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  • You've likely heard about the effects climate change is having on our planet and specifically in the Arctic

    你可能聽過氣候變遷對地球的影響,尤其是北極圈

  • which is warming twice as fast. But what would actually happen

    暖化速度甚快,但是未來究竟會發生什麼事情

  • if all the ice melted on Earth.

    如果所有地球上的冰都融化了

  • Bill: I can help with that! When you and I drink water

    比爾: 我來解答! 當我們在喝水時

  • We drink non-salty water, we drink fresh water

    我們喝不含鹽的水,我們喝淡水

  • Of all the water in the world most of it is salty, just 3% is not salty

    全世界的水大多都是鹹水,只有3%為非鹹水

  • Now of that 3%, you can't get to most of that because 70% of that 3%

    3%的非鹹水並不是全可食用,因為3%當中有七成的水

  • is FROZEN - thirty million cubic kilometers of frozen water!

    是結凍的-三千萬立方公里的冰凍水

  • It's so much frozen water, so much ice that if you put a layer of it

    如果你把冰凍水疊起來,看起來相當壯觀

  • a thousand meters thick, it would cover North America

    厚度為一千公尺,可以涵蓋整個北美洲

  • That's a lot of frozen water people!

    相當多的冰凍水

  • On land frozen water forms glaciers, icesheets, permafrost and snow

    陸地上的冰凍水能以冰河、冰床、永久凍結帶以及雪的形式呈現

  • but the Arctic is largely ocean so there it takes the form

    北極圈大半被海覆蓋,冰大多以

  • of floating sea ice like icebergs and because it's in direct contact with warming waters

    海冰的形式呈現,漂浮在暖海上

  • Sea ice will be the first to melt as global temperatures rise

    當全球溫度上升時,海冰會最先融化

  • In fact this year NASA reported that the extent of Arctic sea ice was the lowest ever recorded for

    今年美國太空總署指出北極圈海冰的高度創歷史新低

  • for January, February, April, May and June 2016

    根據2016年1.2.4.5.6月的紀錄

  • Bill: So the world is getting warmer and the ice is melting

    比爾: 所以世界漸趨暖化、冰也不斷融化

  • Pretty soon you'll be able to drive your ship from Europe to Russia,

    不久後,你或許能駛船從歐洲橫渡至俄羅斯

  • right over the North Pole, with no ice in the way.

    在北極將沒有冰阻擋你的去路

  • That's good for certain shipping companies maybe, but for the marine species: the polar bears, the walruses,

    或許這樣有利於海運業,但對於海洋生物像是北極熊、海象

  • the seals! They don't have their own habitats. They're all going away, they're melting out from under them.

    海獅,他們會失去棲息地,他們會消失,他們隨著海水升高而沉入海底

  • And ocean dwelling animals like bowhead whales and narwhals aren't immune to these changes either.

    而海裡生物像是座頭鯨和一角鯨也將成為全球暖化的受害者

  • As sea ice melts energy and oil companies are taking it as an opportunity to search

    當海冰融化後,能源和煉油公司有機會去尋獲

  • further north for untapped resources using a process known as seismic blasting

    靠近北極點的未開發資源,使用一種叫做地震探勘爆破的技術

  • they shoot air explosions into the water in an effort to map the ocean floor

    發出震波到海底,接著繪製出海底地形

  • and find oil. Of course, this has detrimental effects on the whole ecosystem of the Arctic ocean

    並找到石油,當然,這對北極海的整個生態是有害的

  • while also causing physical trauma and habitat relocation in whales.

    會導致鯨魚身體上的傷害和棲息地迫害

  • In terms of sea levels, melting sea ice won't have much of an effect.

    融冰並不會對海平面的升降造成大幅的影響

  • This is because the floating ice already displaces roughly the same amount of water

    因為浮冰和水的質量是一樣的

  • as it would produce when it melts, so that effect would be negligible.

    浮冰融化轉換成水的形式存在,對海平面所造成的影響是可以忽略的

  • Furthermore, of the majority of Earth's ice, more than 95% is land-based

    再者,地球上的冰超過95%為覆蓋在地上的凍土

  • and contained mostly in enormous ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antartica

    像是巨大的冰床覆蓋在格陵蘭和南極洲的高山

  • where there are entire mountain ranges almost as big as the alps, completely buried in ice

    冰河地形極其壯觀

  • So, what if all the ice on land melts?

    所以,如果地面上的冰都融化了會怎麼樣?

  • Bill: If all this ice melts, the ocean's gonna have more water in it

    比爾: 如果冰融化了,水當然就越來越多囉

  • So the sea levels, as measured from the coasts, is gonna go up.

    所以海平面,相較於之前,肯定是上升的

  • It's gonna go up 70 meters. That's a long way people. Half the world's citizens

    將會上升70公尺,你知道這非常可怕嗎,世界上有一半的人口

  • live on sea coasts. That's where the, uh, commerce action is.

    以海洋維生,也是商業貿易重要的據點

  • So they're gonna have to move! Where are they gonna go? And...

    然而他們卻必須撤離,他們能去哪裡?

  • who's gonna pay for it?

    誰來負責這筆龐大的花費?

  • Tokyo, New York, Sao Paulo, Mumbai, Shanghai and Jakarta are all coastal

    東京、紐約、聖保羅、孟買、上海、雅加達都靠近海邊

  • and happen to be some of the world's biggest cities.

