Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • From bizarre sightings to government cover-ups, people love a good story about aliens.

    從離奇的目擊事件到政府的掩蓋行為,人們都喜歡關於外星人的好故事。

  • We've always been a bit obsessed with them.

    我們一直都為牠們著迷。

  • Just think about all the films they starred.

    只要想想以牠們為主角的電影就好了。

  • E.T., phone home.

    E.T.,打電話回家。(引用自電影《E.T.外星人》,誤入地球的外星人透過這句話表達想與故鄉家人聯絡的渴望。)

  • Our homeEarthis filled with life so far unmatched by anything we've found in space, but we're only a tiny part of the universe.

    地球是我們的家園,充滿了各種生命,迄今為止在太空中發現的任何東西都無法比擬,但我們只是宇宙的一小部分。

  • There has to be life out there somewhere else, right?

    在宇宙的某一端一定得有生命,對吧?

  • Scientists have been trying to answer that question for decades, but today, research is skyrocketing.

    科學家數十年來一直嘗試要回答這個問題,但今日的研究正在飛速發展。

  • The next decade is probably gonna be packed with the most insights and the most data and the most knowledge in all of human history.

    接下來的十年大概會是人類歷史上,最多見解、最多數據及最多知識的時期。

  • Could we really be about to discover whether life exists out in space?

    我們真的即將發現太空中是否存在生命了嗎?

  • Ancient Greek philosophers theorized about it.

    古希臘哲學家針對這件事發展出理論。

  • 18th-century academics like Voltaire wrote about it.

    18 世紀如伏爾泰等學者也寫過這方面的文章。

  • But the scientific search for life beyond Earth really kicked off in the 1950s with the dawn of the Space Age.

    但是,對地球以外生命的科學探索在 1950 年代隨著太空時代來臨而真正拉開了序幕。

  • By October 1957, the first artificial Earth satellite was pronounced ready.

    到了 1957 年 10 月,第一顆人造地球衛星被宣佈準備就緒。

  • When the Russians sent the world's first satellite into space, the race was on.

    當俄羅斯人將世界上第一顆衛星送入太空時,競賽就開始了。

  • They've got the flag up now, and you're gonna see the stars and stripes.

    他們把國旗立起來了,你們即將看到星條旗。

  • By the 70s, everyone wanted to know the answer to one question:

    到了 70 年代,每個人都想知道一個問題的答案:

  • Is there life on Mars? ♪

    ♪火星上是否有生命?♪

  • By 1976, America had landed a probe on our neighbor planet.

    到了 1976 年,美國剛在我們的鄰居星球上降落了一個探測器。

  • The world held its breath to see what or who might be up there.

    世界屏息以待,想看看那裡有什麼東西、什麼人。

  • Who... who are you?

    你⋯⋯你們是誰?

  • We're from Mars; don't be afraid.

    我們來自火星,不要害怕。

  • But the reality was a bit disappointing.

    但現實令人頗為失望。

  • Sorry, Bowie.

    抱歉了,Bowie。

  • As soon as people sent satellites into orbit and beyond, they immediately discovered that these places didn't actually have life.

    人們一把衛星送入軌道和更遠的地方後就立即發現那些地方其實沒有生命。

  • The search for life was very prevalent in science fiction, but in science, it was seen as a little bit of a laughing stock.

    對生命的探索在科幻小說中非常盛行,但在科學界卻有點被當成笑柄。

  • There's no way of actually doing it; we didn't have enough technology to do it.

    我們沒有實際做到的方法,我們當時沒有足以做到的科技。

  • But, in the last two or three decades, astrobiology as a discipline has become this incredibly exciting frontier.

    但在過去的二、三十年間,天體生物學作為一門學科已經成為令人極度興奮的領域。

  • Not only for these big questions that many of us are interested in because of popular culture, [but] because scientifically, we can [also] start to answer them properly.

    不僅是許多人因為流行文化而感興趣的那些大問題,而是因為在科學上,我們也可以開始正確地回答它們。

  • But in the search for life beyond our own planet, what are we actually looking for?

    但是,在探尋地球以外的生命時,我們實際上在尋找什麼?

