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  • When we examine 100 random teenagers, we would find that while they all look different, their

    當我們隨機檢查100名青少年時,我們會發現,雖然他們都看起來不同,但他們的

  • minds work in very similar ways.

    心靈以非常相似的方式工作。

  • 1 to 2 however, have minds that are atypical in a particular way.

    然而,1到2的思想在某種程度上是不典型的。

  • They could be diagnosed with autism.

    他們可能被診斷出患有自閉症。

  • This happens to boys four times as much, perhaps because diagnosing them is easier.

    這種情況發生在男孩身上的次數是其四倍,也許是因為診斷他們比較容易。

  • Children - and adults - who are on the autism spectrum experience the world differently

    自閉症譜系中的兒童--和成人--對世界的體驗不同

  • because they were born with various degrees of neurodivergent traits.

    因為他們生來就有不同程度的神經分化特徵。

  • Most autistic children have more refined senses and share a deep desire to bring logic into

    大多數自閉症兒童都有更精緻的感官,並有一個深刻的願望,即把邏輯帶入

  • their surroundings.

    他們周圍的環境。

  • Some seek repetitive behaviors that follow specific patterns and many appear to be asocial

    有些人尋求遵循特定模式的重複性行為,許多人似乎是非社會性的。

  • and avoid eye contact.

    並避免目光接觸。

  • Autism is not a disease and therefore can not be cured.

    自閉症不是一種疾病,是以不可能被治癒。

  • Since all our brains are different and there is an endless range of nuances in their architecture,

    因為我們所有的大腦都是不同的,其結構有無窮無盡的細微差別。

  • autism is defined as a spectrum.

    自閉症被定義為一個光譜。

  • On one side of the spectrum is the mildest form of autism, in the past often also referred

    譜系的一邊是最溫和的自閉症,在過去也經常被稱為

  • to as Aspergers.

    稱為阿斯伯格症。

  • These children are highly intelligent, and have extreme abilities and strong interest

    這些兒童具有高度的智慧,並且有極強的能力和強烈的興趣

  • in specific areas.

    在特定領域。

  • In the middle are those with average intelligence and some problems learning new things.

    處於中間的是那些智力一般的人,學習新事物有一些問題。

  • On the far end of the spectrum are children with severe learning disabilities.

    在光譜的另一端是有嚴重學習障礙的兒童。

  • Children on the spectrum may require various degrees of support in their daily lives.

    譜系中的兒童在日常生活中可能需要不同程度的支持。

  • Timo, a young boy, can help us understand how living with a neurodivergent mind can

    蒂莫,一個小男孩,可以幫助我們瞭解到生活中的神經分化症是如何產生的

  • be.

    是。

  • His mum noticed early on that her boy would avoid eye contact and that he would often

    他的媽媽很早就注意到,她的孩子會迴避目光接觸,而且他經常會

  • become upset if she hugged him.

    如果她擁抱他,就會變得不高興。

  • He never returned smiles and engaging him in play with friends often ended in a tantrum.

    他從不回以微笑,讓他和朋友一起玩耍往往以發脾氣告終。

  • His mother suspected something to be wrong, when Timo still wasn't speaking more than

    他的母親懷疑出了問題,因為蒂莫仍然沒有說更多的話。

  • two or three words at a time even after turning four years old.

    即使在四歲之後,也能一次說兩三個字。

  • She sought help and Timo was diagnosed with a mild form of autism spectrum disorder, or

    她尋求幫助,提莫被診斷出患有輕度自閉症譜系障礙,或稱 "自閉症"。

  • ASD for short .

    簡稱ASD。

  • Timo has an atypical perception.

    蒂莫有一個非典型的感知。

  • When reading books or watching movies, Timo's brain picks up and organizes the information

    在閱讀書籍或觀看電影時,提莫的大腦會收集和組織資訊

  • differently.

    不同的是。

  • While his neurotypical peers categorise things and form schemas - for example, they identify

    當他的神經型同齡人對事物進行分類並形成模式時--例如,他們會識別出

  • everything with four legs that barks as a dog.

    一切有四條腿的東西都像狗一樣吠叫。

  • For Timo, each type of dog is unique and categorised in Timo's mind individually.

    對於蒂莫來說,每一種類型的狗都是獨一無二的,在蒂莫的腦海中被單獨歸類。

  • His attention to detail and difficulty when generalizing, makes Timo more objective in

    他對細節的關注和歸納時的困難,使蒂莫在以下方面更加客觀

  • his perception of the world and less prone to a framing bias.

    他對世界的看法,不容易產生框架性偏見。

  • However, it also makes all sorts of new experiences incredibly complex, which is why he loves

    然而,這也使得各種新的體驗變得異常複雜,這就是為什麼他喜歡

  • to follow a rigid daily routine to limit his sensory input.

    遵循嚴格的日常程序,限制他的感官輸入。

  • Timo is highly sensitive.

