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  • Some people think that there's a TED Talk formula:

    有些人認為TED演講有一套公式:

  • "Give a talk on a round, red rug."

    「在圓形的紅毯上演講」

  • "Share a childhood story."

    「分享童年時期的故事」

  • "Divulge a personal secret."

    「洩漏個人的秘密」

  • "End with an inspiring call to action."

    「以激勵人心的行動呼籲作結」

  • No.

    錯了

  • That's not how to think of a TED Talk.

    不是這樣去理解一個TED演講的

  • In fact, if you overuse those devices,

    事實上,如果你過度使用了那些技巧,

  • you're just going to come across as clichéd or emotionally manipulative.

    你就只能表現出陳腔濫調和情緒操弄

  • But there is one thing that all great TED Talks have in common,

    但是所有優秀的TED演講都有一個共同的特點,

  • and I would like to share that thing with you,

    而我想要將這點與你分享,

  • because over the past 12 years, I've had a ringside seat,

    因為過去12年來,我坐在近距離,

  • listening to many hundreds of amazing TED speakers, like these.

    聆聽了數百位令人驚艷的TED講者,像是這些。

  • I've helped them prepare their talks for prime time,

    我幫助他們準備他們的演講,

  • and learned directly from them,

    並直接從他們身上學到

  • their secrets of what makes for a great talk.

    設計一個精彩演講的秘訣

  • And even though these speakers and their topics all seem

    即使這幾位講者與他們的演講主題看起來都

  • completely different,

    完全不同,

  • they actually do have one key common ingredient.

    他們確實都有一個共同的關鍵要素。

  • And it's this:

    而這點就是:

  • Your number one task as a speaker

    身為一名講者,你的首要任務

  • is to transfer into your listeners' minds an extraordinary gift

    是將一個特別的禮物轉移至聽眾的腦子裡...

  • a strange and beautiful object that we call an idea.

    一種其妙又美麗的東西,我們稱之為「思想」

  • Let me show you what I mean.

    讓我展示給你看我在說什麼

  • Here's Haley.

    這是 Haley,

  • She is about to give a TED Talk

    她將進行一個 TED 演講,

  • and frankly, she's terrified.

    坦白說,她緊張到不行。

  • (Video) Presenter: Haley Van Dyck!

    主持人:Haley Van Dyck!

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Over the course of 18 minutes,

    在這18分鐘裡,

  • 1,200 people, many of whom have never seen each other before,

    這1,200人,絕大多數都沒有見過彼此,

  • are finding that their brains are starting to sync with Haley's brain

    但他們的腦袋開始和 Haley 的腦袋同步,

  • and with each other.

    以及和彼此同步。

  • They're literally beginning to exhibit the same brain-wave patterns.

    他們真的開始顯現出相同的腦波模式

  • And I don't just mean they're feeling the same emotions.

    我的意思不只是他們感到了相同的情緒,

  • There's something even more startling happening.

    還有一件更令人吃驚的事情發生。

  • Let's take a look inside Haley's brain for a moment.

    我們來看一下 Haley 的腦袋裡面。

  • There are billions of interconnected neurons in an impossible tangle.

    這裡有無數相互連結的神經元在一個難以想像的團塊裡

  • But look here, right here.

    但是看這裡,就是這裡...

  • A few million of them are linked to each other

    幾百萬個神經元相互連結在一起,

  • in a way which represents a single idea.

    在某種程度上,這描繪出了一個思想。

  • And incredibly, this exact pattern is being recreated in real time

    而且難以置信的是,這個模式正即時地被再製

  • inside the minds of everyone listening.

    在所有聽眾的腦袋裡

  • That's right. In just a few minutes,

    沒有錯,短短幾分鐘的時間,

  • a pattern involving millions of neurons

    一個囊括幾百萬個神經元的模式

  • is being teleported into 1,200 minds,

    正透過意念被傳送至1,200個腦袋中,

  • just by people listening to a voice and watching a face.

    僅因為人們聆聽一個聲音和觀看一張臉

  • But waitwhat is an idea, anyway?

    但是等等...究竟什麼是「思想」?

  • Well, you can think of it as a pattern of information

    你可以把它視為一種資訊的模式

  • that helps you understand and navigate the world.

    它幫助你瞭解及遨遊這個世界

  • Ideas come in all shapes and sizes,

    「思想」擁有各種型態和尺寸,

  • from the complex and analytical

    從複雜、分析的,

  • to the simple and aesthetic.

    到簡單、美麗的

  • Here are just a few examples shared from the TED stage.

    這裡只是幾個來自TED的例子

  • Sir Ken Robinson: creativity is key to our kids' future.

