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  • If you were buying a car in 1899, you would've had three major options to choose from.

    如果你要在 1899 年買一輛車,你會面臨三個主要的選擇。

  • You could buy a steam-powered car.


  • Typically relying on gas-powered boilers, these could drive as far as you wanted


  • provided you also wanted to lug around extra water to refuel, and didn't mind waiting 30 minutes for your engine to heat up.

    前提是你不介意攜帶額外的備用補充水,也不介意等 30 分鐘燒水暖車的話。

  • Alternatively, you could buy a car powered by gasoline.


  • However, the internal combustion engines in these models required dangerous hand-cranking to start, and emitted loud noises and foul-smelling exhaust while driving.


  • So your best bet was probably option number three: a battery-powered electric vehicle.


  • These cars were quick to start, clean and quiet to run, and if you lived somewhere with access to electricity, easy to refuel overnight.


  • If this seems like an easy choice, you're not alone.


  • By the end of the 19th century, nearly 40% of American cars were electric.

    到了 19 世紀末,近 40% 的美國汽車是電動的。

  • In cities with early electric systems, battery-powered cars were a popular and reliable alternative to their occasionally explosive competitors.


  • But electric vehicles had one major problembatteries.


  • Early car batteries were expensive and inefficient.


  • Many inventors, including Thomas Edison, tried to build batteries that stored more electricity.


  • Others even built exchange stations in urban areas to swap out dead batteries for charged ones.


  • But these measures weren't enough to allow electric vehicles to make long trips.


  • And at over twice the price of a gas-powered car, many couldn't afford these luxury items.


  • At the same time, oil discoveries lowered the price of gasoline, and new advances made internal combustion engines more appealing.


  • Electric starters removed the need for hand-cranking, mufflers made engines quieter, and rubber engine mounts reduced vibration.


  • In 1908, Ford released the Model T: a cheap, high-quality gas-powered car that captured the public imagination.

    1908 年,福特發佈了 T 型車。這款廉價、高品質的汽油動力汽車攫取了公眾的興趣。

  • By 1915, the percentage of electric cars on the road had plummeted.

    到了 1915 年,公路上行駛的電動汽車的比例急劇下降。

  • For the next 55 years, internal combustion engines ruled the roads.

    在接下來的 55 年裡,內燃機引擎主宰了道路。

  • Aside from some special-purpose vehicles, electric cars were nowhere to be found.


  • However, in the 1970s, the tide began to turn.

    然而到了 1970 年代,潮流開始轉向。

  • US concerns about oil availability renewed interest in alternative energy sources.


  • And studies in the 1980s linking car emissions with smog in cities like Los Angeles, encouraged governments and environmental organizations to reconsider electric vehicles.

    1980 年代洛杉磯等城市的汽車排放與霧霾有關的研究,鼓勵政府和環境保護組織重新考慮電動汽車。

  • At this point, car companies had spent decades investing in internal combustion engines without devoting any resources to solving the century-old battery problem.


  • But other companies were developing increasingly efficient batteries to power a new wave of portable electronics.


  • By the 1990s, energy dense nickel metal hydride batteries were on the market, soon followed by lithium-ion batteries.

    到了 1990 年代,市面上出現了高能量密度的鎳氫電池,而在不久後,鋰離子電池也跟著問世了。

  • Alongside regulatory mandates by California to reduce smog, these innovations sparked a small wave of new electric vehicles, including hybrid cars.


  • Hybrids aren't true electric vehicles; their nickel metal hydride batteries are only used to optimize the efficiency of gas-burning engines.


  • But in 2008, Tesla Motors went further, grabbing the attention of consumers, automakers, and regulators with its lithium-ion-powered Roadster.

    但在 2008 年,特斯拉汽車公司進一步創新,其鋰離子電池動力跑車吸引了消費者、汽車製造商和監管機構的注意力。

  • This purely electric vehicle could travel more than 320 kilometers on a single charge, almost doubling the previous record.

    這款純電動汽車一次充電可以行駛超過 320 公里,而這幾乎是以前記錄的兩倍。

  • Since then, electric vehicles have vastly improved in cost, performance, efficiency, and availability.


  • They can accelerate much faster than gas-powered sports cars, and while some models still have a high upfront cost, they reliably save their drivers money in the long run.


  • As governments around the world focus on slowing climate change, electric vehicles are now expected to replace gas-powered ones altogether.


  • In Norway, 75% of car sales in 2020 were plug-in electric vehicles.

    在挪威,2020 年 75% 的汽車銷售是插入式電動汽車。

  • And policies such as California's Zero Emission Vehicle mandate and Europe's aggressive CO2 emission standards have dramatically slowed investments in gas-powered vehicles worldwide.


  • Soon, electric cars will reclaim their place on the road, putting gasoline in our rearview.


  • So how can you get involved? Team up with us! We are launching a major campaign and support of the transition to electric vehicles. Learn more and get involved at

    那你該如何加入這個熱潮呢?和我們一起合作吧!我們正在進行一個大規模推廣計畫,幫助大家轉換到電動車的陣營。前往 了解更多。

If you were buying a car in 1899, you would've had three major options to choose from.

如果你要在 1899 年買一輛車,你會面臨三個主要的選擇。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 電池 汽油 引擎 效率 湯瑪斯

電動車的歷史(The surprisingly long history of electric cars - Daniel Sperling and Gil Tal)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 07 日