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  • Built in 607AD in Nara, Japan

    建於公元607年的日本奈良。

  • Horyu-ji Temple is the world's oldest surviving wooden building.

    法隆寺是世界上現存最古老的木製建築。

  • Five storeys high, it's still standing firm

    五層樓高,它仍然堅挺。

  • despite being made from cypress trees felled over 1,400 years ago.

    儘管是由1400多年前砍伐的柏樹製成。

  • And Horyu's great age reveals a message for our future -

    Horyu的偉大時代揭示了對我們未來的啟示 --

  • building with timber can be durable, beautiful and practical

    用木材建造的建築可以是耐用的、美麗的和實用的

  • and it can even help tackle climate change.

    而且它甚至可以幫助解決氣候變化問題。

  • Here's why.

    原因就在這裡。

  • If we made 90% of our new buildings from wood

    如果我們90%的新建築是由木材製成的

  • rather than concrete and steel

    而不是混凝土和鋼鐵

  • we could reduce our global carbon emissions by 4%.

    我們可以將我們的全球碳排放量減少4%。

  • That's more than the total climate footprint of flying.

    這比飛行的總氣候足跡還多。

  • So why does building with wood do such good?

    那麼,為什麼用木材建造會有這樣的好處呢?

  • First, trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air as they grow.

    首先,樹木在生長過程中從空氣中吸收二氧化碳。

  • This is naturally stored in the beams and panels of buildings,

    這是在建築物的梁和板中自然儲存的。

  • a process known as carbon capture.

    一個被稱為碳捕獲的過程。

  • So the timber in Horyu Temple

    是以,法隆寺的木材

  • contains CO2 absorbed from the planet's atmosphere

    包含從地球大氣中吸收的二氧化碳

  • in the 7th Century.

    在7世紀。

  • Of course, using wood means felling trees,

    當然,使用木材意味著砍伐樹木。

  • but so long as you're not chopping down ancient forests,

    但只要你不砍伐古代森林就可以了。

  • you're maintaining the wildlife, replanting,

    你在維護野生動物,重新栽種。

  • and putting wood to long-term use, it's sustainable.

    並將木材用於長期使用,是可持續的。

  • In the last 15 years, in the northern Hemisphere

    在過去15年裡,在北半球

  • total forest cover has increased by an area of around 242,000 sq km,

    森林總覆蓋面積增加了約242,000平方公里。

  • about the size of the United Kingdom.

    大約相當於英國的面積。

  • In fact, every seven seconds the sustainable woodlands of Europe

    事實上,每七秒鐘,歐洲的可持續發展林地

  • yield enough timber to build a four-person family home.

    產量足夠建造一個四人家庭住宅的木材。

  • And it's not just Europe -

    而且這不僅僅是歐洲 -

  • Canada can harvest enough trees every year to house about a billion people.

    加拿大每年可以收穫足夠的樹木來容納大約10億人。

  • An equally important carbon reduction comes from what you're not using -

    同樣重要的碳減排來自於你不使用的東西--

  • construction with natural materials demands far less concrete and steel

    使用天然材料的建築對混凝土和鋼筋的需求大大減少

  • and these are massive climate culprits.

    而這些都是大規模的氣候罪魁禍首。

  • Steel-making accounts for around 8% of total global CO2 emissions

    鍊鋼約佔全球二氧化碳總排放量的8%。

  • and cement accounts for a further 6%.

    而水泥又佔了6%。

  • OK, not all of this is going into buildings,

    好吧,並不是所有這些都要進入建築物。

  • but they are a big customer.

    但他們是一個大客戶。

  • It's the combination of stored carbon and avoided emissions

    它是儲存的碳和避免的排放的組合

  • that really tips the climate scales for timber,

    這對木材來說是真正的氣候天平。

  • and a recent innovation has made wood much more user-friendly.

    而最近的一項創新使木材變得更加便於使用。

  • CLT, or cross-laminated timber,

    CLT,即交叉層壓木材。

  • is made by layering conifer planks at 90 degrees to each other

    是通過將針葉木板以90度的角度分層製成的。

  • in three to seven tiers and then gluing them together

    分為三到七層,然後把它們粘在一起

  • producing a kind of chunky plywood.

    生產一種矮胖的膠合板。

  • These panels are suitable for walls, floors, roofs, even lift shafts.

    這些面板適用於牆壁、地板、屋頂,甚至電梯井。

  • and their strength-to-weight ratio is often better than concrete.

    而且它們的強度-重量比通常比混凝土好。

  • CLT can be used in schools, offices and warehouses

    CLT可用於學校、辦公室和倉庫

  • and now there's a race to the sky

    而現在,有一場通往天空的比賽

  • with 85m 'plyscrapers' recently completed

    最近完成了85米的 "plyscrapers"。

  • in Austria and Norway.

    在奧地利和挪威。

  • So why are wooden buildings still the exception?

    那麼,為什麼木製建築仍然是個例外呢?

  • Mainstream construction is a risk-averse industry

    主流建築業是一個規避風險的行業

  • and changing this takes radical action.

    而改變這一點需要激進的行動。

  • One approach is law - the French government has decreed

    一種方法是法律--法國政府已經頒佈了法令

  • that at least 50% of every new public building must be made of wood.

    每個新的公共建築中至少有50%必須由木材製成。

  • This not only allows those structures to store more carbon

    這不僅使這些結構能夠儲存更多的碳

  • but also encourages a generation of builders

    但也鼓勵了一代建設者

  • to learn a timber-friendly skillset.

    以學習對木材有利的技能組合。

  • But how safe are wooden buildings, you may ask?

    但你可能會問,木製建築的安全性如何?

  • Remembering the Great Fire

    紀念大火

  • that gutted the medieval centre of London in 1666?

    1666年,倫敦的中世紀中心被燒燬?

  • In fact, tests of CLT panels in a blaze

    事實上,CLT板在烈火中的測試

  • have shown they tend to form a charcoal layer

    已表明它們往往會形成一個木炭層

  • that protects the core

    保護核心的

  • and when combined with heat-resistant glues and claddings

    並與耐熱膠水和覆蓋物結合使用時

  • they can match or exceed the fire resilience of conventional buildings.

    它們可以匹配或超過傳統建築的防火能力。

  • There are other benefits too.

    也有其他好處。

  • Studies suggest that wooden schools

    研究表明,木製學校

  • can actually lower the heart rate of pupils.

    實際上可以降低學生的心率。

  • Even looking at a wooden wall can reduce blood pressure.

    即使是看著一堵木牆也能降低血壓。

  • So wood is not only renewable, safe and climate-friendly,

    是以,木材不僅是可再生的,而且是安全的和氣候友好的。

  • it can also make you feel good.

    它也能讓你感覺良好。

  • Or to put it another way, using wood is really good.

    或者換一種說法,使用木材真的很好。

Built in 607AD in Nara, Japan

建於公元607年的日本奈良。

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將來我們都會住在 "克萊斯勒 "裡嗎?| BBC創意 (Will we all live in 'plyscrapers' in the future? | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 03 日
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