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  • This is shit

    這是大便

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • or rather cow manure.

    說得更確切些,是牛的糞便

  • One cow produces 25 tons of manure every year.

    一頭牛一年可以產出 25 噸的糞便

  • And that's great because manure is a fantastic organic fertilizer.

    這是件好事,因為糞便是一種非常棒的有機肥料

  • It's chock-full of nutrients to grow our grains and vegetables.

    它豐富的營養物可以使我們的穀物和蔬菜生長

  • Humans have been using animal dung as fertilizer for 10,000 years.

    人類使用動物的糞便當作肥料已經有一萬年了

  • Without it, agriculture would have never been possible.

    「沒有它,農業就不可能存在」

  • And that was true until about 100 years ago

    直到約一百年前

  • when we started using petrochemical fertilizers like nitrogen.

    我們開始使用像是氮肥的石化肥料為止,這個論述都是正確的

  • Soon after that, manure as a fertilizer started to become much less valuable.

    不久之後,糞便做成的肥料開始不再那麼的有價值

  • Today, manure looks more like this

    今天,糞便長的更像這樣

  • - this is a manure pit in Switzerland -

    ── 這是瑞士的一處糞坑

  • or like this: a manure lagoon in the United States.

    或是像這樣:這是美國的一處化糞池

  • Now, a lot of these farms

    現在,很多這些農場

  • or let me call them what they are, animal feeding factories,

    或讓我稱呼他們為實際上的「動物餵食工廠」

  • don't grow the food for their animals themselves anymore.

    不再自行種植給牠們的動物的食物了

  • So to them, manure is not a precious fertilizer,

    所以對他們來說,糞便並不是珍貴的肥料

  • instead it is just a problem that has to be managed.

    而是一個必須被處理的問題

  • This is but one of many aspects of how our industrialized agriculture today

    這只是眾多我們今天的工業化農業

  • has become so broken

    如此崩壞的面向之一

  • that many now believe that our only ethical response may be becoming vegan.

    很多人現在也相信,我們唯一能做的符合道德的事情,是成為一個素食者

  • I'm here to tell you:

    我來這是是要告訴你們:

  • please do keep eating meat and cheese.

    請繼續吃肉和起司

  • We need animals for a sustainable agriculture,

    在永續農業中,我們會需要動物

  • but please stop eating

    但是,請不要再吃

  • meat and cheese from animals that were fed on human food

    用吃人類食物長大的動物製成的肉和起司了

  • like grains, and corn, and soybean.

    像是穀物、玉米和黃豆

  • Instead, only eat meat and cheese from cows that were fed on grass

    取而代之的,只吃食用草長大的動物做成的肉和起司

  • like they were meant to.

    就像牠們原本應該的那樣

  • I am going to tell you how that one choice is going to allow us

    我將告訴你們,這個選擇將如何讓我們可以

  • to tackle some of the greatest challenges we're facing today: climate change,

    處理一些我們面臨到最大的挑戰:氣候變遷

  • global soil degradation and world hunger.

    全球土壤退化、以及世界的飢餓問題

  • In Switzerland, farmers still tried to use manure

    在瑞士,農人們仍在盡力的將糞便

  • as an organic fertilizer as best they can.

    作為有機肥料使用

  • But in winter, pastures are covered with snow

    但是在冬天,牧場被雪覆蓋

  • so the cows are being kept indoors.

    這些牛隻會被帶到室內

  • So the farmer has to store the manure in a manure pit

    農民們需要將糞便儲藏在糞坑裡

  • until he can bring it out in the springtime.

    直到春天可以將它們拿出來使用為止

  • The problem is that, after a while, manure starts to rot,

    問題是,一段時間後,糞便會開始腐爛

  • and all those precious nutrients start

    所有珍貴的營養素開始

  • to turn into toxic substances like ammonia and evaporate.

    變成像是阿摩尼亞的有毒的物質並揮發

  • Puff! And all those precious nutrients are gone.

    噗!所有珍貴的營養素就沒了

  • In Germany alone, 600,000 tons of ammonia evaporate like this every year.

    單單在德國,每年有約60萬噸的阿摩尼亞就這樣揮發掉

  • Standing next to one of those manure pools can feel like you're inhaling acid.

    當站在這些糞坑的旁邊,簡直就像是在吸入酸類物質一樣

  • And in fact ammonia causes acid rain.

    而事實上,阿摩尼亞會導致酸雨

  • And when brought out to the field,

    而當我們把它拿到田野時

  • that manure seeps into our groundwater and rivers

    這些糞便會滲入地下水和河川

  • and causes massive greenhouse gas emissions.