    Ken Robinson先生:創意是我們孩子未來的關鍵

  • My contention is that creativity now

    我的論點是,創意現在

  • is as important in education as literacy,

    在教育裡的重要性和讀寫能力相當,

  • and we should treat it with the same status.

    我們應該視其兩者為相同地位

  • Elora Hardy: building from bamboo is beautiful.

    Elora Hardy:使用竹子為建材的成果很出色

  • It is growing all around us,

    它生長在我們週遭,

  • it's strong, it's elegant, it's earthquake-resistant.

    它很牢固、優雅、耐震

  • Chimamanda Adichie: people are more than a single identity.

    Chimamanda Adichie -- 人們擁有多於一種的身份

  • The single story creates stereotypes,

    Chimamanda Adichie:單一故事創造出刻板印象,

  • and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue,

    但是刻板印象的問題不在於它們不是真的,

  • but that they are incomplete.

    而是它們不完整

  • Your mind is teeming with ideas,

    你的腦袋充滿了思想,

  • and not just randomly.

    而且這不是隨機的

  • They're carefully linked together.

    它們緊密地連結在一起

  • Collectively they form an amazingly complex structure

    它們集體地形成一種驚人、複雜的結構,

  • that is your personal worldview.

    而那就是你個人的世界觀

  • It's your brain's operating system.

    是你頭腦的作業系統

  • It's how you navigate the world.

    是你遨遊這個世界的方式

  • And it is built up out of millions of individual ideas.

    而這是由幾百萬個單獨的思想所構成

  • So, for example, if one little component of your worldview

    所以,舉例來說,如果你的世界觀的一個小要素

  • is the idea that kittens are adorable,

    是「小貓很可愛」的思想,

  • then when you see this,

    那麼當你看到這個的時候,

  • you'll react like this.

    你會反應得像這樣

  • But if another component of your worldview

    但如果你的世界觀的另一個要素

  • is the idea that leopards are dangerous,

    是「美洲豹很危險」的思想,

  • then when you see this,

    那麼當你看到這個的時候,

  • you'll react a little bit differently.

    你會反應得有點不同

  • So, it's pretty obvious

    所以,這很明顯地說明了

  • why the ideas that make up your worldview are crucial.

    為什麼構成你世界觀的概念是重要的

  • You need them to be as reliable as possible — a guide,

    你需要它們盡量可靠 —— 一個指南,

  • to the scary but wonderful real world out there.

    應付那個可怕但精彩奇妙的世界

  • Now, different people's worldviews can be dramatically different.

    不同人的世界觀可能有極大差異

  • For example,

    舉例來說,

  • how does your worldview react when you see this image:

    當你看到這個影像時,你的世界觀會如何反應:

  • What do you think when you look at me?

    Dalia Mogahed: 當你們看著我的時候,你在想什麼?

  • "A woman of faith," "an expert," maybe even "a sister"?

    「有信仰的女人」、「一個專家」,甚至是「一個姊妹」?

  • Or "oppressed," "brainwashed,"

    或者是「受壓迫的」、「被洗腦的」、

  • "a terrorist"?

    「恐怖份子」?

  • CA: Whatever your answer,

    不管你的答案是什麼,

  • there are millions of people out there who would react very differently.

    數以百萬計的人們會反應得非常不同。

  • So that's why ideas really matter.

    所以這就是為什麼「思想」如此重要

  • If communicated properly, they're capable of changing, forever,

    如果正確地溝通,它們就能夠永遠地改變

  • how someone thinks about the world,

    一個人理解世界的方式,

  • and shaping their actions both now and well into the future.

    以及形塑他們現在和未來的行動

  • Ideas are the most powerful force shaping human culture.

    思想是形塑人類文化最強大的力量。

  • So if you accept

    所以,如果你同意

  • that your number one task as a speaker is to build an idea

    你作為一名講者的首要任務是建構一個「思想」

  • inside the minds of your audience,

    在你觀眾的腦袋裡,

  • here are four guidelines for how you should go about that task:

    這裡有四個方針,教你如何完成這項任務:

  • One, limit your talk to just one major idea.

    第一,將你的演講濃縮成只有一個主要思想

  • Ideas are complex things;

    思想是複雜的東西;

  • you need to slash back your content so that you can focus

    你必須大量削減你的內容,這樣你才可以專注在

  • on the single idea you're most passionate about,

    你最熱切關注的單一思想上,

  • and give yourself a chance to explain that one thing properly.

    並讓你自己有機會好好地解釋那個東西。

  • You have to give context, share examples, make it vivid.

    你必須講述脈絡,分享例子,讓它變得鮮明。

  • So pick one idea,

    所以,選定一個思想,

  • and make it the through-line running through your entire talk,

    然後讓它貫穿你的整個演講,

  • so that everything you say links back to it in some way.

