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  • In 2007, researchers surveyed over 180 teachers

  • to understand if they held stereotypes about students from three racial groups.

  • The results surfaced several negative stereotypes,

  • labeling Black students as aggressive and stubborn,

  • white students as selfish and materialistic,

  • and Asian students as shy and meek.

  • But regardless of the teachersother biases,

  • the most commonly held opinion was that Asian students

  • were significantly more industrious, intelligent, and gentle than their peers.

  • On the surface, this might seem like a good thing,

  • or at least better than other, negative characterizations.

  • But treating this seemingly favorable stereotype as reality

  • can actually cause a surprising amount of harm

  • to those it describes, those it doesn’t, and even those who believe it to be true.

  • This image of humble, hard-working Asians is actually well-known

  • as themodel minoritystereotype.

  • Versions of this stereotype emerged in the mid-20th century

  • to describe Chinese Americans.

  • But following World War II,

  • the label became commonly used to claim that Japanese Americans

  • had overcome their mistreatment in US incarceration camps,

  • and successfully integrated into American society.

  • Former incarcerees were praised as compliant, diligent,

  • and respectful of authority.

  • In the following decades, “model minoritybecame a label

  • for many Asian populations in the US.

  • But the truth behind this story of thriving Asian Americans

  • is much more complicated.

  • During World War II,

  • the US government tried toAmericanizeincarcerated Japanese Americans.

  • They did this through English language classes, patriotic exercises,

  • and lessons on how to behave in white American society.

  • When incarcerees were released,

  • they were instructed to avoid returning to their own communities

  • and cultural practices,

  • and instead, integrate into white society.

  • But after decades of anti-Asian policies and propaganda,

  • white Americans had to be persuaded that Japanese Americans

  • were no longer a threat.

  • So the government organized media coverage to transform the public perception

  • of Japanese Americans from suspected traitors to an American success story.

  • In fact, the phrasemodel minoritywas coined by one such article from 1966.

  • But this article, and others like it,

  • didn’t just cast Asian Americans as an obedient and respectfulmodel minority."

  • They also criticized so-calledproblem minorities,”

  • primarily Black Americans.

  • Politicians who were threatened by the rising Civil Rights movement

  • used this rhetoric to discredit Black Americansdemands

  • for justice and equality.

  • They presented a fabricated story of Asian American success

  • to paint struggling Black communities as inferior.

  • This narrative put a wedge between Black and Asian Americans.

  • It erased their shared history of fighting oppression

  • alongside other marginalized groups,

  • and pit the two communities against each other.

  • In doing so, the model minority myth also enforced a racial hierarchy,

  • with white Americans on top and everyone else underneath.

  • Certainly, many people who still believe the model minority stereotype,

  • either consciously or unconsciously, might not agree with that idea.

  • But comparing the imagined strengths and weaknesses of racial groups

  • places value on how well those groups meet certain standards

  • typically, standards set by a white majority.

  • In this case, the model minority stereotype

  • suggests that marginalized groups who are compliant, gentle, and respectful

  • of white authority are deserving of tolerance,

  • while groups that challenge the status quo are not.

  • This stereotype also negatively impacts the Asian individuals it describes.

  • According to a psychological phenomenon known as stereotype threat,

  • members of a group often place pressure on their individual actions

  • to avoid encouraging negative group stereotypes.

  • But this phenomenon can occur around seemingly positive stereotypes as well.

  • The pressure associated with living up to impossibly high standards

  • can lead to poor performance.

  • And teachers are less likely to notice when Asian students are struggling.

  • Outside the classroom, social programs catering to Asian communities

  • are frequently overlooked or cut,

  • because theyre assumed to need less support than other disadvantaged groups.

  • The favorable portrait created by this stereotype

  • can also make it harder to recognize racially motivated violence

  • and discrimination against Asian Americans.

  • And since this stereotype carelessly groups all Asians under the same umbrella,

  • it impacts people with various backgrounds and unique histories of discrimination.

  • So while the model minority label might appear

  • to benefit Asian populations at first,

  • in practice, it works like every other racial stereotype.

  • It reduces a group of people to a one-dimensional image.

  • And that single image hinders our ability to understand the history,

  • struggles, and triumphs of the individuals within that group.

  • Acknowledging and challenging these labels is essential for building coalitions

  • across communities and eliminating harmful stereotypes for good.

In 2007, researchers surveyed over 180 teachers

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B2 中高級 美國腔

美國人對其他人種的刻板印象(Can stereotypes ever be good? - Sheila Marie Orfano and Densho)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2022 年 01 月 04 日
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