    導致大量的溫室起體排放

  • Let me take a step back and tell you how I got mixed up in all this shit.

    讓我退後一步,告訴你們我如何和這些屎開始有牽連的

  • I originally studied economics in China where lived for three years

    我原本是在中國念經濟學,並在那裡住了三年

  • until I got dangerously ill from the food I was eating there.

    直到有一次,因為吃了那裡的食物差點病危

  • I had to take a timeout

    我必須暫時停止工作

  • and I was getting really paranoid about food,

    我也因此開始對於食物非常的偏執

  • so I decided to move

    因此我決定從

  • from a country with probably the lowest food safety standards

    一個應該是食安標準的最低的國家,搬到...

  • to... well, here, Switzerland.

    ...這裡,瑞士

  • I went to work on an organic farm close to Bern

    我到了一個鄰近伯恩的有機農場上班

  • and that was the first time that I got wind of this problem:

    那也是我第一次聽聞這個問題:

  • organic fields being sprayed with half rotten manure.

    在有機田裡面撒的都是半腐壞的糞肥

  • I always assumed that organic agriculture

    我一直認為,有機農業

  • is equal to sustainable agriculture.

    和永續農業是一樣的

  • But spraying fields with half rotten manure

    但是,噴灑半腐壞的糞肥

  • didn't fit into my idea of sustainable agriculture.

    和我想像中的永續農業並不相容

  • And in fact, this whole manure business is not very sustainable at all.

    而事實上,正個糞肥的商業體系一點都不永續

  • Let's put aside the fact that I came home smelling like shit,

    我們先把我回到家都聞起來像大便

  • and taking one shower wasn't enough to get that smell off me.

    沖完澡也沒有辦法把味道消除的事情放在一邊

  • That manure, when brought out to the field

    那些糞便在被拿到田間使用的時候

  • is so aggressive it literally burns the plants,

    已經有侵略性到可以照字面上地「讓植物燒起來」

  • and the soil takes a real beating as well.

    土讓也受到了真正的破壞

  • Earthworms, that are the backbone of a healthy fertile soil,

    做為健康肥沃土讓基礎的蚯蚓

  • come rushing to the surface suffocating,

    也透不過氣地衝到地面上

  • only to be picked off by birds.

    最後卻被鳥兒銜走

  • I thought there's got to be a better way to do this,

    我覺得一定有更好的方法可以做這件事情

  • a better way than spraying our organic fields with half rotten manure

    一個比在田裡面噴灑半腐壞的農藥更好了方法

  • so I did some research and I came across an interesting master thesis

    所以我做了一些研究,並碰到了一篇有趣的碩士論文

  • where I really thought this is something we ought to try out.

    讓我覺得這真的是我們必須要嘗試的東西

  • Oktoberfest is just behind us

    啤酒節近在咫尺

  • so I'm sure you've all had a chance to eat some nice 'sauerkraut.'

    我已我確定你們應該都有吃過一些好吃的「德國酸菜」

  • But have you ever wondered

    但你們是否曾經好奇

  • why everything in your fridge will go bad at some point,

    為什麼冰箱裡的東西到一定的時間點都會損壞

  • but sauerkraut will stay good, basically forever?

    但是德國酸菜基本上永遠都會保持完好?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Well, the reason are these fantastic bacteria called lactic acid bacteria.

    原因在於這些被稱作「乳酸菌」的神奇細菌

  • They take the sugar in the 'kraut'

    它能夠吸收酸菜中的糖分

  • and convert it to lactic acid making the 'sauerkraut' sour,

    並將之轉換為乳酸,讓德國酸菜變酸

  • and thus stopping all other rotting bacteria.

    因此讓其他會腐爛的細菌停止運作

  • In sauerkraut production, we end up with these leftover juices,

    在德國酸菜的製程中,我們最後會剩下殘留的菜汁

  • sauerkraut juice, that is chock-full of lactic acid bacteria.

    德國酸菜汁,裡頭有豐富的乳酸菌

  • Now, some people like to drink that.

    現在有些喜歡喝

  • It's supposed to be great for your digestion,

    他應該對消化有益

  • but let me tell you, I've tried it and I prefer a cold beer,

    但是我跟你說,我嘗試過,我更喜歡一杯冰啤酒

  • and so the most other people,

    其他大部分的人也這麼覺得

  • so this juice ends up as a waste product.

    所以,這些菜汁最後並成了廢料

  • Millions of liters of it in Switzerland alone.