    這樣的話,你所說的每件事都會在某種程度上串聯在一起

  • Two, give your listeners a reason to care.

    第二,給你的聽眾一個在意的理由。

  • Before you can start building things inside the minds of your audience,

    在你開始在觀眾的腦袋裡建構東西之前,

  • you have to get their permission to welcome you in.

    你必須使他們同意讓你進去。

  • And the main tool to achieve that?

    而達成這個目的的主要方法是什麼咧?

  • Curiosity.

    好奇心啊

  • Stir your audience's curiosity.

    撩起觀眾的好奇心

  • Use intriguing, provocative questions

    使用引人興趣、煽動式的問題,

  • to identify why something doesn't make sense and needs explaining.

    去界定為什麼有些事情不太合理,並且需要加以解釋

  • If you can reveal a disconnection in someone's worldview,

    如果你能揭露某個人世界觀裡的斷點

  • they'll feel the need to bridge that knowledge gap.

    他們會覺得有需要去彌補那個知識落差

  • And once you've sparked that desire,

    而一旦你激起了那個慾望,

  • it will be so much easier to start building your idea.

    就會讓你更容易去開始建構你的思想

  • Three, build your idea, piece by piece,

    第三,一步一步地建構你的思想,

  • out of concepts that your audience already understands.

    藉由你的觀眾已經理解的概念

  • You use the power of language

    你使用語言的力量

  • to weave together concepts that already exist

    將已經存在於你聽眾腦子裡的概念

  • in your listeners' minds.

    編織在一起

  • But not your language, their language.

    但不是用你的語言,而是他們的語言。

  • You start where they are.

    你從他們所在之處開始。

  • The speakers often forget that many of the terms and concepts they live with

    講者通常會忘記,許多他們慣用的詞彙和概念

  • are completely unfamiliar to their audiences.

    對他們的觀眾來說是完全陌生的

  • Now, metaphors can play a crucial role in showing how the pieces fit together,

    隱喻扮演了一個重要角色,在展現如何將這些碎片結合在一起,

  • because they reveal the desired shape of the pattern,

    因為它們揭示了理想的模式型態,

  • based on an idea that the listener already understands.

    奠定在一個聽眾早就知道的思想上

  • For example, when Jennifer Kahn

    舉例來說,當 Jennifer Kahn

  • wanted to explain the incredible new biotechnology called CRISPR,

    想要解釋一項驚人的新型生物科技 CRISPR,

  • she said, "It's as if, for the first time,

    她說,「這就彷彿,有史以來第一次,

  • you had a word processor to edit DNA.

    你擁有一台編輯 DNA 的打字機。

  • CRISPR allows you to cut and paste genetic information really easily."

    CRISPR 讓你能相當容易地剪下和貼上基因資訊。」

  • Now, a vivid explanation like that delivers a satisfying "aha moment"

    現在,像這樣一個鮮明的解釋,傳達了一個令人滿意的頓悟時刻

  • as it snaps into place in our minds.

    因為它卡進了我們腦內的空間

  • It's important, therefore, to test your talk on trusted friends,

    這很重要。因此,在你信任的朋友身上測試你的演講,

  • and find out which parts they get confused by.

    並找出哪個環節是他們感到困惑的。

  • Four, here's the final tip:

    第四,這是最後一個技巧:

  • Make your idea worth sharing.

    使你的思想值得分享

  • By that I mean, ask yourself the question:

    我的意思是,問你自己這個問題:

  • "Who does this idea benefit?"

    「這個思想會使誰受益?」

  • And I need you to be honest with the answer.

    我需要你誠實面對這個答案

  • If the idea only serves you or your organization,

    如果這個思想只對你或你的組織有用,

  • then, I'm sorry to say, it's probably not worth sharing.

    那麼,我要很抱歉地說,這可能不值得分享。

  • The audience will see right through you.

    觀眾會看穿你

  • But if you believe that the idea has the potential

    但是如果你相信這個思想有潛力

  • to brighten up someone else's day

    去照亮其他人的一天

  • or change someone else's perspective for the better

    或者讓其他人的觀點變得更好

  • or inspire someone to do something differently,

    或者激發某人去做一件不一樣的事情,

  • then you have the core ingredient to a truly great talk,

    那麼你就擁有了一個核心要素,能構成一個真正精彩的演講,

  • one that can be a gift to them and to all of us.

    一個對我們所有人來說,如天賜之禮的演講

Some people think that there's a TED Talk formula:

有些人認為TED演講有一套公式:

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【TED】克里斯.安德森: TED 精彩演講的秘訣 (TED's secret to great public speaking | Chris Anderson)

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