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  • Let's start with the obvious: bad things happen.

    讓我們從顯而易見的事情開始:壞事發生。

  • When they do, it's often in our best interest to have an open discussion about why they

    當他們這樣做的時候,我們最好的辦法是公開討論為什麼他們

  • happened.

    發生了。

  • But, some things are so bad that mainstream culture deems them unspeakable.

    但是,有些事情太糟糕了,以至於主流文化認為它們是不可說的。

  • These are the acts that you don't even want to imagine doing.

    這些都是你想都不敢想的行為。

  • Maybe, you don't believe your capable of doing them.

    也許,你不相信你有能力做到這一點。

  • These acts are what one might call evil.

    這些行為就是人們所說的邪惡。

  • I wouldn't be surprised if you thought that evil was only the product of psychopaths and

    如果你認為邪惡只是心理變態者的產物,我也不會覺得奇怪

  • sadists.

    虐待狂。

  • But, unfortunately, this just isn't so.

    但遺憾的是,事實並非如此。

  • The world witnessed evil during WW2 and, more specifically, the Holocaust.

    在二戰期間,世界目睹了邪惡,更具體地說,是大屠殺。

  • When Adolf Eichmann - one of the main figures responsible for organizing the systematic

    當阿道夫-艾希曼--一個對組織有系統的大屠殺負有責任的主要人物之一。

  • killing of millions - was put on trial, he said that he was just following orders: this

    殺害了數百萬人--他說,他只是奉命行事:這。

  • thought is frightening.

    思想是可怕的。

  • This statement makes you rethink the idea of evil.

    這句話讓你重新思考邪惡的概念。

  • It transforms evil from being the work of a small minority to a product of the vast

    它將邪惡從少數人的行為轉變為廣大民眾的產物。

  • majority.

    大多數人。

  • Perhaps, evil is what happens when people stop thinking for themselves and just obey

    也許,邪惡就是當人們不再為自己考慮,而只是服從的時候,會發生的事情

  • the orders of others.

    別人的命令。

  • If so, the capacity for evil lies within all of us.

    如果是這樣,邪惡的能力就在我們每個人的體內。

  • This is the context in which Stanley Milgram conducted his renowned experiment on obedience;

    這是斯坦利-米爾格拉姆進行其著名的服從性實驗的背景。

  • it's a chilling experiment that reminds us that with the ability for great good comes

    這是一個令人心寒的實驗,提醒我們,有能力做大好事的同時,也有能力做小事

  • the ability for great evil.

    大惡之能。

  • To really understand the Milgram experiments, it helps to split it into two tests: the fake

    要想真正理解米爾格拉姆實驗,把它抽成兩個測試是有幫助的:假的

  • one and the real one.

    一個和真正的一個。

  • Let's start with the fake one.

    先說說假的吧。

  • There are 3 participants: the experimenter, a teacher, and a learner.

    有3個參與者:實驗者、教師、學習者。

  • The subject that Milgram was studying was always given the role of teacher.

    米爾格拉姆所研究的課題,始終被賦予了教師的角色。

  • The learner was an actor that was in on the experiment.

    學習者是一個演員,是在實驗中。

  • The actual study was disguised as a fake study that was said to be testing the effects of

    實際的研究被偽裝成了一項虛假的研究,說是測試效果。

  • punishment on learning.

    對學習的懲罰。

  • Specifically, they were testing the effects of administering electric shocks on a learner's

    具體來說,他們是在測試施以電擊對學習者的影響。

  • ability to memorize a list of word-pairs.

    記憶單詞對的能力。

  • For example, green-flower or couch-potato.

    比如,青花或沙發洋芋。

  • The subject was tasked with teaching the learner this list.

    學科的任務是教學習者這個單子。

  • The subject would go through the list once and then read off one of the words in a pair.

    課題組會把清單看一遍,然後把其中的一個詞對讀下來。

  • If the learner guessed the word correctly, the subject would move on to the next pair.

    如果學習者猜對了這個詞,主體就會進入下一對。

  • However, if they guessed incorrectly, the subject was supposed to administer an electric

    然而,如果他們猜錯了,受試者應該施以電擊。

  • shock.

    震驚。

  • Shocks went up in 15V increments all the way up until 450V.

    震動以15V遞增,一直到450V。

  • There were also corresponding labels indicating the intensity of shocks ranging from slight

    也有相應的標籤表示衝擊的強度,從輕微的衝擊到輕微的衝擊。

  • shock to simply XXX.

    衝擊到單純的XXX。

  • The real test underlying this fake one was to see how far subjects would be willing to

    這個假的測試背後真正的測試是看被試者願意到什麼程度。

  • go in administering shocks before they stopped.