  • Scientists hope to detect three things that can signify life.

    科學家們希望能探測到三種可以代表生命存在的事物。

  • The first is water.

    第一個是水。

  • Water is the solvent for life on Earththat means that life works.

    水是地球上生命的溶劑,讓生命變成可能的途徑。

  • So, water is the first thing that everyone has been looking for.

    所以說,水是每個人都在尋找的第一個物質。

  • For liquid water to exist on a planet's surface, it has to be a very specific distance from the star it's orbiting.

    液態水要存在星球表面的條件是,它與其軌跡繞行的恆星間必須是一個特定的距離。

  • Not too far away so that all the water on its surface will freeze,

    距離不會遠到讓它表面的水分都結成冰,

  • but the planet is also not too close to the sun so that it's not so hot all the liquid water on the surface would become vapor.

    但這顆行星也不能離太陽太近,讓它的溫度不會高到表面所有液態水都會蒸發成水汽。

  • This perfect distance is nicknamed the "Goldilocks Zone".

    這個完美的距離被稱為「古迪洛克帶」(又稱為「適居帶」)。

  • Not too hot, not too cold.

    不太熱、不太冷。

  • In the past 10 years, scientists have found 59 worlds outside our Solar System that are just right.

    在過去 10 年中,科學家們在太陽系外發現了 59 個恰到好處的世界。

  • The planet with the most potential is called "Teegarden B".

    最具潛力的行星被稱為「蒂加登 B 星」。

  • 12 light years away, it is roughly the same size as Earth and receives a similar amount of light from its host star.

    距離我們 12 光年遠的它,大小與地球大致相同、從其宿主恆星接收的光量也差不多。

  • But it's one thing to think a planet might be able to sustain life.

    但是,認為一個星球可能足以維持生命是一回事。

  • It's another thing entirely to know it actually has it.

    但是要知道它確實有生命存在又是另外一回事了。

  • What you then need is individual biosignatures.

    你在這時候需要的就是個人生物特徵。

  • And biosignatures is a very loose termwhat it basically means is specific molecules are only associated with life.

    生物特徵是一個非常廣泛術語,基本上就是表示只跟生命相關的特定分子。

  • Elements like oxygen, which life on earth produces and replenishes, or methane, a compound life on earth creates.

    像是地球上生命產生和補充的氧氣,或地球上複合生命創造的甲烷。

  • Astrobiologist Sara Seager has identified at least 3,500 molecules that could be biosignatures.

    天體生物學家 Sara Seager 已經至少辨識了 3,500 種可能是生物特徵的分子。

  • So, there are plenty to look for.

    所以說,要尋找的東西有很多。

  • But finding biosignatures does not necessarily mean intelligent life.

    但找到生物特徵並不一定意味著智能生命存在。

  • For decades, scientists have also been looking for something called "techno signatures".

    數十年以來,科學家們也一直在尋找一種叫做「技術特徵」的東西。

  • If life evolves on the planet and gets to the point where it's... it communicate and build things and build technology like humans have on earth, then you can detect signs of that, too.

    如果生命在這個星球上進化到了像地球人類一樣可以交流並建造物件、建立技術的程度,那麼你也可以檢測到它們的跡象。

  • Techno signatures aren't that tricky to pick up on.

    要偵測到技術特徵並不困難。

  • All you have to do is watch for telltale signs of technology like radio signals or the bright flash of a laser.

    你只需要觀察技術特徵的蛛絲馬跡,如無線電訊號或雷射的明亮閃光。

  • Despite looking, scientists have failed to find a convincing techno signature.

    儘管他們的探尋,科學家為能夠找到令人信服的技術特徵。

  • But, in 1977, astronomers saw something that stopped them in their tracks.

    但在 1977 年,天文學家們看到了讓他們停下動作的東西。

  • A strange signal coming from space.

    一個來自外太空的奇異訊號。

  • A handwritten note alongside says it all.

    訊號旁邊的手寫字足以說明一切。

  • "Wow", which became the signal's name.

    寫著「哇」這一個字,它最後也變成這個訊號的名稱。

  • Where this apparent signal came from, no one knows.

