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  • Hello everybody.


  • Before I start today's talk, I'd like to ask a few questions.

    在演講的開始前, 我想問在座各位幾個問題,

  • Be honest now!


  • Raise your hand if you think history is a worthwhile major.

    在你們之中會覺得讀歷史是很有前途的科系的請舉手。 (笑聲)

  • (laughter)


  • Raise your hand if you would jump for joy if you or your child

    考上歷史系而感覺到歡欣鼓舞的請舉手。 (笑聲)

  • successfully tested into history. (laughter)

    再來, 在你們之中會因為從小 背了大量的人名、地名、年代、事件、

  • Raise your hand if you've memorized countless names, places, years, events,

    而覺得對你的人生很有用的請舉手。 (笑聲)

  • and thought to yourself, “This is useful.” (laughter)

    從在場舉手的人數就可以看出 大多數人對學歷史的印象到底是什麼。

  • >From the show of hands, it's obvious what people think about studying history.

    多年以前當聯考放榜以後, 大家問我考上那一間大學,

  • Many years ago, when the entrance exam results were posted,


  • people would ask me which university I tested into.

    大家反應就是:「 哇!」

  • I repliedNational Taiwan Universityand everyone's reaction wasWow!”


  • Then, they'd ask which major I tested into.

    我就回答:「 歷史」

  • I repliedHistory”, and everyone's reaction wasOh.”


  • (laughter)


  • It's clear from their reactions what they thought.


  • >From that moment, I became interested in researching the following:


  • What's the point in studying history?

    就是下面這個問題: [學歷史到底有什麼用?]

  • Think about it.

    大家捫心自問從小就學歷史, 學歷史到底有什麼用?

  • Ever since we were kids, we had to study history, but why?

    我們從小就要背這麼多年代、地名、人名、事件、 到底是為了什麼?

  • We've all had to memorize years, locations, people, events,

    當你考完試後, 請問這些東西你還能記得多久?

  • but why?

    而且最重要的是記得這些, 你覺得對你的人生到底有什麼用?

  • After the tests are over, how much do you retain?

    當我深入思考這個問題以後, 我突然發現一件很有趣的問題,

  • Most importantly, even if you remember, what value does it add to your life?


  • When I thought about these questions, I realized something interesting.


  • In ancient times, emperors and scholars had to study history

    到了今天我們所有人從小學就開始學歷史, 可是我們往往都不知道學歷史有什麼用。

  • and they thought it was extremely useful.


  • These days, we've all to studied history since we were kids


  • but we often don't know why we do it.


  • Why is there such a huge discrepancy between then and now?


  • Were all these ancients idiots?


  • Or is our intelligence a hundred times more advanced than theirs?

    其實是因為古人學習歷史的方法 根本和我們完全不一樣。

  • I don't think so.


  • In the end, I discovered the answer is in the way we study history.


  • The way the ancients learned history is vastly different than our way.

    讀到書中一個重要的歷史人物, 他面對人生一個重要的關頭,

  • How so?

    他需要下一個決定的時候, 那一刻, 請你不要看下面, 把書蓋上,

  • When the ancients read history books and they read about a pivotal moment

    去想像你就是他, 在這樣的環境中你會怎麼決定?

  • in an important historical figure's life, when that person needed to make a choice,

    努力得想, 把一切都想清楚以後再把書打開,

  • at that point in their studies, the ancients would close their books,

    看那個人是怎麼做決定的, 他的決定是否和你一樣?

  • and they imagined themselves in that situation and thought,

    他為什麼做這個決定? 他成功了還是失敗了?

  • What would I do?”


  • Only when they thought it out, did they then open the books back up

    用這種方法就可以用古人的智慧 來磨練我們的智慧。

  • and see if that person's decision matched up with theirs.


  • Why did that person make this decision? Did that person succeed or fail?

    後來我發現, 因為現代教育的本質 其實是一種培養工匠為目的的教育。

  • What did he lose or what did he gain?

    這一套現代教育從小學中學開始教起, 誕生在工業革命以後,

  • Using this method, we can utilize the ancient's wisdom

    他當時的目的就是為了填補工業革命 產生大量的專業人力的空缺,

  • to hone our own intelligence.


  • Why aren't we using this method today?

    對於人之所以為人的道理, 對於你如何解決人生的難題,

  • Because the goal of our modern education system


  • is to train workers.

    那這種方法到歷史教育上 就會要求同學記憶大量的歷史知識,

  • This training, which starts in primary school,


  • began during The Industrial Revolution.

    於是他們的教學方法往往就是要求 背誦、背誦、背誦.

  • There was a need to supply the demand for manpower

    對吧, 我們從小就是這麼過來的。

  • created by the industrial revolution

    古代要培養帝王精英 所以他們要求用思辨來學歷史,

  • so the new education system focused on skills and technology.

    今天要培養的是專業工匠 所以他們要求背誦來學歷史,

  • It doesn't care how a man becomes fully realized


  • or how to solve life's complicated questions.


  • This system demands that we memorize large swaths of historical knowledge


  • but never tells us how this information relates to our lives.