    是世界數一數二的大城市

  • Even a small sea level rise of only a couple feet could cause up to a trillion dollars worth of flood damage

    水災是無法避免的,就算海平面只上升一點點,損害金額等同於每年一兆元

  • per year. A rise of 10 meters would displace more than 630 million people

    海平面每上升十公尺就會有6億3千萬人受害

  • nearly 10% of the world's population.

    幾近全世界人口的百分之十

  • At 25 meters, 1.4 billion people, roughly 20% of humanity is left homeless

    而每上升25公尺就會有14億人受害,大概有20%的人口會無家可歸

  • and to visualise the full 70 meters, the rising seas would drown out most

    如果上升高度來到70公尺,那些海水幾乎淹沒

  • of the US Eastern seaboard, much of the West coast,

    美國東海岸、西海岸

  • the entire state of Florida, huge areas of Asia including Bangladesh

    整個佛羅里達州以及亞洲的大地方像是孟加拉和

  • and much of Northern China and create a new inland sea in Australia.

    中國北部,澳洲還會多了內陸海岸

  • At the North and South pole of the Earth we have a lot of ice. Ice is white.

    地球南北極有很多白色的冰

  • Ice reflects sunlight into space.

    冰會反射陽光到太空

  • But there's a feedback mechanism, one thing leading to another. As the world gets warmer

    這像是一個反饋的機制,當全球暖化發生時

  • the ice melts. As the ice melts it's reflecting less sunlight into space

    冰會融化,當冰漸漸融化消失,反射到太空的陽光會變少

  • which lets the world get warmer still. The sunlight is absorbed

    導致全球暖化更嚴重,陽光被

  • by the dark , liquid ocean. So as the ice melts

    深層海水吸收,所以當冰融化後

  • the world gets warmer. And the sea gets fresher.

    世界就會越來越溫暖,海洋則煥然一新

  • Currently the world's oceans are crisscrossed by a set of currents that act as a giant conveyer belt.

    洋流扮演傳輸帶的功能,把世界的海洋交織在一塊

  • And these currents are powered in part by the differences in the saltiness

    這些洋流可以在不同的地方隨時補充能量

  • between one part of the ocean and another.

    因為不同的海洋有不同的鹽度

  • So, if a melting ice sheet in Greenland dumps a whole bunch of non-salty, fresh water into the North Atlantic

    假設格陵蘭有一地正在融化的冰床,以無鹽淡水的狀態流入大西洋

  • it's possible that it could disrupt the currents.

    很有可能會破壞整個洋流的流動規則

  • Bill: So the conveyer belt takes chemicals, takes nutrients around the world,

    比爾: 所以這個傳輸帶帶著化學和營養物質在世界遊走

  • which feed plankton,

    養活了浮游生物

  • which feed fish,

    養活了魚

  • which feed us.

    養活了我們

  • Half of the oxygen you breathe is made by plants in the ocean.

    人類呼吸所需的氧氣,有一半是來自海洋植物所製造的

  • So you don't wanna mess with this.

    你絕對要好好保護它們

  • Furthermore, as that sea surface gets warmer,

    再者,隨著海面溫度的升高

  • off of Greenland, the Gulf Stream will probably shift a little bit,

    撇掉格陵蘭不談,墨西哥灣暖流肯定會受一些影響

  • and if that shifts, what keeps Europe warm right now,

    如果它改變的話,現今溫暖的歐洲

  • May not keep Europe as warm. So the crops are gonna have to be grown elsewhere

    可能也會改變,農作物必須轉移陣地,種在其他地方

  • and who's gonna grow them and who's gonna ship them around and who's gonna feed each other

    誰來種? 誰來運送農作物到世界各地? 誰來餵養人群?

  • and what's going on?! This is serious business! When you go melting the ice.

    還會發生什麼事?冰融化是個很嚴重的問題!

  • We actually went up to the Arctic to see the current state of things first hand

    事實上我們到了北極去觀察現況,取得第一手資料

  • while documenting it all and were absolutely shocked by what we found.

    並且記錄下所有情況,結果真是讓我們非常驚訝

  • Click here to watch our documentary, The End of the Arctic,

    點這裡可觀看紀錄片The End of the Arctic

  • where we learn about an Inuit communities fight to defend their human rights

    我們得知因紐特人正在為人權而戰

  • against oil companies and the Canadian government

    他們正在反抗煉油公司和加拿大政府

  • all while trying to save the Arctic from the drastic effects of climate change

    只為了保護北極圈、減緩氣候變遷以及

  • and seismic blasting.

    地震探勘爆破對北極圈造成的影響

  • You can help spread awareness by sharing the video and signing our petition

    你可以藉著分享這部影片或簽請願書,來引起大家對環境的保護意識

  • to put pressure on the governement to prevent seismic blasting in the Arctic

    或是施加壓力在政府上,避免他們在北極圈從事更多地震探勘爆破

  • which would have detrimental, long-lasting effects on the wildlife

    這只會摧毀海洋生物並對海洋造成很大的影響

  • and the Inuit people living in Northern Canada.

    還有住在北加拿大的因紐特人

  • Check out the links in the description

    點連結進去瞧瞧

  • and join the movement to stand up for the Arctic, and our Planet.

    並一起參與這場行動,為北極地帶和地球發聲

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

    還可訂閱更多每週科學時事影片哦

You've likely heard about the effects climate change is having on our planet and specifically in the Arctic

你可能聽過氣候變遷對地球的影響,尤其是北極圈

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 北極 融化 海洋 海平面 海冰 爆破

如果全世界的冰都融化了會怎麼樣? (What If All The Ice Melted On Earth? ft. Bill Nye)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2017 年 04 月 04 日
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