    沒有人知道這則直白的訊號是從何而來。

  • Some might claim it is proof of life beyond Earth, but it hasn't been verified.

    有些人可能會聲稱這是地球以外有生命的證明,但它還沒有被驗證。

  • And finding genuine signs of alien technology relies on getting extremely lucky with timing.

    而且要找到真正的外星技術跡象需仰賴極其幸運的時機。

  • You're looking at a planet that's maybe 200 lightyears away, let's say.

    假設你在看一個大概 200 光年之外的星球。

  • So, that means you're seeing that planet 200 years ago, and vice versa.

    這意味著你看到的是 200 年前的那顆星球,反之亦然。

  • That planet, if life exists and is technological, is looking at us, and it looked, at let's say London,

    如果那個星球存在著生命而且有相關技術,而上面的生命正在看著我們,假設看著倫敦好了,

  • they'd... they'd see Victorians walking on the streets right now.

    他們現在看到的會是維多利亞時代的居民。

  • because that's... that's how long it'll take... take for the light to get there.

    因為那是光要抵達到那裡所要耗費的時間。

  • Now, bear in mind, also, that these civilizations might be hundreds, millions of lightyears away.

    要記得,那些文明可能也距離我們數百萬光年之遠。

  • So, the communication is not exactly quick, and we're talking many hundreds of generations of people on Earth before you get responses.

    所以溝通並不完全是快速的,我們談到的是地球需要經歷好幾百代人的輪迴才能得到回應。

  • So, detecting alien intelligence is... is really tantalizing, but it's also tragic 'cause we'll probably never be able to communicate with them if we did discover it.

    所以說,探測外星智慧的確很誘人,但也很悲哀,因為如果我們真的發現牠們,我們大概永遠也無法與牠們交流。

  • That's why today's technology focuses more on looking for the bio than the tech note.

    這就是為什麼今天的技術更著重尋找生物跡象,而非技術特徵。

  • So, how are we looking for biological life?

    那麼,我們是如何尋找生命的呢?

  • One way is to scour the skies.

    一種方法是搜索天空。

  • That means telescopes.

    也就是用望遠鏡。

  • But not like those...

    但不是像那些望遠鏡⋯⋯

  • ... more like these.

    ⋯⋯而更像是這些。

  • So, for several decades now, there have been telescopes in spaceand on Earththat have been able to detect the presence of planets around other stars.

    所以迄今數十年來,太空中和地球上一直存在著一些望遠鏡,能夠探測再其它恆星周圍存在的行星。

  • Now, the next generation of telescopes will be able to take pictures of those planets in much more detail.

    下一代的望遠鏡將能夠更清晰地拍攝那些行星的照片。

  • In December 2021, the largest and most powerful space telescope ever made was launched into orbit.

    2021 年 12 月時,史上最大、最厲害的太空望遠鏡被發射進軌道。

  • The James Webb Space Telescope.

    詹姆斯·韋伯太空望遠鏡。

  • James Webb begins a voyage back to the birth of the universe.

    詹姆斯·韋伯展開了一趟回溯宇宙起源的旅程。

  • It's equipped with a 6.5-meter mirror, giving it a light collecting area more than six times greater than the world-renowned Hubble Telescope.

    它具備一面直徑 6.5 公尺的鏡子,使它的集光面積比世界著名的哈伯望遠鏡大六倍以上。

  • If we crave some cosmic purpose, then let us find ourselves a worthy goal.

    如果我們渴望某種宇宙性目的,那就讓我們為自己找到有價值的目標。

  • It's also able to detect molecules of life like oxygen, a handy tool when looking for a habitable environment.

    它還能夠檢測到像氧氣這樣的生命分子,在尋找宜居環境時是一個方便的工具。

  • Towards the end of the decade, there are gonna be enormous ground-based telescopes with 40-meter wide lenses,

    在本世紀末,將會出現巨大的地面望遠鏡,配有直徑 40 公尺寬的鏡頭,

  • and these will be able to actually take pictures of things like clouds and atmospheres on these exoplanets.

    它們將能夠實際地拍攝這些系外行星上的雲和大氣層等物體。

  • So, you'll be able to do things like understand the climate of a different planet, you'll be able to understand what a day looks like on all these planets, which is incredible.

