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  • a few years ago, a stranger sitting next to me on a plane asked what I did for a living.

    幾年前,在飛機上,坐在我旁邊的一個陌生人問我是幹什麼的。

  • I told him that I'm an archaeologist and I study the ancient Maya.

    我告訴他,我是考古學家,研究古瑪雅。

  • He said, Wow, I love archaeology and told me how excited he gets when hearing about new fines.

    他說,哇,我喜歡考古,還告訴我他聽到新的罰款時有多興奮。

  • Then he told me how amazing it is that aliens from the Planet Knee Baru had come to Earth and establish the ancient Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia.

    然後他告訴我,來自膝巴魯星球的外星人來到地球,並在美索不達米亞建立了古老的蘇美爾文化,這是多麼神奇的事情。

  • I have these conversations a lot on planes, in bookstores and in bars.

    我經常在飛機上、書店和酒吧裡進行這種對話。

  • People want to talk with me about pseudo archaeology, something that seems like archaeology but isn't it involves making wild and unproven claims about the human past.

    人們想和我談談偽考古學,一些看起來像考古學的東西,但並不是它涉及到對人類過去的狂妄和未經證實的說法。

  • Things like aliens built the pyramids or survivors from the Lost Continent of Atlantis invented hydrographic writing.

    比如外星人建造了金字塔,或者是失落的亞特蘭蒂斯大陸的倖存者發明了水紋文字。

  • Now most of us know that claims like these are unfounded and, frankly absurd.

    現在我們大多數人都知道,這樣的說法是沒有根據的,坦率地說是荒謬的。

  • Yet they're everywhere.

    但他們卻無處不在。

  • They're on TV shows, in movies and in books.

    電視劇、電影和書中都有他們的身影。

  • Think of the History Channel series.

    想想歷史頻道的系列節目。

  • Ancient Aliens, currently in its 15th season, or of the most recent Indiana Jones movie about the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull or Erich von Daniken, is classic book Chariots of the Gods Here's the crucial question.

    遠古外星人》目前已進入第15季,還是最近的《印第安納瓊斯》電影中關於水晶骷髏王國或埃裡希-馮-達尼肯的,是經典書籍《眾神戰車》這裡有一個關鍵問題。

  • Who cares?

    誰在乎呢?

  • It's just entertainment, right?

    這只是娛樂,對吧?

  • Isn't it a nice escape from reality and a fun way to think about the world?

    是不是很好的逃避現實,也是一種有趣的思考方式呢?

  • It's not.

    不是這樣的

  • Most pseudo archaeology is racist and xenophobic, and like other forms of entertainment, it influences our culture in real ways.

    大多數偽考古學是種族主義和排外主義的,就像其他形式的娛樂一樣,它以真實的方式影響著我們的文化。

  • Let me give you an example.

    讓我給你舉個例子。

  • It's common to hear pseudo archaeologists claim that groups like the ancient Egyptians or the ancient Maya accomplished incredible things, but only with the help of outside groups like aliens or people from Atlantis.

    經常聽到偽考古學家聲稱,像古埃及人或古瑪雅人這樣的群體完成了不可思議的事情,但只是在外星人或亞特蘭蒂斯人等外部群體的幫助下完成的。

  • What you rarely hear is pseudo archaeologist claiming that, say Romans had helped building the Coliseum or that Greeks had helped building the Parthenon.

    你很少聽到的是偽考古學家聲稱,比如說羅馬人曾幫助建造競技場,或者希臘人曾幫助建造帕臺農神廟。

  • Why is that for pseudo archaeologists?

    為什麼說是給偽考古學家看的?

  • Europeans could have accomplished their feats on their own, but non Europeans must have had outside guidance.

    歐洲人可以靠自己的力量完成他們的壯舉,但非歐洲人一定有外界的指導。

  • Claims like these are not just outrageous.

    這樣的說法不僅是令人憤怒的。

  • They are offensive here and in so many other instances, pseudo archaeology sustains myths of white supremacy, disparages non Europeans and discredits their ancestors achievements.