    單瑞士就有好幾百萬公升

  • So I thought: why don't we take that sauerkraut juice

    所以我想到:為什麼不們不將德國酸菜汁

  • and put it into the manure to conserve it,

    放到糞便中來保存它

  • and stop all the nutrients from getting lost?

    讓這些營養素停止腐壞?

  • I told some friends about this idea and got them all excited about it.

    我跟一些朋友說的我的想法,讓他們對此非常興奮

  • We met with some top scientists in Switzerland

    我們見了一些瑞士最頂尖的科學家

  • and put together a concept to actually implement this.

    整理出一個可以讓這個想法實現的觀念

  • So I called the CEO of the largest sauerkraut factory in Switzerland

    所以,我向瑞士最大的德國酸菜工廠的執行長打了電話

  • and told him about this idea,

    跟他說明這個想法

  • and he was actually quite open to it.

    而他也十分歡迎

  • Now I just need to find a farmer who would be willing to join us on this.

    現在,我只需要找一個願意加入我們的農場經營者

  • I ended up getting an invitation to give a pitch at the annual meeting

    最後,我受邀瑞士有機牧業者牛肉協會的年會,

  • of the Swiss Organic Pastor Beef Association.

    並做了演示

  • I was all excited and told the group of farmers

    我全然興奮地跟一群農場經營者說明

  • pretty much what I had just told you now,

    大概我剛剛跟你們說的那些東西

  • and I asked them if anyone would be willing to join me on this.

    我問他們,是否有人願意加入我的計畫

  • And the room went silent.

    然後,整個房間陷入沉默

  • No one put up his hand.

    沒有人舉手

  • It was not very encouraging at all.

    這非常的令人洩氣

  • But after almost everyone else had left,

    但在幾乎所有人都離開的時候

  • one courageous farmer from the Alpine region of St. Gallen,

    一位從阿爾卑斯地聖加侖地區來的,勇敢的農場主人

  • Mr. Pirmin Koller, came to me and said:

    Pirmin Koller走向我,並說

  • "You know what, now that no one else is listening"

    「你知道嗎,現在沒有人在聽你說話」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "I'll give this a try with you."

    「我跟你一起嘗試」

  • So, together with the Zurich University Applied Sciences,

    所以,和蘇黎世大學應用科學系合作

  • we put together some research parameters, and within a few weeks,

    我們整理了一些研究參數,在幾周之內

  • we were pouring thousands of liters of sauerkraut juice into Pirmin's manure.

    我們便將好幾千公升的德國酸菜汁倒進了 Pirmin 的糞肥裡

  • And you know what? It worked!

    然後你們知道嗎?它成功了!

  • That manure didn't smell anymore,

    這些糞便再也不會發臭

  • and all those precious nutrients didn't turn into toxic substances

    這些珍貴的營養素也不再變成有毒物質

  • like ammonia anymore and evaporated.

    像是阿摩尼亞並揮發掉

  • And Pirmin's grass turned just a little greener as well,

    並且, Pirmin 的草皮也變得更綠了一些

  • making his neighbor's little bit jealous

    讓他的鄰居有點嫉妒

  • - I guess sometimes the grass really is greener on the other side of the fence -

    ── 我猜有時候真的是鄰家的草分外青(雙關語:總是覺得別人的處境好)──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • so suddenly, this wasn't just a crazy idea anymore.

    所以突然之間,這不再只是一個瘋狂的想法了

  • A whole bunch of people got really excited about this.

    非常多人開使對於這個感到興奮

  • The World Wildlife Foundation awarded us a grant,

    世界自然基金會頒給我們補助金

  • and at the Falling Walls conference in Berlin,

    在柏林的 Falling Walls 會議時

  • we won the first prize out of 1,000 projects.

    我們在一千個專案之中獲得了第一名

  • And that caused quite some media attention;

    這也引發了一些媒體的關注

  • Swiss and German TV did segments on us

    瑞士和德國的電視台對我們做了報導的片段

  • and we got a whole lot of coverage in Swiss and German newspapers as well.

    我們也在德國和瑞士的新聞報紙上獲得了很大的新聞篇幅

  • And that was great because after that,

    這很棒因為從此之後

  • farmers from all over Switzerland, all the way to America and Australia,

    瑞士、美國甚至到澳洲所有的農場經營者

  • contacted me,

    都與我聯繫

  • and within three months, we had six pilot projects up and running.