    在施以電擊後,他們才停止。

  • At the shock level of 300V, the subject would hear the learner pounding on the wall and

    在300V的衝擊水準下,受試者會聽到學習者敲打牆壁的聲音,並且

  • begin refusing to answer.

    開始拒絕回答。

  • A second pound was heard at 315V.

    在315V的電壓下,聽到第二聲重擊。

  • This test was designed to put the subject in a tug of war between obeying their own

    這個測試的目的是讓受試者在服從自己的拉鋸戰中

  • morals and obeying an authority figure.

    道德和服從權威人物。

  • If the subject began hesitating, the experimenter used 1 of 4 prods to get him to continue.

    如果受試者開始猶豫不決,實驗者就用4個道具中的1個來讓他繼續。

  • They ranged in intensity from simple requests to orders.

    它們的強度從簡單的請求到命令不等。

  • The results of the test were shocking: 65% of participants administered the maximum level

    測試的結果令人震驚:65%的參與者進行了最大程度的。

  • of shocks.

    的衝擊。

  • All participants obeyed until 300V.

    在300V之前,所有參與者都服從。

  • Various forms of Milgram's experiment have been replicated several times and continue

    米爾格朗姆的各種形式的實驗已經被多次複製,並繼續進行著

  • to produce similar results.

    以產生類似的結果。

  • Although, modifying different conditions seems to produce varying levels of obedience.

    雖然,修改不同的條件似乎會產生不同程度的服從性。

  • After going through a lot of the literature, the question isn't do we obey, but when

    在經歷了很多文獻之後,問題不是我們要不要服從,而是當

  • and why ?

    為什麼?

  • I think the best place to start is with Milgram's interpretation of the experiment.

    我認為最好的起點是米爾格拉姆對實驗的解釋。

  • But, before you can understand it, you have to understand his view of obedience as a natural

    但是,在你理解它之前,你必須理解他對服從的看法是一種自然的

  • phenomenon.

    現象。

  • Milgram believed that humans evolved the capacity to organize into social hierarchies because

    米爾格拉姆認為,人類之所以進化出組織成社會等級的能力,是因為

  • it was a huge survival advantage.

    這是一個巨大的生存優勢。

  • Instead of competing as individuals, we could work together as a powerful group.

    與其作為個人競爭,不如作為一個強大的團體共同合作。

  • In order to create these hierarchies, humans must be capable of giving up control to an

    為了創造這些等級制度,人類必須有能力將控制權交給一個。

  • external source: this could be another person or an idea.

    外部來源:這可能是另一個人或一個想法。

  • If two independent people give up control to a third person, the third person can coordinate

    如果兩個獨立的人把控制權交給第三個人,第三個人可以協調

  • the entire group.

    整個集團。

  • For example, imagine a group of cars giving up control to the commands of a traffic cop.

    例如,想象一群汽車放棄控制權,聽從交警的指揮。

  • By giving up their personal autonomy, traffic can flow in a more coordinated fashion.

    放棄個人的自主權,交通就可以更加協調地流動。

  • However, if they all act on their own, traffic will flow less efficiently and accidents are

    但是,如果他們都各自為政,交通效率就會降低,事故就會發生。

  • more likely to happen.

    更有可能發生。

  • There are social hierarchies all around you.

    在你身邊有社會等級制度。

  • When you enter a hierarchy, Milgram believed that you'd undergo a critical shift in mindset

    米爾格拉姆認為,當你進入一個等級制度後,你的思維方式會發生關鍵性的轉變。

  • from that of an autonomous individual to that of an agent.

    從一個自主的個體到一個代理的個體。

  • When you enter a hierarchy and become an agent, you no longer feel responsible for your actions

    當你進入一個層次,成為一個代理,你不再覺得自己的行為是負責任的。

  • but responsible to the one above you.

    但要對你上面的人負責。

  • This new mindset is known as the agentic state.

    這種新的思維方式被稱為代理人狀態。

  • To understand this state, it helps to separate it into a few components: the capacity for

    要理解這種狀態,把它抽成幾個部分是有幫助的:能力的。

  • agency, why we become an agent, the features of an agent, and what keeps us from exiting

    代理,為什麼我們會成為代理,代理的特點,以及是什麼讓我們無法退出。

  • the agentic state.

    代理狀態。

  • Milgram argues that the agentic state has been socialized in us through family, school,

    米爾格拉姆認為,代理人狀態已經通過家庭、學校在我們身上社會化了。

  • and work because these environments value obedience, reward us for it and punish us

    和工作,因為這些環境重視服從,獎勵我們服從,懲罰我們服從

  • for disobedience.