    蒂莫是高度敏感的。

  • His brain amplifies whatever input it receiveshe hears everything and has a heightened

    他的大腦會放大它所收到的任何輸入--他能聽到所有的聲音,並有一個高度的

  • sense of touch.

    觸摸感。

  • However, this superpower makes situations where many people speak simultaneously very

    然而,這種超能力使許多人同時發言的情況非常

  • challengingTimo hears everyone but understands nothing.

    具有挑戰性--蒂莫聽到了所有人的聲音,但卻什麼也聽不懂。

  • The sensitivity to touch makes eating an intense experience.

    對觸覺的敏感使吃飯成為一種強烈的體驗。

  • If a texture or flavour is too much to handle, Timo won't eat it.

    如果某種質地或味道讓人難以接受,提莫就不會吃。

  • Also walking barefoot on wet grass or playing in dirt overwhelms his brain.

    此外,赤腳在溼草上行走或在泥土中玩耍也會使他的大腦不堪重負。

  • He has a fascination with logic.

    他對邏輯有一種迷戀。

  • Timo naturally looks for patterns that bring logic into this world.

    蒂莫自然地尋找將邏輯帶入這個世界的模式。

  • Sometimes he would also try to bring order into his own behavior and ways of moving his

    有時,他也會試圖讓自己的行為和行動方式變得有秩序。

  • body.

    身體。

  • When he experiences structured patterns breaking, he gets upset.

    當他遇到結構化模式被打破時,他就會感到不安。

  • It freaks him out when someone counts to 8 but doesn't continue to 10.

    當有人數到8但沒有繼續數到10時,他就會感到害怕。

  • Doctors call it an obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD, which is a different diagnosis but

    醫生稱其為強迫症或OCD,這是一個不同的診斷,但是

  • often goes along with autism.

    往往與自閉症相伴。

  • Timo experiences social disconnection.

    蒂莫經歷了社會脫節。

  • He has trouble connecting with others, because social settings overwhelm his sensitivity

    他很難與他人建立聯繫,因為社會環境壓倒了他的敏感性。

  • and desire for order.

    和對秩序的渴望。

  • Because human emotions are incredibly complex and don't follow a set of predictable patterns,

    因為人類的情緒是非常複雜的,並不遵循一套可預測的模式。

  • Timo often finds himself misreading situations and upsetting people around him.

    蒂莫經常發現自己誤解了情況,使周圍的人感到不安。

  • As a consequence, he avoids people and rarely makes eye contact.

    是以,他避開人,很少有眼神接觸。

  • Which doesn't matter that much to him, since most of the things other people talk about,

    這對他來說並不重要,因為其他人談論的大多數事情。

  • are illogical, irrelevant and boring anyways.

    無論如何都是不符合邏輯的、不相關的和無聊的。

  • For 4 years, his mother had him be treated by a therapist who would show him images of

    4年來,他的母親讓他接受治療師的治療,治療師會給他看以下的影像

  • faces to help him learn to identify feelings.

    臉,以幫助他學習識別感情。

  • By doing this he got better at identifying facial expressions and their corresponding

    通過這樣做,他能更好地識別面部表情和相應的

  • emotions.

    情感。

  • However, personally he is still not very interested in reading faces or establishing new social

    然而,就他個人而言,他對看臉或建立新的社會關係仍不太感興趣。

  • contacts.

    接觸。

  • He has two friends who share the same interests and couldn't wish for more.

    他有兩個志同道合的朋友,不能再奢望了。

  • Since Timo's autism is not an illness we can treat, but rather a different way of him

    由於蒂莫的自閉症不是我們可以治療的疾病,而是他的另一種方式。

  • experiencing the world, the question remains whether we should try to change him through

    我們是否應該試圖通過改變他來改變這個世界呢?

  • therapy or accept him for who he is.

    治療或接受他的為人。

  • So what do you think?

    那麼你怎麼看?

  • Should we treat children with autism with therapy or celebrate them for who they are?

    我們應該用治療來對待自閉症兒童,還是為他們的本性而慶祝?

  • Or perhaps do both?

    或者是兩者都做?

  • Maybe it's not their atypical minds, but our stereotypical way of looking at them that

    也許不是他們的非典型思維,而是我們對他們的刻板印象。

  • needs correction?

    需要糾正嗎?

  • To get a 3-dimensional glimpse of how an autistic girl experiences her own surprise birthday

    為了立體地瞭解一個自閉症女孩如何體驗自己的驚喜生日

  • party, or to download this video without background music, check the descriptions below or visit

    派對,或下載這個沒有背景音樂的視頻,請查看下面的描述或訪問

  • sproutsschools.com

    萌芽學校.com

When we examine 100 random teenagers, we would find that while they all look different, their

當我們隨機檢查100名青少年時,我們會發現,雖然他們都看起來不同,但他們的

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B1 中級 中文 自閉症 兒童 模式 邏輯 體驗 治療

自閉症。刻板世界中的非典型思維 (Autism: Atypical Minds in a Stereotypical World)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 01 日
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