  • Therefore, the pedagogy stresses rote, rote, rote.

    毓老師降生於滿清末年, 降生於帝王之家, 從小在皇宮讀書。

  • Right? This was our schooling.

    到了台灣開設私墊教書六十餘年, 我跟著老師的私塾讀了快二十年,

  • The ancients needed to train emperors and scholars


  • so they demanded critical thinking when studying history.

    教會了我原來帝王之家給自己子弟的教育 和給平民子弟的教育

  • Today, we need to train workers so we demand rote when studying history.


  • The ends are different so obviously the means are different.


  • How did I come to this theory?

    而我的第二個老師是我的史學老師, 台大的阮芝生教授,

  • It actually began with two of my professors from Taiwan

    他畢生研究史記, 他教會了我如何讀懂中國歷史書,

  • The first is Professor Yu.

    也教會了我在歷史上如何分析和觀察 這些帝王和精英們的心態和行為。

  • Professor Yu was grew up towards the end of the Qing Dynasty.

    因為有二位老師的教導 所以我才希望把古代帝王之學的精華,

  • Born into the royal family, he studied at the imperial school.

    它不應該再是秘密, 它應該教給今天的所有大眾們。

  • Sixty years ago, he arrived in Taiwan and started a private academy,

    為了達成這樣的目的, 在臺灣大學教學發展中心的大力支持下,

  • where I was his student for nearly twenty years.

    我們開設了全球第一門 大規模網路免費公開的中文史課程。

  • >From him, I learned what real Chinese knowledge is.


  • I learned that the education the emperor gave his own children


  • was different from that offered to the commoners' children.

    結果出乎我意料之外, 有超過四萬三千個同學來修這門課!

  • He taught me that Chinese studies was meant to be practical.

    那前面所講的東西都只是原則和方法而已, 不能沒有實力。

  • The second is my academic advisor, Professor Jy-Sheng Ruaan.

    接下來我就要用這個實例來跟各位示範古代帝王 是怎麼學習歷史的。

  • He spent his life researching historical documents

    各位看到這幅畫, 請問誰知道這是什麼故事?

  • and taught me how to analyze Chinese historical texts.

    很好, 你們都知道這是「圯上纳履」, 就是張良幫黃石公檢鞋的故事,

  • He also taught me to analyze and observe, from a historical context,


  • the thoughts and actions of these ancient emperors and scholars.

    那各位既然都這麼熟悉, 我問各位這個故事到底在說什麼?

  • It's because of these two teachers, that I was inspired to bring forth

    這是一個智慧的故事, 他的定義絕對不是告訴各位對老人家要有禮貌約會不要遲到,

  • the wisdom of the ancient emperors.

    如果只是為了告訴這個, 我不能不說中國的智慧絕對沒有這麼淺薄。

  • It should no longer be kept a secret. It should be accessible to everyone.

    這個故事到底要告訴各位什麼東西, 各位跟著我讀下去:

  • In order to achieve this goal, and with the enormous support of


  • National Taiwan University's Center for Teaching and Learning Development,


  • we started the first ever, large-scale, free web course

    可是歷史學看待事物不同的觀點 就是我們有時間的縱深,

  • in Chinese literature and history.

    我們看到每一樣東西必要追問 它處在時空的那一個點上。

  • Initially, I only wanted to conduct an online teaching experiment.


  • I wanted to know if old knowledge would be accepted by people today.

    他剛做了一件驚天動地的大事, 他在搏浪沙剌殺秦始皇。

  • Imagine my surprise when over 43,000 students enrolled.


  • Everything we've talked about up to now has just been principles and theories,


  • which are meaningless without application.

    秦國滅亡了韓國, 他要為韓報仇消滅強秦。

  • Next, I'll show you an example of how the ancient emperors studied history.

    為了這個目的他散盡家財求取剌客, 最後剌殺失敗他被全天下通緝。

  • How many of you recognize this painting?


  • Good! You all know this depictsYi Shang Na Lu


  • which is the story of Zhang Liang retrieving Huang Shi Gong's shoe.


  • Most of us have read this as children.


  • Since everyone is familiar with this story

    當然這是廢話, 膽氣不過人絕對不會去剌殺秦始皇對吧! (笑聲)

  • can anyone tell me what is this story really about?

    但是問題來了, 在這個時候他碰到了一個重要的人,

  • This is a story about wisdom.

    有一個老頭子向他走過來, 就做了一件出奇的事情,

  • Its moral is certainly not as simplistic as respect your elders, be punctual.


  • If that's all there was to the story, then Chinese wisdom is way too shallow.

    回頭就對張良說: 「小子, 下去幫我把鞋子檢起來!」

  • What does this story want to tell us? Let's take a look.

    好! 這個時候用我的方法,

  • One day, Zhang Liang was strolling along a bridge in the city of Xiapi.”

    請各位這一刻把書蓋上, 閉上眼睛開始想,

  • This phrase seems straightfoward enough


  • but historians interpret this phrase a bit differently

    想! 想清楚喔!

  • by adding historical context.