    在三個月之內,我們就開啟並營運了六個實驗專案

  • But, as the results started to come in,

    但是,當結果開始出來

  • we realized that manure has

    我們發現,糞便的

  • a much higher buffer capacity than we originally anticipated.

    緩衝容量遠比我們起初預期的高

  • We needed about ten times the amount of sauerkraut juice

    我們需要10倍的德國酸菜汁

  • to conserve the manure over a six-month period.

    才可以將糞肥保持六個月以上的期間

  • Instead of a few thousand liters,

    不是幾千公升

  • we now needed tens of thousands of liters.

    我們現在需要幾萬公升

  • And that's not great news because it's not Oktoberfest every day

    這並不是個好消息,因為不是每天都是啤酒節

  • so we don't have enough sauerkraut juice available to really scale this idea.

    所以我們沒有足夠的德國酸菜汁將這個想法規模化

  • I realised that if I want to tackle this manure problem,

    我認知到,如果我想要解決這個糞便的問題

  • I'm going to have to understand farming from the ground up,

    我得從頭頭開始徹底地了解農業

  • so I decided to become a farmer.

    所以,我決定自己當個農夫

  • I'm now in my third year of a four-year vocational training program

    現在,我在四年職業訓練計畫的第三年

  • to become an organic dynamic farmer living and working on a farm.

    成為了一個活躍的有機農夫,在農場生活並工作

  • But not just any farm.

    但不是隨便的農場

  • I work on an organic cattle farm

    我在一個有機的牛場工作

  • where they do something pretty special with their manure.

    在那裡,他們對糞便做了非常特別的事

  • They turn their manure into pure fertile compost.

    他們將這些糞便變成純淨的堆肥

  • Now let me quickly explain to you how that happens

    現在讓我快速地向你們解釋這是怎麼發生的

  • and how that is going to help save our climate and soils

    以及這會如何幫助我們拯救氣候與土壤

  • and help make the world's most disadvantaged regions

    並幫助讓世界上生活條件最差的地區

  • food independent again.

    在糧食上再度自食其力

  • I'm going to have to go back 3,000 years to the Indios of South America.

    我要回溯到3000年前的南美洲的 Indio 人

  • South and Middle America was home to some highly advanced civilizations,

    中南美洲是許多高度進步的文明的故鄉

  • with cities as large as 300,000 people.

    有三十萬以上人口的城市

  • When we Europeans were still taking a dump in our backyards

    當歐洲人還在後院上大號、

  • and dying of the plague,

    因為瘟疫而死亡的時候

  • they had already figured out an intricate sanitary system.

    他們早就想出了一個錯綜複雜的衛生系統

  • They would use clay pots as their toilets.

    他們用陶壺作為他們的馬桶

  • When they were done doing their business in the pot,

    當他們做完在壺裡要做的事情時

  • they would sprinkle charcoal in the pot.

    他們會灑一點木炭在陶壺中

  • Now this charcoal - today we call it biochar -

    這些木炭──今天我們稱它為「生物炭」

  • is extremely absorbent.

    是極度的具有吸收性的

  • Like a sponge, it soaks up all the nutrients,

    像海綿一樣,它會將所有的營養素吸收進來

  • stopping them from getting lost.

    讓他們停止消失不見

  • So when that pot was full,

    所以當陶壺滿了的時候

  • they didn't just end up with a pot of poop,

    他們不只是以一壺的糞便作結

  • but an extremely fertile pot of poop.

    而是一壺極度肥沃的糞便

  • They'd probably bring that out to their fields

    他們很可能把糞便拿到田地裡

  • and plant some beans or corn and have fantastic yields.

    種植了一些豆類或是玉米,並有了美好的產出

  • But what the Indios probably didn't know

    但是 Indios 人或許不知道的是

  • was that biochar has a negative carbon balance

    生物炭有負碳平衡的特性

  • and it stays in the soil for thousands of years.

    他們會留在土讓中幾千年的時間

  • So they ended up creating the world's most fertile soils:

    所以,在們最後創造出了世界上最肥沃的土壤:

  • the Terra Preta.

    亞馬遜黑土

  • And we marvel at them even today, [500] years later,

    (五百)多年以後,到今天為止我們仍對此驚嘆不已。

  • So, at the farm work I'm at,

    所以,在我工作的農場中

  • the farmer has been implementing a system for the past 15 years

    農場主人在過去十五年中實行了仿效

  • that mimics the Indio clay pot toilet.

    Indio 人陶壺馬桶的系統

  • He would make his cows

    在冬天,他會幫牛隻

  • a clean bed of wood chips and biochar over the winter,

    鋪上用木屑和生物炭做成的床

  • instead of storing the manure in a manure pool.