    他們在這裡和其他許多例子中都是攻擊性的,偽考古學維持著白人至上的神話,貶低非歐洲人,詆譭他們祖先的成就。

  • I've spent the last 12 summers doing archaeological fieldwork in the Maya area.

    在過去的12個夏天裡,我一直在瑪雅地區進行考古實地工作。

  • Several years back, I was staying in a small village along the Belize Guatemala border.

    幾年前,我住在貝裡斯瓜地馬拉邊境的一個小村莊。

  • I spent day after day in the lab, staring at tiny, brown eroded pieces of ceramics.

    我日復一日地在實驗室裡,盯著細小的、被褐色侵蝕的陶瓷碎片。

  • The Maya man who lived across the street made slate carvings to sell to tourists.

    住在對面的瑪雅人做了石板雕刻賣給遊客。

  • He'd stopped by every once in a while to chat, and one day he brought over a slate carving.

    他隔三差五就會來聊天,有一天他帶了一個板雕過來。

  • And it was this image, the image carved into the sarcophagus lid of the Mayan king Pakal around his death in 6 83 a.

    就是這幅畫像,瑪雅國王帕卡勒在公元683年去世前後,刻在石棺蓋上的畫像。

  • D.

    D.

  • This image is incredible, and it's complex.

    這幅畫面很不可思議,也很複雜。

  • It shows the deceased king rising from the jaws of the underworld to be reborn as a deity.

    它表現的是亡國之君從冥界的爪牙中升起,轉世為神。

  • In the center is a stylized world tree that extends from the underworld through the realm of the living into the upper world.

    中間是一棵造型的世界樹,從陰間經過生界延伸到上界。

  • Around the edges is a sky band with symbols for the sun, moon and stars.

    邊緣是一條天空帶,上面有日月星辰的符號。

  • I was so excited to talk with my neighbor about ancient Maya, religion, cosmology and iconography.

    我很興奮地和鄰居聊起了古瑪雅、宗教、宇宙學和聖像學。

  • Instead, he wanted to talk about an ancient aliens episode.

    但他卻想談一談古代外星人的情節。

  • He had seen the one about the Maya, and he told me that this image was of an astronaut at the controls of a rocket ship.

    他看過關於瑪雅人的那幅畫,他告訴我,這幅畫是一個太空人在控制火箭飛船的畫面。

  • I was shocked.

    我當時就震驚了。

  • Instead of marveling at his own ancestors, he was in awe of a fictional alien.

    他沒有驚歎自己的祖先,而是對一個虛構的外星人充滿敬畏。

  • He even told me that one day he hoped to give this carving to Erich von Daniken, father of the ancient aliens phenomenon.

    他甚至告訴我,有一天他希望把此雕刻個東西送給遠古外星人現象之父親的Erich von Daniken。

  • Pseudo archaeology undoubtedly harms its subjects, often indigenous people like the Maya, but it also harms its viewers.

    偽考古無疑傷害了它的對象,往往是瑪雅人這樣的土著人,但它也傷害了它的觀眾。

  • It harms all of us.

    它傷害了我們所有人。

  • Like other forms of racism, it exacerbates inequality and prevents us from appreciating and benefiting from human diversity.

    與其他形式的種族主義一樣,它加劇了不平等,使我們無法欣賞和受益於人類的多樣性。

  • What's really scary is that pseudo archaeology is a small part of a much bigger problem.

    真正可怕的是,偽考古只是一個更大問題的一小部分。

  • It's just one example of people getting history wrong on purpose of people knowingly changing historical and archaeological facts.

    這只是人們明知故犯地改變歷史和考古事實而故意弄錯歷史的一個例子。

  • Why would anybody do that?

    為什麼有人會這麼做?

  • Often the past is knowingly changed either to justify racism in the present or to present a nicer version of history, a version of history that we can all take pride in.

