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  • the sound of the periodical cicadas emerging in the East Coast and midwest is unmistakable.

    在東海岸和中西部地區出現的週期性蟬鳴聲是無可置疑的。

  • It's a symphony.

    這是一部交響樂。

  • Hi, my name is Samuel Ramsay.

    嗨,我的名字是塞繆爾-拉姆斯。

  • I'm an entomologist with the United States Department of Agriculture?

    我是美國農業部的一名昆蟲學家?

  • A steady insects.

    一個穩定的昆蟲。

  • Last night I spent a good portion of my night watching these cicadas beginning to emerge, watching them as they climbed up fence posts and trees.

    昨天晚上,我花了很大一部分時間觀察這些開始出現的蟬,看著它們爬上柵欄杆和樹。

  • It was a magical experience, which I couldn't stop myself from grabbing a few per cicadas are the loudest insects on the planet.

    這是一次神奇的經歷,我無法阻止自己按蟬是地球上最響亮的昆蟲來抓幾把。

  • And according to some estimates this summer's brood 10, which has lived in the soil for 17 long years, could number in the trillions.

    而根據一些估計,今年夏天在土壤中生活了17年之久的10號雛鳥,其數量可能達到數萬億。

  • Oh yeah, like the national debt kind of trillion.

    哦,是的,就像國債那種一萬億的。

  • That means that in some places there are as many as 1.5 million of them per acre, crawling out of the dirt and up into the trees where they shed their exoskeleton and begin to emit a piercing sound that seems to undulate.

    這意味著在一些地方,每英畝有多達150萬隻,它們從泥土中爬出來,爬到樹上,在那裡它們脫下外骨骼,開始發出刺耳的聲音,似乎在起伏。

  • So we are listening to a chorus of male cicadas.

    所以我們在聽雄性蟬的合唱。

  • So in order to actually amplify the sound that they're producing.

    是以,為了實際放大它們所產生的聲音。

  • Cicadas will chorus together.

    蟬會一起合唱。

  • They will gather together and create a very loud song that they're presenting to the female cicadas of the world.

    它們會聚集在一起,創造出非常響亮的歌聲,呈現給世界上的雌蟬。

  • They are not just producing one sort of noise.

    他們不只是產生一種噪音。

  • It's an intricate sound.

    這是一種複雜的聲音。

  • So this is the sound of one cicada.

    所以這就是一隻蟬的聲音。

  • They can be pretty loud.

    他們可以很大聲。

  • They're arranging in some ways from traffic noise.

    他們在某些方面的安排,從交通噪音。

  • Two pretty loud garbage disposal.

    兩個相當響亮的垃圾處理器。

  • It is not a quiet insect.

    它不是一隻安靜的昆蟲。

  • So how does such a big sound come out of something so small.

    那麼,這麼小的東西是如何發出這麼大的聲音的呢。

  • The answer lies in the cicadas, unique anatomy.

    答案在於蟬的獨特解剖結構。

  • This guy right here.

    這個人就在這裡。

  • If you see that white patch right there, that is the cicadas temple organ.

    如果你看到那邊的白斑,那就是蟬的太陽穴器官。

  • It is what's capable of making that really loud noise?

    是什麼東西能夠發出那種非常響亮的聲音?

  • And there's one on each side of the cicadas body.

    而在蟬的身體兩側各有一個。

  • They're generating the sound unlike the ways that most insects generate noise.

    它們產生的聲音與大多數昆蟲產生噪音的方式不同。

  • We think of noisy insects and we think of crickets, we think of Katie did.

    我們想到了嘈雜的昆蟲,我們想到了蟋蟀,我們想到了凱蒂做。

  • But when we hear the sound generated by a cicada, it's not generated by rubbing two parts of its body together.

    但是,當我們聽到蟬產生的聲音時,它不是由它身體的兩個部分摩擦產生的。

  • They're pulling on a section of their body that is arranged like a musical instrument.

    他們正拉著身體的一部分,像樂器一樣排列。

  • And as they pull in the temple, it buckles these ribs on the sides of their body that makes this very resonant loud sound.

    當他們拉動太陽穴時,會扣動他們身體兩側的肋骨,發出這種非常嘹亮的聲音。

  • In addition to that, the back into their body, like a lot of musical instruments is hollow.

