

  • or because the student isn't bright.

    或者是學生不夠聰明。

  • It's because I'm seeing an equation and they're dealing with exponents

    那是因為當我看見 指數的等式時,

  • and that 30 percent that I didn't know is showing up.

    其中有30%是我不懂的知識。

  • And then I start to disengage.

    然後我就不想做了。

  • To appreciate how absurd that is,

    為了感受那是多麽的荒謬,

  • imagine if we did other things in our life that way.

    各位想象一下,如果我們以同樣方式 來處理人生中其它事情的時後,

  • Say, home-building.

    比如說,蓋房子。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we bring in the contractor and say,

    我們找承包商來,然後和他說:

  • "We were told we have two weeks to build a foundation.

    「我們被告知只有兩周時間去打地基。

  • Do what you can."

    所以你能蓋多少就蓋多少吧!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So they do what they can.

    所以他們就盡力去做了。

  • Maybe it rains.

    施工過程中也許會下雨。

  • Maybe some of the supplies don't show up.

    也許有些物資沒到場的情況。

  • And two weeks later, the inspector comes, looks around,

    然後兩周之後, 房屋檢查員來了,他看了一下,

  • says, "OK, the concrete is still wet right over there,

    說:「好吧,這邊的水泥還沒乾,

  • that part's not quite up to code ...

    那邊的也不大符合標準……

  • I'll give it an 80 percent."

    我就給你80分吧。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You say, "Great! That's a C. Let's build the first floor."

    然後你會說:「太好了,還有C等。 我們開始建第一層吧!”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Same thing.

    同樣的事情一再發生。

  • We have two weeks, do what you can, inspector shows up, it's a 75 percent.

    我們又努力了兩周 然後房屋檢查員來了,給了個75分。

  • Great, that's a D-plus.

    太好了,居然還有D+!

  • Second floor, third floor,

    繼續建二樓,三樓,

  • and all of a sudden, while you're building the third floor,

    直到建三樓的時候,

  • the whole structure collapses.

    整棟建築突然就倒塌了。

  • And if your reaction is the reaction you typically have in education,

    如果你的回應與 受教育時的回應一樣,

  • or that a lot of folks have,

    或者是很多人會有的那種反應,

  • you might say, maybe we had a bad contractor,

    你也許會說,我們只是倒楣 遇到了爛承包商,

  • or maybe we needed better inspection or more frequent inspection.

    或是我們檢查的力度和次數不夠多。

  • But what was really broken was the process.

    但真正的問題,其實是過程的本身。

  • We were artificially constraining how long we had to something,

    我們用人為的方式 去限制完成某事的時間,

  • pretty much ensuring a variable outcome,

    幾乎可以確定,結果一定會有落差,

  • and we took the trouble of inspecting and identifying those gaps,

    然後我們檢查也發現了問題,

  • but then we built right on top of it.

    但卻又立刻填鴨上去。

  • So the idea of mastery learning is to do the exact opposite.

    掌握式教育的觀念 就是去做完全相反的事。

  • Instead of artificially constraining, fixing

    將人為的限制、僵化、

  • when and how long you work on something,

    何時學習和學多久、

  • pretty much ensuring that variable outcome,

    確認A、B、C、D、F成績

  • the A, B, C, D, F --

    這些結果的行為,

  • do it the other way around.

    轉換成另一種方式。

  • What's variable is when and how long

    學生之間不同的 只有「何時」以及「多久」

  • a student actually has to work on something,

    可以掌握好一門知識,

  • and what's fixed is that they actually master the material.

    要堅持一致的是 學生真的掌握了該門知識。

  • And it's important to realize

    我們必須了解到它的重要性,

  • that not only will this make the student learn their exponents better,

    這樣不僅可以讓學生 更好地掌握指數函數,

  • but it'll reinforce the right mindset muscles.

    同時也可以培養一種 正確的思維方式。

  • It makes them realize that if you got 20 percent wrong on something,

    這可以讓他們體認到 如果他們答錯了20%,

  • it doesn't mean that you have a C branded in your DNA somehow.

    不代表他們骨子裏就是個 C 咖,

  • It means that you should just keep working on it.

    而是說明你還需要 在這個內容上繼續努力、

  • You should have grit; you should have perseverance;

    你得堅持不懈、

  • you should take agency over your learning.

    你得拿出熱情克服學習的障礙。

  • Now, a lot of skeptics might say, well, hey, this is all great,

    現在很多懷疑的人會說, 這些聽起來都很棒,

  • philosophically, this whole idea of mastery-based learning

    理論上來說, 這套以掌握為目的教學方式

  • and its connection to mindset,

    與心智的連結,

  • students taking agency over their learning.

    可以讓學生拿出熱情 來克服學習障礙。

  • It makes a lot of sense, but it seems impractical.

    聽起來很有道理, 但不太實際。

  • To actually do it, every student would be on their own track.

    為了要真正的辦到這一點, 每個學生都必須有自己的學習進度,

  • It would have to be personalized,

    必須有客製化的教學方式。

  • you'd have to have private tutors and worksheets for every student.

    每個學生都要有私人教師 和私人定制的練習題。

  • And these aren't new ideas --

    但這並不是什麽新觀念——

  • there were experiments in Winnetka, Illinois, 100 years ago,

    在100年前的伊利諾伊州, 溫內特卡市就有這樣的實驗:

  • where they did mastery-based learning and saw great results,

    他們從事了這種以掌握為目的的教學, 也取得了不錯的結果,

  • but they said it wouldn't scale because it was logistically difficult.

    但是他們表示很難普及化, 畢竟這在邏輯上就難以實現。

  • The teacher had to give different worksheets to every student,

    老師要給每個學生不同的試題,

  • give on-demand assessments.

    根據需求做出不同的評估方式。

  • But now today, it's no longer impractical.

    但如今,這已經不再是 不實際的問題了。

  • We have the tools to do it.

    我們有了工具的幫助。

  • Students see an explanation at their own time and pace?

    學生可以按照自己的時間 和步調看錄影的講解,

  • There's on-demand video for that.

    有很多適當的影片 可以符合學生的要求。

  • They need practice? They need feedback?

    他們需要練習嗎?需要反饋嗎?

  • There's adaptive exercises readily available for students.

    那些掌握度的評估測驗, 學生都可以自行測驗。

  • And when that happens, all sorts of neat things happen.

    當這些條件都能成立的時候, 各種好事就會接踵而至。

  • One, the students can actually master the concepts,

    首先,學生能夠真正掌握概念,

  • but they're also building their growth mindset,

    其次,他們能培養積極的態度,

  • they're building grit, perseverance,

    建立勇氣和不屈不撓的精神,

  • they're taking agency over their learning.

    他們會拿出熱情來學習。

  • And all sorts of beautiful things can start to happen

    這些美好的事情,

  • in the actual classroom.

    已經可以進入實際的課堂當中了。

  • Instead of it being focused on the lecture,

    取代老師專心講解課堂內容的是

  • students can interact with each other.

    學生們可以互動學習。

  • They can get deeper mastery over the material.

    他們能夠更加深入地 去掌握知識。

  • They can go into simulations, Socratic dialogue.

    他們能夠模仿蘇格拉底的對話,

  • To appreciate what we're talking about

    去感悟我們所說的事情,