    過去的歷史往往被有意改變,要麼是為了給現在的種族主義辯護,要麼是為了提出一個更好的歷史版本,一個我們都能引以為豪的歷史版本。

  • Six years ago, Jefferson County, Colorado, became a battleground over how to teach American history to high school students.

    六年前,科羅拉多州傑斐遜縣成為了如何向高中生教授美國曆史的戰場。

  • The advanced placement curriculum had been expanded to include things like, uh, the removal of Native Americans to reservations and the rise of extreme economic inequality.

    先進的安置課程已經擴大到包括諸如,呃,美國原住民被遷往保留地,以及極端經濟不平等的崛起。

  • Members of the local school board were upset.

    當地教育局的成員很不高興。

  • They vigorously protested the changes, arguing that the new curriculum didn't do enough to promote capitalism or American exceptionalism.

    他們強烈抗議這些變化,認為新課程在宣傳資本主義或美國特殊主義方面做得不夠。

  • Right now, we are in the midst of a heated debate over public monuments to controversial figures people like Robert E.

    現在,我們正處於一場激烈的辯論中,關於為羅伯特-E-等有爭議的人物建立公共紀念碑。

  • Lee and Christopher Columbus.

    李和克里斯托弗-哥倫布。

  • Should these monuments be left as they are destroyed or put in museums?

    這些古蹟是應該任其毀壞,還是放在博物館裡呢?

  • And what should happen to the protesters who defaced these monuments?

    而那些汙損這些紀念碑的抗議者又該如何處理呢?

  • Should they be praised for helping debunk myths of white supremacy?

    他們是否應該因為幫助揭穿白人至上主義的神話而受到讚揚?

  • Or should they be punished for vigilante ism and lawlessness?

    還是應該以治安主義和違法亂紀的罪名懲罰他們?

  • What do we make of scenes like this?

    我們怎麼看待這樣的場景?

  • For me?

    給我的?

  • Debates about history, curricula and public monuments suggests similar messages.

    關於歷史、課程和公共紀念碑的辯論也暗示了類似的資訊。

  • First, the past is political.

    首先,過去是政治的。

  • What we choose to remember and forget relates directly to current political concerns.

    我們選擇記住和忘記什麼,直接關係到當前的政治關切。

  • Second, we need to consider who presents the past, who chooses the content of history, textbooks and the subject matter of public monuments.

    其次,我們需要考慮誰來介紹過去,誰來選擇歷史的內容、教科書和公共紀念碑的主題。

  • Imagine how our understanding of history might be different if it was told by the marginalized rather than the powerful.

    想象一下,如果歷史是由被邊緣化的人而不是由有權勢的人講述,我們對歷史的理解可能會有什麼不同。

  • We can help combat racism and xenophobia today by changing how we think about the past, archaeologists need to do two things.

    我們今天可以通過改變我們對過去的思考方式來幫助打擊種族主義和仇外心理,考古學家需要做兩件事。

  • First, we need to make our discipline more inclusive.

    首先,我們要讓我們的學科更加包容。

  • We need to work with and for the descendants of the people we study.

    我們需要與我們所研究的人的後代合作,併為他們服務。

  • Richard Leventhal's work at Ti Atsuko Mexico is groundbreaking pun intended.

    Richard Leventhal在墨西哥Ti Atsuko的工作是開創性的雙關語。

  • For over a century, foreign archaeologists have traveled to the Maya area to excavate the things they thought were interesting, mostly temples and pyramids.

    一個多世紀以來,外國考古學家到瑪雅地區挖掘他們認為有趣的東西,大多是神廟和金字塔。

  • Leventhal took a different approach.

    萊文塔爾採取了不同的方法。

  • Instead, he asked the contemporary Maya of T Etsuko what they thought was interesting, and it turns out they didn't particularly care about temples or pyramids.

    相反,他問了T Etsuko的當代瑪雅人,他們認為什麼是有趣的,結果他們並不是特別關心神廟和金字塔。

  • They were interested in the cast war, a major but understudied colonial period.

    他們對鑄造戰爭感興趣,這是一個重要但被低估的殖民時期。

  • Maya rebellion.