    所以你將能夠做到像是了解不同星球氣候等事情,也將能夠知道在那些星球上的一天是什麼樣貌,那是不可思議的。

  • In the 2020s, three ground-based telescopes with mirrors 25 to 40 meters wide are expected to become operational.

    在 2020 年代,預期將會有三座鏡面直徑 25 至 40 公尺的地面望遠鏡開始運作。

  • In the late 2030s, they could be joined by two proposed NASA spacecraft.

    2030 年代晚期,可能會加上 NASA 提議建造的火箭。

  • One being specifically designed to take photographs of habitable planets.

    其中一個是專門為拍攝宜居行星而設計的。

  • An even better way of looking for signs of life is to visit places to scoop up bits of air or soil, [and] do scientific experiments with them using sophisticated instruments to really understand what's there.

    尋找生命跡象更好的方法是造訪一些地方,舀起一些空氣或土壤並使用複雜的儀器對進行科學實驗,以真正理解那裡的情況。

  • And there are many, many missions planned for the next decade.

    未來十年內已經規劃了無數次任務。

  • Probes are being sent to collect data from so far untouched parts of our Solar System, like Europa, one of Jupiter's moons, which seems to have canyons of ice.

    探測器被派遣收集太陽系中迄今尚未觸及之處的數據,如歐羅巴,它是木星的衛星之一,似乎有冰峽谷。

  • Ice means that precious, life-giving element, water.

    冰意味著賦予生命的寶貴元素,也就是水。

  • In 2023, Europe's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer will embark on a 12-year journey to see if it has the potential to support life.

    2023 年,歐洲的木星冰月探測器將開始為期 12 年的旅程,檢測它是否有維繫生命存在的潛力。

  • If life on Earth started with warm water sitting on rocks and interacting chemically, then perhaps, it could happen on... on one of those sorts of moons, too.

    如果地球生命的起源是岩石上的溫水起化學作用,那麼或許它也能夠發生在那樣的衛星之一。

  • When it comes to general space explorationthese are quite cool missions, anywaybut they're all pretty much geared towards looking for life in ways that we've never been able to do before.

    提到一般的太空探索,他們都是非常酷的任務,但它們探尋生命的方式幾乎都是以我們從未嘗試過。

  • These missions cost hundreds of millions of dollars.

    這些任務會耗資數億美元。

  • Luckily, there seems to be a growing appetite to answer the fundamental question of whether life exists beyond Earth.

    幸運的是,人們似乎越來越想回答地球以外是否存在生命這一個根本問題。

  • NASA's 2022 budget is the largest it's been since the 60s.

    NASA 2022 年的預算是自 60 年代以來最高的。

  • Astrobiology has really come of age; the 2020s is when it's gonna take flight.

    天體生物學真的已經趨向成熟,而 2020 年代正是它蓬勃之時。

  • If life exists within our corner of the galaxy, most scientists in this field are confident that we'll discover some sign of it in the next decade.

    如果我們銀河系任何一個地方存在生命,多數這個領域的科學家都堅信我們會在未來十年內發現相關跡象。

  • If, however, we discover nothing in the next decade, that also tells us something profound.

    然而,如果我們在未來十年內什麼都沒發現,那也揭露了一件意義深遠的事。

  • It tells us that life is much, much, much more rare than we thought it was.

    它讓我們知道,生命的稀有程度,遠比我們所想像的還要高出許多。

  • I'm Alok Jha, science correspondent at "The Economist".

    我是 Alok Jha,《經濟學人》雜誌的科學記者。

  • To read more on this topic, please click on the link opposite.

    若想多閱讀此主題相關資訊,請點擊對向連結。

  • Thanks very much for watching, and don't forget to subscribe.

    非常感謝各位觀看,別忘記訂閱。

From bizarre sightings to government cover-ups, people love a good story about aliens.

從離奇的目擊事件到政府的掩蓋行為,人們都喜歡關於外星人的好故事。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 生命 望遠鏡 地球 星球 太空 行星

外星人究竟是否存在? (Alien life: are we about to find it?)

  • 343 11
    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 27 日
影片單字