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  • In December 2016, the tiny island of Malta became the first European nation to outlaw

    2016年12月,微型島國馬爾他成為歐洲首先禁止

  • gay conversion therapy.

    同性戀矯正治療的國家

  • Measures to restrict this controversial practice have been introduced in half of all US states,

    美國半數的州已開始採取措施,禁止這項具爭議的療法

  • as evidence increasingly shows that it causes serious medical and psychological harm.

    越來越多證據指出,這種治療會導致嚴重的生理和心理傷害

  • Yet, it still occurs here in the U.S. and around the world.

    不過,時至今日同性戀治療仍存在美國及世界各地

  • So what exactly is Gay Conversion Therapy?

    所以「同性戀矯正治療」究竟是什麼?

  • Well, gay conversion therapy is any treatment that aims to turn gay, lesbian or transgender

    就是那些專門用在將男、女同性戀、跨性別者

  • individuals into heterosexuals.

    轉變為異性戀的相關治療

  • The patients are predominantly minors or young adults, many of whom are forced or pressured

    受治病人主要為未成年人或年輕成人,他們大多數被迫

  • into therapy.

    接受治療

  • Attempts at gay conversion are performed by medical professionals, religious leaders or

    執行同性戀矯正治療的人有專業醫護人員、宗教領袖或是

  • counselors, and usually involve a variety of behavioral, cognitive psychological training, including electoral shock therapy.

    心理諮商人員,治療方式通常包含各式各樣行為上、認知心理上的訓練、電擊實驗

  • But the severity of these treatments depends on where you are.

    不過,這些療法的施行強度取決於你身在何處

  • In South Africa for example, homosexual men and boys are known to be forced intoconversion

    舉例來說,在南非,同性戀男性被迫加入「矯正營」

  • camps’, where they are subjected to hard labor for the purpose of instilling masculinity.

    他們在營裡被分配從事粗重勞力,以培養男子氣概

  • Conditions are reportedly so harsh that in 2011, they led to the death of a 15-year-old boy.

    據說營裡環境嚴苛,2011年,一名15歲的男孩因此喪命

  • Similar camps exist in the United States.

    美國也存在類似的矯正營

  • But in general, gay conversion in the US is less severe, usually involving comprehensive

    但一般來說,美國同性戀矯正不會如此激烈,會包括全面性的

  • talk therapy, seminars weekend retreats or rehabilitation.

    談話治療、研商、週末休憩或復健

  • The basis for modern gay conversion therapy began in the 1920’s, when homosexuality

    同性戀矯正治療主要始於1920年代,當時同性戀

  • was widely believed to be a physical birth defect.

    被廣泛視為一種身體天生缺陷

  • Accordingly, the earliest form of conversion therapy was to remove one testicle from a

    據說,最早的矯正治療是將同性戀者一顆睪丸移除

  • gay man and replace it with a heterosexual donor’s.

    並以異性戀捐贈者的睪丸取而代之

  • When this proved to be both ineffective and harmful, psychiatrists and medical professionals,

    後來這種療法被證明是無效且有害的,精神科醫生和醫學專家

  • like Sigmund Freud, began to classify homosexuality as a mental disorder, treatable with psychotherapy

    像是西格蒙德·佛洛伊德等人,開始將同性戀歸類為心理問題,可透過心理療法

  • and medication.

    和藥物來治療

  • Freud later concluded that homosexuality was not an illness and publicly discouraged any

    後來佛洛伊德論定同性戀不是疾病,並公開否定有關同性戀的任何

  • treatment of it.

    治療

  • But by the 1950s, behavioral therapies, including treatments like electric shock, hypnosis and

    不過到了1950年代,一些治療手段包括電擊、催眠

  • lobotomy became widely accepted treatments for homosexuality.

    腦葉白質切除術被廣泛接受用來治療同性戀

  • Many psychologists believed that associating homosexual acts with pain, sickness and embarrassment

    許多心理學家相信,將同性戀行為與疼痛、噁心、難堪等感知連結

  • would eventually make them unappealing.

    最後就會讓他們對這些行為感到厭惡不適

  • But in the early 1970s, these theories slowly lost credibility.

    但在1970年代早期,這些理論逐漸失其可信度

  • Psychiatrists released studies that showed homosexuals had no developmental inferiority

    心理學家研究結果指出,同性戀並不是一種相較於異性戀者的缺陷

  • when compared to heterosexuals, lessening the belief that homosexuality was a disease.

    減少了同性戀是一種疾病的說法

  • In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its Manual of Mental

    1973年,美國精神病學協會將同性戀從精神疾病手冊上除名

  • Disorders and has since publicly discredited conversion therapy, urging health professionals

    並公開否認矯正治療的可信度,呼籲醫療專業人員

  • to inform their patients of its harm and fraudulence.

    告知病人此項治療會造成的傷害及其不實的療效

  • In fact, the Human Right Campaign states that conversion therapy on minors can lead to an

    事實上,人權運動指讓出未成年人接受矯正治療會導致

  • increased risk of depression, anxiety, drug use, homelessness, and even suicide.

    憂鬱、焦慮、藥物濫用、逃家、甚至自殺等風險增高

  • But despite how inhumane and ineffective the practice is, it is still legal in most of

    儘管這些方法一點都不人道且毫無效用,在許多地方仍然合法

  • the world, with only five US states and two Canadian Provinces actually outlawing gay

    世界上只有5個美國的州和2個加拿大省份有實行立法

  • conversion for minors.

    禁止矯正治療

  • Although conversion therapy’s negative effects continue to come to light, it may be a long

    雖然矯正治療的負面影響持續被揭露,仍需好長

  • time until the Western world bans the practice altogether.

    一段時間才能讓西方世界全面禁止這些措施

  • Homophobia has a lot of negative side effects, but did you know that it can impact your health as well?

    對同性戀感到恐懼會有許多副作用,但你知道恐同會影響你的健康嗎

  • Research shows that people who are prejudiced against the LGBTQ community will die sooner

    研究發現對LGBTQ有偏見的人壽命較短

  • than those who don’t.

    比起那些沒有偏見的人

  • Find out more about the science by watching this DNews video.

    想知道更多科學新知,請收看《DNews》影片

  • People who are prejudiced against the LGBTQ community will die 2.5 years earlier than

    對LGBTQ有偏見的人較早逝,壽命少了2.5年

  • an equally healthy person of the same age.

    比起其他健康情形和年齡相仿的人

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily, make sure to like and subscribe for new videos every day.

    感謝您的收看,請確認有按讚並訂閱每日新影片喔

In December 2016, the tiny island of Malta became the first European nation to outlaw

2016年12月,微型島國馬爾他成為歐洲首先禁止

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B2 中高級 中文 同性戀 治療 矯正 療法 心理 禁止

同性戀「矯正治療」的黑歷史 (The Dark History Of Gay Conversion Therapy)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2017 年 02 月 25 日
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