    因為不聽話。

  • So, why would you choose to become an agent?

    那麼,你為什麼會選擇做代理呢?

  • Imagine that you're taking part in this experiment.

    想象一下,你正在參加這個實驗。

  • You walk into the room.

    你走進房間。

  • What do you do?

    你是做什麼的?

  • If you want to the experiment to run effectively, you need to cooperate with the group.

    如果你想讓實驗有效地進行,你需要與小組合作。

  • Recall that one of the most effective ways to coordinate a group is to designate a leader.

    回顧一下,協調一個小組最有效的方法之一是指定一個領袖。

  • Someone has to be in charge, right?

    總得有人負責吧?

  • Since this is a new hierarchy that you're entering into, you know that you're not

    由於這是一個新的層次結構,你要進入的,你知道你不是。

  • in charge.

    負責。

  • You assign that role to the experimenter because you perceive them to be a “legitimate authority”.

    你把這個角色分配給實驗者,是因為你認為他們是一個 "合法的權威"。

  • You willingly enter this hierarchy because it has a guiding ideology that you believe

    你心甘情願地進入這個等級制度,是因為它有一個你認為的指導思想。

  • in and would be willing to further: progress & science.

    中,並願意進一步:進步與科學。

  • Lastly, the experimenter makes demands of you that are appropriate for the hierarchy

    最後,實驗者對你提出適合層次的要求

  • that you're in.

    你在。

  • He makes demands with regards to the experiment and not unrelated things.

    他對實驗提出的要求,並不是不相關的事情。

  • He doesn't tell you what you eat for dinner.

    他不會告訴你晚餐吃什麼。

  • All of these factors combined allow you to willingly accept the role of an agent.

    所有這些因素綜合在一起,讓你心甘情願地接受代理的角色。

  • Now that we have become an agent, what does this shift in mindset entail?

    現在我們已經成為了一名代理人,這種思維方式的轉變需要什麼呢?

  • When we are in the hierarchy we tend to value the word of our superiors more than our inferiors.

    當我們身處等級制度中時,我們往往更看重上級的話,而不是下級。

  • Continuing our example, you're not going to take advice from the learner on how to

    繼續我們的例子,你不打算接受學習者的建議,如何進行

  • conduct the experiment.

    進行實驗。

  • That's because you see him at an equal or lower position on the hierarchy.

    那是因為你看到他在等級制度上處於同等或較低的位置。

  • We also reinterpret our actions with regards to the mission of the hierarchy - for example,

    我們也會根據上級的任務重新解釋我們的行為--比如。

  • scientific progress.

    科學進步;

  • Keep in mind that we have willingly entered this hierarchy as an agent with a belief in

    請記住,我們已經心甘情願地進入了這個等級制度,作為一個代理人,我們有一個信念。

  • its guiding mission.

    其指導任務,

  • This leads to the most important feature of being an agent: we no longer feel responsible

    這就導致了作為代理人最重要的特點:我們不再覺得自己有責任感

  • for our actions but responsible to carrying out the wishes of the one above us.

    為我們的行為負責,但負責執行我們上面的人的願望。

  • However, once we've entered the agentic state, what keeps us there?

    然而,當我們進入代理狀態後,是什麼讓我們留在那裡?

  • If we hear the pounding and feel we are doing something morally wrong, why can't we leave?

    如果我們聽到敲擊聲,覺得自己做了一件道德上錯誤的事情,為什麼不能離開?

  • Milgram's first reason is consistency.

    米爾格拉姆的第一個理由是一致性。

  • To admit that our current action is wrong would mean that we have to admit that all

    承認我們目前的行動是錯誤的,就意味著我們必須承認所有的

  • of our actions leading up to this point were wrong.

    我們在這之前的行動是錯誤的。

  • That is a very tough pill to swallow and most people would rather not do it.

    這是一個非常難受的藥丸,大多數人寧可不做。

  • The second reason is that we feel an obligation to the experimenter.

    第二個原因是,我們覺得對實驗者有義務。

  • We already made a commitment to help him and we want to uphold it.

    我們已經承諾要幫助他,我們要維護它。

  • The third reason is that all participants entered and began this experiment under a

    第三個原因是所有的參與者都是在一個下進入並開始這個實驗的。

  • specific situational definition: we acknowledged that the authority was legitimate, knew what

    具體情境定義:我們承認該權力是合法的,知道什麼是 "合法"。

  • he was doing, and deserved to be higher up in the hierarchy than us.