  • When we examine something, we must view it as a moment in time.

    想清楚了, 我們現在看張良怎麼辦?

  • What was Zhang Liang doing before he took his stroll?


  • Well he just committed an earth-shattering crime;

    良鄂然, 欲毆之。

  • he had attempted to assassinate the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang.

    他想把老人家打一頓, (笑聲)

  • Why did he want the Emperor dead?

    這才是一個年輕人血氣方剛的表現, 但他打了沒有?

  • Zhang Liang was a descendant of Han state chancellors.

    他沒打, 他為什麼沒打? 實際說有多老實,「為其老, 強忍」

  • The Qin state destroyed the Han state. Zhang Liang wanted revenge.

    他不是自然而然的容忍, 他是勉強自己忍受下來,

  • To achieve this goal, he wiped out his family fortune and hired assassins,


  • but the attempt failed and he's a wanted man.


  • So now, he's fled to Xiapi.

    所以既然己經忍了, 他就下去幫老人家把鞋子檢上來,

  • Now a normal person would be panicking and laying low,


  • but Zhang Liang is just strolling along a bridge.

    好! 這一刻閉上眼睛,

  • >From this, you know that this young man is extraordinarily bold.

    如果你是張良碰到這樣 得寸進尺的老先生你會怎麼辦?

  • Then again, you'd have to be extraordinarily bold,

    想清楚了沒有? 想清楚了。

  • to try to assassinate the Emperor! (laughter)

    我們看張良怎麼做? 他為什麼是張良?

  • At this point in time, Zhang Liang meets a remarkable person.

    「良業為取履, 因長跪履之。」

  • An old man walks towards him and does an incredibly odd thing.

    他不是履之, 他不是跪履之,

  • The old man takes off his shoe, throws it over the bridge,


  • and says to Zhang Liang, “Kid, go fetch my shoe!”


  • Alright! Time to apply my method.

    因為他明白老人家要教他的第一個道理, 那個道理是什麼?

  • Everyone, close your textbooks, shut your eyes, and ponder this:

    人生要就不忍, 不然就請你一忍到底,

  • If you were Zhang Liang, what would you do?

    非凡之人做事要就不做, 要做就必要做到乾淨漂亮,

  • Think! Think it through!


  • Sorry, this talk is only 18 minutes so I have to cut this short.

    既然已經幫人檢了鞋子也決定幫人穿上, 何不索興長跪履之.

  • Ok, let's see what Zhang Liang does. His reaction is pretty extraordinary.


  • Liang was surprised; desired to assault.”

    老父為什麼要教張良, 我們看老父接下來的舉動:

  • In other words, he wants to beat up the old guy.

    「父以足受, 笑而去。良殊大驚」

  • We expect this from a fiery youngster but does he follow through?


  • He doesn't. Why not?


  • What he says next is very blunt, “He is old. I must restrain myself.”

    潑婦罵街, 那是最下等人做的事情,

  • This is not an easy thing to do. He is forcing himself to tolerate this guy

    高手跟高手之間擠個眼神、幾句話、幾個動作、 雙方就明白彼此是什麼等級。

  • because remember, he's still a fugitive,

    老父要張良幫他檢鞋子 是老父欲驚張良而張良不驚,

  • he'd really be screwed if he accidentally beat an old man to death.

    張良長跪履之 是張良要驚老父而老父不驚。

  • Since he's decided to hold his temper, he fetches the old man's shoe.

    老父以足受, 笑而去.

  • Then the old man absurdly says, “Help me put it on.”

    張良的反應是什麼? 良殊大驚.

  • Ok! Shut your eyes.


  • If you were Zhang Liang and encountered such a presumptuous old man,

    結果是老父大穫全勝, 張良一敗塗地。 (笑聲)

  • what would you do?

    老父為什麼要這樣對待張良? (掌聲)

  • Let's see what Zhang Liang does. Why he's the Zhang Liang we know today.

    你要知道, 張良天資高膽氣夠, 受的是當時第一流的教育,

  • Liang retrieves the shoe, genuflects at length to help put it on.”

    在他過去的人生之中 只有他壓著別人打的時候,

  • He doesn't just help put on the shoe. He doesn't just kneel down and help.


  • He kneels for a lengthy time and helps the old man with his shoe.

    老父從見面到現在, 老父處處壓著他打,

  • Why does Zhang Liang do this?

    就是要他知道人外有人, 天外有天。

  • Because he knows the first principle the old man is trying to teach him.


  • Which is, in life, you choose either to not put up with something

    可是如果你不能忍, 就不能有謀,

  • or to endure it to the very end.


  • When we do something, we can choose either not to do it


  • or to see it through to perfection.

    老父離開一段距離之後又回來 對他說: 「孺子可教矣」

  • If you're going to show restraint, bear it to the end.


  • Since you've already fetched his shoe and decided to help him put it on,


  • you might as well genuflect at length.

    張良知道老父不是一般人, 他恭敬, 跪曰:「諾。」

  • This was what the old man wanted to teach Zhang Liang


  • about the importance of "restraint."

    五日天亮的時候, 良往。