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  • There's a common misconception

    人們常有這樣的誤解-

  • that if you like to meticulously organize your things,

    如果你喜歡一絲不苟地擺設自己的東西、

  • keep your hands clean,

    保持雙手乾淨、

  • or plan out your weekend to the last detail,

    或是巨細靡遺地計畫好週末

  • you might have OCD.

    你可能有了「OCD」吧!

  • In fact, OCD, which stands for obsessive compulsive disorder,

    事實上OCD代表的是「强迫症」

  • is a serious psychiatric condition

    是一種極端的精神官能狀況

  • that is frequently misunderstood by society

    經常被社會

  • and mental health professionals alike.

    和像心理醫師的人所誤解

  • So let's start by debunking some myths.

    讓我們先從破解幾項迷思做開端

  • Myth one: repetitive or ritualistic behaviors are synonymous with OCD.

    迷思一、重複或例行公事般的行為 就等同於强迫症

  • As its name suggests,

    一如其名

  • obsessive compulsive disorder has two aspects:

    強迫症有兩方面-

  • the intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, known as obsessions,

    擾人的念頭、影像,和被叫做執迷的強烈衝動

  • and the behavioral compulsions people engage in

    以及有強迫症的人遂行了行為上的強烈衝動

  • to relieve the anxiety the obsessions cause.

    以舒解執迷所引發的焦慮

  • The kinds of actions that people often associate with OCD,

    人們時常把某幾類作為牽扯上强迫症

  • like excessive hand washing, or checking things repeatedly,

    像是太常洗手或是反覆檢查東西

  • may be examples of obsessive or compulsive tendencies

    或者是我們之中多數人不時

  • that many of us exhibit from time to time.

    表現出來執迷或是強烈衝動傾向的例子

  • But the actual disorder is far more rare and can be quite debilitating.

    但是真正的病症極為罕見而且相當折騰人

  • People affected have little or no control over their obsessive thoughts

    得病的人不太能或根本無法控制執迷的念頭

  • and compulsive behaviors,

    和衝動的行為

  • which tend to be time consuming

    那是會耗費時間

  • and interfere with work, school or social life

    而且干擾工作、上學與社交生活

  • to the point of causing significant distress.

    甚至會引發嚴重的憂鬱

  • This set of diagnostic criteria is what separates people suffering from OCD

    這類診斷標準區分出受强迫症所苦的人

  • from those who may just be a bit more meticulous

    和可能不過是比一般人有點過於一絲不茍

  • or hygiene obsessed than usual.

    或是執迷於衛生的那些人

  • Myth two: the main symptom of OCD is excessive hand washing.

    迷思二、强迫症的主要症狀是太常洗手

  • Although hand washing is the most common image of OCD in popular culture,

    雖然洗手是普眾文化中最常見的強迫症畫面

  • obsessions and compulsions can take many different forms.

    不過執迷與強烈的衝動卻能夠用許多不同的方式體現

  • Obsessions can manifest as fears of contamination and illness,

    執迷可以當成對感染與疾病的恐懼、

  • worries about harming others,

    擔心傷害到其他人、

  • or preoccupations with numbers, patterns, morality, or sexual identity.

    或是滿腦子只在乎數字、形式、道義、性別認定等

  • And compulsions can range from excessive cleaning or double checking,

    而强烈的衝動可以從過度清潔或反覆檢查

  • to the fastidious arrangement of objects,

    甚至到過分嚴謹的擺設物品

  • or walking in predetermined patterns.

    或是以既定的方式、規矩在走路

  • Myth three:

    迷思三

  • individuals with OCD don't understand that they are acting irrationally.

    患有強迫症的人在當下並不曉得他們是非理性地在做事

  • Many individuals with OCD actually understand the relationship

    很多强迫症患者事實上清楚知道

  • between their obsessions and compulsions quite well.

    執迷與強烈衝動之間的關聯

  • Being unable to avoid these thoughts and actions

    無法避開這些念頭和動作

  • despite being aware of their irrationality

    儘管意識到他們的不合理性

  • is part of the reason why OCD is so distressing.

    就是強迫症為什麼這麼令人憂鬱的部分原因

  • OCD sufferers report feeling crazy

    強迫症患者們說

  • for experiencing anxiety based on irrational thoughts

    基於不合理的想法和控制不住的反應

  • and finding it difficult to control their responses.

    所經歷的焦慮令其覺得像發瘋了一樣

  • So what exactly causes OCD?

    那到底是什麽引起强迫症呢?

  • The frustrating answer is we don't really know.

    令人灰心的答案是我們並不清楚

  • However, we have some important clues.

    然而我們是有一些重要的線索

  • OCD is considered a neurobiological disorder.

    强迫症被認爲是神經生理失調

  • In other words, research suggests that OCD sufferers brains

    換言之研究顯示强迫症患者的大腦

  • are actually hardwired to behave in a certain fashion.

    事實上早被限定了要做出特定風格之舉動

  • Research has implicated three regions of the brain

    研究指向大腦的三個區塊

  • variously involved in social behavior and complex cognitive planning,

    分別涉入了社交行為、複雜的認知建立、

  • voluntary movement,

    自主性動作

  • and emotional and motivational responses.

    以及情緒與幹勁的反應

  • The other piece of the puzzle

    其他費解的地方

  • is that OCD is associated with low levels of serotonin,

    是強迫症與低水平的血清素有關

  • a neurotransmitter that communicates between brain structures

    一種在大腦組織之間傳遞資訊的神經傳遞素

  • and helps regulate vital processes,

    幫助管制極重要的過程

  • such as mood, aggression, impulse control,

    例如心情、犯意、脈搏控制、

  • sleep, appetite, body temperature and pain.

    睡眠、食慾、體溫和疼痛

  • But are serotonin and activity in these brain regions the sources of OCD

    是否血清素和這些大腦區塊中的活動就是强迫症的根源?

  • or symptoms of an unknown underlying cause of the disorder.

    或者某種未知的症狀暗藏了精神不正常的成因?

  • We probably won't know until

    我們可能不會知道

  • we have a much more intimate understanding of the brain.

    直到我們更通曉大腦前

  • The good news is there are effective treatments for OCD,

    好消息是對強迫症有效的療法是存在的

  • including medications, which increase serotonin in the brain

    包括了增加大腦內血清素的藥物

  • by limiting its reabsorption by brain cells,

    阻止血清素被大腦細胞再吸收回去

  • behavioral therapy that gradually desensitizes patients to their anxieties,

    以及使病人對焦慮逐漸感到麻木的行為療法

  • and in some cases, electroconvulsive therapy,

    當強迫症對其他療法沒反應時

  • or surgery, when OCD doesn't respond to other forms of treatment.

    部分案例中就用電療或是做手術

  • Knowing that your own brain is lying to you

    知道自己的大腦正在説謊

  • while not being able to resist its commands can be agonizing.

    這時候又無法抗拒它的指令會是非常痛苦的事

  • But with knowledge and understanding comes the power to seek help,

    不過有了知識和理解它就能得到求救的力量

  • and future research into the brain

    而未來對大腦內的研究

  • may finally provide the answers we're looking for.

    也許最終會提供給我們此時正在尋找的解答

There's a common misconception

人們常有這樣的誤解-

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 強迫症 大腦 血清素 迷思 強烈

【TED-Ed】帶你打破「強迫症」的迷思 (Debunking the myths of OCD - Natascha M. Santos)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 09 月 27 日
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