    代替將糞便儲藏在化糞池中的方式

  • Those cows would live and sleep there every day,

    那些牛隻每天會在上面生活、睡覺

  • and every second day he would add a new layer of wood chips and biochar,

    第二天他再加上一層新的木屑和生物炭

  • thus conserving the manure.

    如此保存糞便

  • In the springtime, we would take all that wood chip-biochar-manure

    到了春天,我們會把所有的木屑生物炭糞便

  • out of the stables and compost it.

    取出牛棚,並用來堆肥

  • Now, composting is just a little bit like baking.

    現在,施肥有點像是烘焙

  • You have to take the right ingredients in the right amounts

    你需要正確分量的正確原料

  • and mix them up in just the right way.

    用正確的方式混合他們

  • So we take that wood chip-biochar-manure,

    所以,我們在木屑生物炭糞便上

  • and we add a layer of freshly cut grass,

    加上一層新割下來的草

  • and a little bit of finished compost, and a little bit of clay,

    一點點現成的肥料、和一點點泥土

  • and we mix it all up, and that's when the magic happens:

    把他們通通混再一起,這就是魔法出現的時候了

  • a whole army of microorganisms

    整個微生物軍團

  • starts to take apart all that organic matter devouring it.

    開始分解這團有機物並吞噬它

  • That composting process turns really hot

    這個堆肥的過程變得非常地熱

  • - over 70 degrees [Celsius] for three weeks -

    ── 持續三個禮拜超過攝氏七十度

  • And those microorganisms take apart all the organic matter

    這些微生物分解了所有的有機物

  • including antibiotics and growth hormones,

    包含抗生素和生長激素

  • and whatever other chemicals might be in there.

    以及任何可能在裡面的化學成分

  • And the heat sanitizes the manure from pathogen bacteria.

    這樣的溫度對糞便做了高溫殺菌,去除了其中的病原體細菌

  • When all that organic matter's broken down to its chemical building-blocks,

    當整個有機物被分解成化學模塊時

  • a whole new army of microorganisms

    整個微生物軍團

  • takes those building blocks and puts them together to pure fertile soil.

    便將這些化學模塊組裝成純淨的堆肥

  • In this form, all of the nutrients are locked up safely,

    在這樣的形式下,所有的營養素都安全地被鎖住

  • none of them evaporating or leaching into the groundwater.

    沒有揮發或是過濾到地下水中

  • I'm now involved in an EU project

    我現在參與了一個歐盟的專案

  • where we're turning this concept large-scale on the farm with 1,500 cows.

    在專案中,我們將這個觀念規模化,運用在有一千五百頭牛的農場

  • So this concept is applicable on every scale.

    所以這個觀念是在任何規模都可以被運用的

  • From the Indio clay pot toilets,

    從Indio人的陶壺馬桶

  • all the way to large-scale cattle farms.

    直到大規模的牛場

  • With this method, we may turn desolate soils fertile again.

    透過這個芳法,我們可以讓荒蕪的土地重新變肥沃

  • People may grow food locally again

    人們可以再次在地耕種,

  • where they have become dependent on food aid

    在那些依賴糧食救援

  • or on multinational fertilizer companies.

    或是依賴跨國肥料公司的地方

  • And by making soils fertile again,

    藉著讓土地再度肥沃

  • we may lock up billions of tons of carbon in the soil

    我們可以將數十億噸的碳鎖在土壤中

  • reducing atmospheric CO2, and thus, global warming.

    因此減少大氣層中的二氧化碳與全球暖化

  • Grass and clover grows on billions of hectares of land worldwide,

    牧草與苜蓿可以生長在全世界另外數十億公頃

  • that is not otherwise usable for agriculture.

    不在做農業使用的土地上

  • These wonderful animals: cows, goats, and sheep,

    這些美好的動物:乳牛、山羊、綿羊

  • may unlock this abundant resource to us,

    也可以像我們開啟豐富的資源

  • and on the land where we grow grains and vegetables for ourselves,

    在那些我們為自己種植故物於蔬菜的土地上

  • those crops need lots and lots of nutrients,

    這些作物需要大量的營養

  • so we cannot grow them on the same patch of land every year.

    所以我們不能每年都在同一小塊土地上種植

  • The soil needs time to recover.

    土壤需要時間回復

  • Growing grass and clover replenishes the soils nutrients,

    種植牧草與苜蓿可以補充土壤中的養分

  • So, growing grains and vegetables for