    瑪雅人的叛亂。

  • Second, we need to make archaeology more accessible.

    其次,我們要讓更多人瞭解考古學。

  • The last time I walked into a bookstore, I asked where I could find the archaeology books.

    上次走進書店,我問哪裡能找到考古書。

  • The clerk took me to a section labeled Ancient Mysteries and Lost Knowledge.

    店員把我帶到一個標有古代神祕和失落知識的區域。

  • It had books with titles like Extra Planetary Experiences.

    它的書名有《額外的行星經驗》等。

  • And what is absolutely absurd about this is that real archaeology archaeology based in scientific facts and historical context is fascinating.

    而絕對荒謬的是,真正的考古學考古學基於科學事實和歷史背景,是很有魅力的。

  • You don't need aliens to make it interesting.

    你不需要外星人來讓它變得有趣。

  • It's up to US archaeologist to find new ways to share our work with the public, and this used to be the norm.

    美國的考古學家要找到新的方式與公眾分享我們的工作,這曾經是常態。

  • In the 19 fifties, there was a game show on CBS called what in the world the host would present an object, an artifact and the archaeologists.

    在1950年代,CBS有一個遊戲節目,叫做世界上有什麼,主持人會提出一件物品、一件文物和考古學家。

  • Contestants would try to figure out what this thing was and where it was from.

    參賽者會試圖找出這個東西是什麼,它來自哪裡。

  • The show was funny and interesting and exposed viewers to the diversity of human cultures.

    節目風趣幽默,讓觀眾看到了人類文化的多樣性。

  • Beginning in the mid to late 19 sixties, archaeology changed focus.

    從1960年代中後期開始,考古學的重點發生了變化。

  • Instead of concentrating on public engagement, archaeologists began working together to professionalize the discipline.

    考古學家們沒有專注於公眾參與,而是開始共同致力於學科的專業化發展。

  • On the plus side, we now have things like Bazian analysis of radiocarbon dates and theoretical approaches, like the new material ISMs.

    從好的方面來說,我們現在有了像巴茲安分析放射性碳日期和理論方法,比如新材料ISMs。

  • But in the process, archaeology left the public behind shows like What in the World became less common and pseudo archaeology emerged to fill the void.

    但在這個過程中,考古學離開了公眾,像《世界上有什麼》這樣的節目就變得不那麼常見了,偽考古的出現填補了這個空白。

  • But we can all contribute to changing how we think about the past.

    但我們都可以為改變我們對過去的思考方式做出貢獻。

  • When you see a pseudo archaeological claim, be skeptical and know that if you post about Atlantis, tweet about ancient aliens or forward a clip from a pseudo archaeology TV show, even if it's not your intention, you may be promoting racism and xenophobia.

    當你看到一個偽考古的說法時,要抱有懷疑的態度,要知道如果你發了關於亞特蘭蒂斯的帖子,發了關於遠古外星人的推特,或者轉發了偽考古電視節目的片段,即使你不是故意的,也可能是在宣揚種族主義和排外主義。

  • Also know that the past is alive, It is political, it is ever changing, and it influences our daily lives in meaningful ways.

    還要知道,過去是活的,它是政治的,它是不斷變化的,它以有意義的方式影響著我們的日常生活。

  • So the next time that you watch the History Channel, read an archeology book or view a public monument.

    所以,下次看歷史頻道的時候,可以讀一讀考古書,或者觀摩一下公共紀念碑。

  • Remember that every statement about the past is a powerful statement about the present.

    請記住,每一個關於過去的陳述都是關於現在的有力陳述。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

a few years ago, a stranger sitting next to me on a plane asked what I did for a living.

幾年前,在飛機上,坐在我旁邊的一個陌生人問我是幹什麼的。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED 考古學家 外星人 主義 歷史 紀念碑

"外星人建造的金字塔和其他偽考古學的荒謬之處 ("Aliens built the pyramids" and other absurdities of pseudo-archaeology | Sarah Kurnick)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 18 日
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