    除此以外,進入他們身體的背部,像很多樂器一樣是空心的。

  • Such that it can amplify this noise and then their wings allows them to direct it in different directions.

    這樣,它可以放大這種噪音,然後它們的翅膀可以讓它們把噪音引向不同的方向。

  • So they are pretty much a musical instrument.

    所以它們幾乎是一種樂器。

  • All their own something that immediately strikes me as really unique about it is that it has a sound in a lot of ways similar to something called Tuvan throat singing.

    他們所有自己的東西,立即讓我感到非常獨特的是,它的聲音在很多方面類似於一種叫做圖瓦人的喉唱。

  • And it's a type of singing that that has some religious significance.

    這是一種具有某種宗教意義的歌唱。

  • If I were to give you a very amateurish example sounds something like it's a type of singing.

    如果我給你一個非常業餘的例子,聽起來像是一種唱歌的類型。

  • That that has some religious significance.

    這有一定的宗教意義。

  • Person is able to, through humming and vocalizing create sort of two sets of notes playing at the same time.

    人能夠通過哼唱和發聲創造出某種兩組同時播放的音符。

  • Other insects, like bees don't typically use their sounds to communicate over large distances.

    其他昆蟲,如蜜蜂通常不使用它們的聲音來進行遠距離交流。

  • Bees will create these vibrating noise is that they can use to communicate with other bees to communicate with organisms that they're attempting to ward off.

    蜜蜂會創造這些振動的噪音是,它們可以用來與其他蜜蜂交流,與它們試圖抵禦的生物體溝通。

  • But those are creatures that are pretty close to their colonies.

    但那些是與它們的殖民地相當接近的生物。

  • So there's no need for those sounds to be very loud.

    是以,這些聲音沒有必要非常響亮。

  • Their blood red eyes and piercing shriek might inspire fear in some, but not dr Sami Ramsey, who knows that the song of the Siqueira is a key component to their survival.

    他們血紅的眼睛和刺耳的尖叫聲可能會激發一些人的恐懼,但薩米-拉姆齊博士不會,他知道西凱拉的歌聲是他們生存的一個關鍵因素。

  • This Cicada is not capable of harming me in any way.

    這隻蟬沒有能力以任何方式傷害我。

  • The only defense that they have is that their numbers are so large that nothing could possibly eat all of them.

    他們唯一的防禦措施是,他們的數量如此之多,以至於沒有任何東西可以把他們全部吃掉。

  • And so when they get into those trees it is evolutionarily favored that they make as much noise that they make the loudest sound possible.

    是以,當它們進入這些樹時,從進化的角度看,它們會發出盡可能多的噪音,發出儘可能大的聲音。

  • Because if the loud sounds are going to attract the females will they want to make sure that they can attract a female as quickly as possible before something comes along and attempts to eat them.

    因為如果響亮的聲音要吸引雌性,它們會想在有東西出現並試圖吃掉它們之前,確保它們能儘快吸引雌性。

  • They have the hugest biological imperative to mate to find someone who is going to be interested in this sound.

    他們有最龐大的生理需要,要交配尋找對這種聲音感興趣的人。

  • And so in order to do that, they may have to really create a rather vibrant, very loud noise that can attract females from quite a distance to ensure That they haven't spent 17 years below ground for nothing.

    是以,為了做到這一點,他們可能必須真正創造一個相當有活力的、非常響亮的噪音,可以從相當遠的地方吸引雌性,以確保他們沒有在地下白白花費17年時間。

  • The Cicadas have to typical songs.

    蟬有典型的歌曲。

  • One of the songs of course, is the one that we've been discussing as this reproductive imperative for them to attract the attention of females.

    當然,其中一首歌是我們一直在討論的,是它們吸引雌性注意的這種生殖需要。

  • So with the Cicadas, it's all about this song that they're able to produce.

    所以對蟬來說,這都是他們能夠製作的這首歌。

  • And the males that are able to produce a louder song likely have larger muscles are potentially bigger males and that may mean that they are better at acquiring nutrition and thus have genes that would make them a better father of the offspring of that female.

    而能夠發出更響亮的歌聲的雄性很可能有更大的肌肉是潛在的更大的雄性,這可能意味著它們更善於獲取營養,從而有基因使它們成為該雌性後代的更好的父親。

  • The males are doing this all together and then they're listening at the same time to see if they can potentially here the responsive clicks that the female will make if she is interested in us.

