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  • Nestled in the tissues of your neck is a small unassuming organ

    在你的脖子旁一個小器官,

  • that wields enormous power over your body.

    具掌控你身體的巨大力量,

  • It's called the thyroid.

    這就是甲狀腺。

  • Like the operations manager in a company,

    就像一個公司的營運經理,

  • its role is to make sure that the cells in your body are working properly.

    它的作用是確保 你體内的细胞正常工作。

  • It does that by using hormones to deliver messages to every single one of them.

    它通過使用賀爾蒙 發送訊息給每一個細胞。

  • This high-ranking organ is made up of lobules

    這種高級器官由甲狀腺小葉組成,

  • that each contains smaller cells called follicles,

    每個小葉都包含稱為濾泡的小細胞,

  • which store the hormones the thyroid sends out into your blood.

    其中存儲可由甲狀腺 送至血液的賀爾蒙。

  • Two of the most important hormones it produces

    它分泌了兩種最重要的賀爾蒙,

  • are thyroxine and triiodothyronine, or T3 and T4.

    甲狀腺素和三碘甲狀腺氨酸 或稱為T3和T4。

  • As messengers, the hormone's job

    作為信使,賀爾蒙的工作

  • is to instruct every cell in the body when to consume oxygen and nutrients.

    是指導體內的每一個細胞 藉由消耗的氧氣和營養,

  • That maintains the body's metabolism,

    來維持人體的新陳代謝。

  • the series of reactions our cells perform to provide us with energy.

    一系列的反應使 我們的細胞供給我們能量。

  • This hormonal notification from the thyroid

    這種來自甲狀腺荷爾蒙的通知,

  • gets the heart pumping more efficiently,

    使心臟泵血更有效,

  • and makes our cells break down nutrients faster.

    並使得我們的細胞 分解營養成分更快。

  • When you need more energy,

    當你需要更多能量時,

  • the thyroid helps by sending out hormones to increase metabolism.

    甲狀腺幫忙透過 發送賀爾蒙增加新陳代謝,

  • Ultimately, the thyroid allows our cells to use energy, grow and reproduce.

    最終,甲狀腺控制細胞 使用能源、生長和繁殖。

  • The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland,

    甲狀腺被腦垂腺控制,

  • a hormonal gland deep in the brain that oversees the thyroid's tasks,

    此大腦深處的荷爾蒙腺體 負責監督甲狀腺的工作,

  • making sure it knows when to send out its messengers.

    確保它知道何時發送其賀爾蒙。

  • The pituitary's role is to sense if hormone levels in the blood

    腦垂腺的作用是檢測 血液中的賀爾蒙

  • are too low or too high,

    如果過低或過高,

  • in which case it sends out instructions

    它就會發出指令,

  • in the form of the thyroid- stimulating hormone.

    調節甲狀腺的賀爾蒙。

  • Even in this tightly controlled system, however,

    然而,即使在這樣嚴格的控制系統下,

  • management sometimes slips up.

    管理有時仍會產生疏失。

  • Certain diseases,

    如某些特定疾病

  • growths in the thryoid

    發生在甲狀腺,

  • or chemical imbalances in the body can confuse the organ

    或體內化學失衡時可能使甲狀腺混淆,

  • and make it deaf to the pituitary's guiding commands.

    使其無法接收腦垂腺的指導命令。

  • The first problem this causes is hyperthyroidism,

    第一個問題會導致甲狀腺功能亢進,

  • which happens when the organ sends out too many hormones.

    當腺體發出過多的賀爾蒙,

  • That means the cells are overloaded with instructions

    意味著將使細胞超載,

  • to consume nutrients and oxygen.

    消耗過多的養分和氧氣。

  • They become overactive as a result,

    它們過度活躍,結果

  • meaning a person with hyperthyroidism experiences a higher metabolism

    甲狀腺功能亢進症患者 具較高的新陳代謝率,

  • signaled by a faster heartbeat, constant hunger, and rapid weight loss.

    顯現出較快的心跳、 常有飢餓感,並快速減肥。

  • They also feel hot, sweaty, anxious, and find it difficult to sleep.

    他們還覺得熱、出汗、焦慮, 並難以入睡。

  • The opposite problem is hypothyroidism,

    與此相反的問題是 甲狀腺功能減退症,

  • which happens when the thyroid sends out too few hormones,

    這發生在甲狀腺發送太少賀爾蒙時,

  • meaning the body's cells don't have as many messengers to guide them.

    意味著身體的細胞沒有 足夠多的訊息引導它們活動。

  • In response, cells grow listless and metabolism slows.

    結果,細胞缺乏活力、新陳代謝減慢。

  • People with hypothyroidism see symptoms in weight gain,

    患有甲狀腺功能減退症 會有體重增加的症狀,

  • sluggishness, sensitivity to cold, swollen joints and feeling low.

    以及呆滯、對冷敏感、 關節腫脹和情緒低落。

  • Luckily, there are medical treatments

    幸運的是這可以醫治,

  • that can help trigger the thyroid's activities again,

    能觸發甲狀腺再次活耀起來,

  • and bring the body back to a steady metabolic rate.

    並恢復身體到一個穩定的代謝率。

  • For such a little organ, the thyroid wields an awful lot of power.

    對於這樣一個小的器官, 甲狀腺握有很多可怕的權力。

  • But a healthy thyroid manages our cells so effectively

    但是,健康的甲狀腺 能有效地管理我們的細胞,

  • that it can keep us running smoothly without us even noticing it's there.

    讓我們身體平穩運作, 以至於我們沒有注意到它的存在。

Nestled in the tissues of your neck is a small unassuming organ

在你的脖子旁一個小器官,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 甲狀腺 賀爾蒙 細胞 新陳代謝 發送

TED-Ed】甲狀腺是如何管理你的新陳代謝的?- Emma Bryce (【TED-Ed】How does the thyroid manage your metabolism? - Emma Bryce)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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