    他在做的事情,理應比我們更高的層次。

  • Violating this, or any, socially agreed upon situational definition produces feelings of

    違反這個或任何社會商定的情境定義,會讓人感覺到

  • awkwardness and discomfort because we are disrupting the social order.

    尷尬和不舒服,因為我們破壞了社會秩序。

  • Lastly, there are feelings of anxiety associated with disobeying an authority figure.

    最後,不服從權威人士的要求,會有焦慮感。

  • We have been socialized to respect authority figures and anticipating that we may have

    我們已經被社會化了,要尊重權威人士,並預計到我們可能有

  • to disobey and disrupt the social order makes us anxious.

    違抗和破壞社會秩序,讓我們感到焦慮。

  • However, alternative studies shine light on different aspects of Milgram's studies.

    然而,另類的研究卻讓人看到了米爾格拉姆研究的不同方面。

  • Some studies suggest something along the lines of a trusted expert that motivates subjects

    一些研究表明,一個值得信賴的專家,可以激勵被試者的行為

  • to continue obeying.

    以繼續服從。

  • They believed that they could trust that the scientist knew more about the experiment than

    他們認為,他們可以相信,科學家對實驗的瞭解要比

  • they did or that they could trust that a scientist would act responsibly.

    或他們可以相信科學家會負責任地行事。

  • Based on an individuals life experience, these would be reasonable beliefs to hold.

    根據個人的生活經驗,這些都是合理的信念。

  • The experimenter had even told participants that the shocks werepainful but not dangerous”.

    實驗者甚至曾告訴參與者,這種衝擊 "很痛苦,但並不危險"。

  • So, the real reason they continued was because they didn't believe that the learner was

    所以,他們繼續下去的真正原因是他們不相信學習者是

  • actually in any real danger.

    實際上,在任何真正的危險。

  • Other studies suggest that participants continued to obey because they believed that they were

    其他研究表明,參與者之所以繼續服從,是因為他們認為他們是

  • agents of a worthy ideology.

    一個有價值的意識形態的代理人。

  • Specifically, one study found that of the four prods that Milgram used, the one most

    具體來說,有研究發現,在米爾格拉姆使用的四種探針中,最。

  • resembling an order was the least effective and the one most resembling an appeal to science

    類似於命令的方法最不有效,而最類似於呼籲科學的方法最有效。

  • was the most effective.

    是最有效的。

  • In this case, it would seem that subjects are actually motivated by the belief that

    在這種情況下,似乎被試者實際上是出於這樣的信念,即

  • their actions were for the benefit of science.

    他們的行動是為了科學的利益。

  • In both alternative explanations, participants would believe that they were doing the right

    在這兩種替代解釋中,參與者都會認為他們做的是正確的。

  • thing.

    的事情。

  • Alternatively, some people believe that Milgram's experiments were nothing but theatre and invalid

    也有人認為,米爾格拉姆的實驗不過是戲劇,是無效的。

  • as a scientific experiment.

    作為一個科學實驗。

  • On the otherhand, many believe that Milgram did stumble upon something significant but

    另一方面,許多人認為,米爾格拉姆確實偶然發現了一些重要的東西,但。

  • there isn't universal agreement over exactly what that is.

    沒有普遍的一致意見 在究竟是什麼。

  • We can't make a jump from Milgram's results to explaining the actions of those involved

    我們不能從米爾格拉姆的結果跳到解釋相關人員的行為上

  • in the Holocaust.

    在大屠殺中。

  • The experiment itself was conducted in a lab setting and so we have to be careful about

    實驗本身是在實驗室的環境下進行的,所以我們要注意的是

  • interpreting those results with regards to real life.

    解釋這些結果與現實生活有關。

  • However, it does provide us with a lot of food for thought about how different situations

    然而,它確實為我們提供了很多關於不同情況下的思考。

  • can affect the actions we take.

    可以影響我們的行動。

  • Milgram's experiments serve as a critical reminder that a potential monster lies deep

    米爾格蘭姆的實驗是一個重要的提醒,潛在的怪物深藏不露。

  • within each of us and it would be in our best interest to be mindful of that.

    在我們每個人的內心深處,注意到這一點對我們是最有利的。

  • But, let me know your thoughts.

    但是,讓我知道你的想法。

  • Why do you

    你為什麼要

  • think we obey?

    你以為我們會聽話嗎?

Let's start with the obvious: bad things happen.

讓我們從顯而易見的事情開始:壞事發生。

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B1 中級 中文 實驗 服從 代理人 對象 權威 電擊

我們為什麼要服從權威?- 米爾格拉姆實驗 (Why Do We Obey Authority? - The Milgram Experiments)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 16 日
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