    雄鳥在一起做這些事情,然後它們同時在聽,看看它們是否有可能聽到雌鳥在對我們感興趣時發出的迴應性點擊。

  • Now the female makes a sound like this sweet.

    現在雌性發出的聲音是這樣的甜美。

  • It's not unless you get a female cicada very close to you that you'll be able to hear somewhat subtle clicking noise that they make.

    除非你讓一隻雌性蟬離你很近,否則你將能夠聽到它們發出的某種微妙的咔嚓聲。

  • That noise is not supposed to be incredibly resonant.

    這種噪音不應該是令人難以置信的共鳴。

  • It's more of a directed noise to get the attention of a male that's close by and they get so excited about this because of all the time that they have been waiting for this, that they will go after anything.

    這更像是一種定向噪音,以引起附近的雄性動物的注意,它們對此非常興奮,因為它們一直在等待這個機會,所以它們會去追求任何東西。

  • And I mean anything that makes a rhythmic clicking noise and so that's power tools that people are using outside.

    我的意思是任何能發出有節奏的咔嚓聲的東西,所以那是人們在外面使用的電動工具。

  • That's lawnmowers, even just snapping can be something that can attract male cicadas to you.

    那是割草機,即使只是啪啪啪也能成為吸引雄性蟬的東西。

  • But the other song is a warning call.

    但另一首歌是一個警告性的呼喚。

  • This is the distress sound.

    這就是遇險的聲音。

  • Yeah, it seems to be a call to actually make sure that the rest of the population of cicadas can get away and not be killed.

    是的,這似乎是一個呼籲,實際上是為了確保其餘的蟬群能夠脫身,不被殺死。

  • And so it's remarkable.

    是以,這很了不起。

  • But cicadas continue to show that they have in uh and all for 11 for all kind of dynamic going where they are intently trying to make sure that they can pass on their genes and that those around them can as well.

    但蟬繼續顯示出它們有在呃和所有為11為所有的動態去,它們正密切地試圖確保它們可以傳遞它們的基因,並且它們周圍的人也可以。

  • Once they've made it, the females lay their eggs in the trees and die within a few weeks.

    一旦它們成功了,雌性就在樹上產卵,並在幾周內死亡。

  • 10 weeks later their eggs hatch.

    10周後,它們的卵就孵化了。

  • The Larva Fall and Burrow into the ground.

    幼蟲墜落並鑽入地下。

  • And the 17 year cycle begins again just beautiful.

    而17年的週期又開始了,只是很美。

  • I know that it's fairly easy for people to hear this and think of it as just a bunch of loud, random, purposeless noise.

    我知道人們很容易聽到這句話,認為它只是一堆響亮、隨機、沒有目的的噪音。

  • But these creatures, the sound that they're producing here, uh it can even create an emotional response for you to consider what they have been through and what they are looking forward to.

    但是這些生物,它們在這裡產生的聲音,呃,它甚至可以為你創造一種情感反應,考慮它們經歷了什麼,它們在期待什麼。

  • I can't stop drawing parallels between us and the pandemic and all over the world as people have had the opportunity to reach a sense of normalcy after being in these situations where they're isolated from other people and it seems like we aren't that different from these creatures.

    我無法停止將我們與大流行病和世界各地的人相提並論,因為人們在處於這些與其他人隔離的情況下,有機會達到一種正常的感覺,似乎我們與這些生物並沒有什麼不同。

  • After all, they look so different, but they're after so many of the same things thereafter camaraderie there after the opportunity to be with other individuals and they love music.

    畢竟,他們看起來如此不同,但他們追求的是許多相同的東西,此後友情在那裡,有機會與其他個人在一起,他們熱愛音樂。

  • The cicadas are about to make some things happen and it is truly about.

    蟬要做一些事情,這確實是關於。

  • This is certified by and I hope that you are willing to really listen to it what it is girl, I'm telling you, you are the only one I've got these big red eyes for.

    這是經過認證的,我希望你願意真正聽它是什麼女孩,我告訴你,你是我唯一的一個有這些大紅眼睛的人。

the sound of the periodical cicadas emerging in the East Coast and midwest is unmistakable.

在東海岸和中西部地區出現的週期性蟬鳴聲是無可置疑的。

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 17 日
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