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  • a shift to a world that's no longer powered  by fossil fuels likely means we're going to  

    轉變到一個不再由化石燃料驅動的世界,可能意味著我們要去

  • rely more on batteries and the metals that make  them because land-based sources of these metals  

    更多地依賴電池和製造電池的金屬,因為這些金屬的陸上來源。

  • can meet the demand of a battery-powered world  private companies have turned their attention to  

    能否滿足電池驅動的世界的需求,私營公司已經將注意力轉向了電池。

  • the ocean floor but mining the murky depths  may come with a greater cost to the planet  

    但開採深海的陰暗部分可能會給地球帶來更大的損失。

  • than it's worth terrestrial mining doesn't have  a perfect record it comes with a long list of  

    地面採礦並沒有一個完美的記錄,它有一個長長的清單。

  • environmental and human rights abuses including  pollution and child labor all this to dig up  

    環境和人權的侵犯,包括汙染和童工,所有這些都是為了挖出。

  • raw materials like nickel manganese and cobalt  that are necessary for our lithium-ion batteries  

    鋰離子電池所需的鎳錳鈷等原材料。

  • some strategies for a carbon-free future depend on  making these batteries in much larger numbers and  

    無碳未來的一些戰略取決於是否能更大量地生產這些電池,以及是否能更多地使用這些電池。

  • using them as a power source for electric cars  or a storage method for electricity generated  

    將其作為電動汽車的動力源或產生的電力的儲存方法。

  • by renewables but another source of these  materials could lie at the bottom of the ocean  

    但這些材料的另一個來源可能在海底

  • potato sized lumps called polymetallic nodules are  rich in manganese copper cobalt nickel and other  

    洋芋大小的塊狀物稱為多金屬結核,富含錳銅鈷鎳等。

  • precious metals and they're found in abundance  in some areas like the clarion clipperton zone  

    貴金屬,而且在一些地區,如克拉里昂-克利珀頓區,它們的含量非常豐富。

  • that stretches from hawaii to mexico in this one  area alone known as the ccz nodules contain more  

    從夏威夷延伸到墨西哥,僅在這個被稱為溼疣結節的地區,就含有更多的溼疣。

  • nickel and cobalt than in all known land-based  sources combined there are a few reasons why  

    鎳和鈷比所有已知陸上來源的總和還要多,這有幾個原因。

  • we haven't scooped up those tempting little sea  nuggets one of them is technological between us  

    我們還沒有挖到那些誘人的小海塊 其中一個是我們之間的技術問題。

  • and them there is a literal ocean and getting to  them is not a matter of just distance but pressure  

    和他們有一個字面的海洋 而到達他們那裡不僅僅是距離的問題,而是壓力的問題。

  • too the deep sea is usually defined as the water  200 meters below the surface and beyond every 10  

    此外,深海通常被定義為海面以下200米及以上的水面,每隔10米就有一個深海。

  • meters under water adds another atmosphere worth  of pressure and these nodules are often found  

    水下數米處的壓力又增加了一個大氣壓,這些結核通常被發現在水中。

  • below 3000 meters that means the machines that  harvest them would have to withstand more than  

    3000米以下,這意味著收割它們的機器將必須承受超過3000米的高度。

  • 300 times more pressure than you or i feel  walking around on the surface the expense  

    比你我在表面走動的壓力大300倍的費用

  • and engineering that would go into a sea floor  harvesting operation has long deterred anything  

    長期以來,對海底捕撈作業所需的技術和工程設計的要求,使人們望而卻步。

  • beyond small scale exploration but after decades  of testing the technology to mine the ocean floor  

    小規模勘探之外,但經過幾十年的測試,開採海底的技術

  • looks like it's maturing and ready for large scale  use for example one company nautilus minerals has  

    看起來它已經成熟,可以大規模使用了,比如一家公司鸚鵡螺礦業就已經有了。

  • developed this trio of machines two of them are  for crushing up ore before the third collects it  

    開發了這三臺機器,其中兩臺用於破碎礦石,第三臺用於收集礦石。

  • mixes it with seawater and sends it to a pump  that lifts the slurry to vessels on the surface  

    將其與海水混合,並將其送入泵中,泵將泥漿提升到海面上的船隻上。

  • the other thing standing in the way of deep sea  mining is a lack of a legal framework nodule-rich  

    阻礙深海採礦的另一個因素是缺乏一個富含結核的法律框架。

  • areas like the ccz are in international waters  a united nations chartered organization called  

    像溼地這樣的地區是在國際水域的一個聯合國特許組織,稱為 "溼地"。

  • the international seabed authority or isa has  been working with 167 member states and the  

    國際海底管理局一直與167個成員國和國際海底管理局合作。

  • european union to hammer out the rules and best  practices for deep sea mining they could agree  

    歐盟將制定深海採礦的規則和最佳做法,他們可以商定

  • on terms by 2021. in the past decade though the  isa has issued almost 30 exploratory licenses  

    在過去的十年中,雖然國際安全局已經頒發了近30個勘探許可證

  • but once the rules are finalized operations could  ramp up to an industrial scale as companies gear  

    但一旦規則最終確定,隨著公司的裝備,業務可能會提升到工業規模。

  • up to mine the ocean many scientists that study  the ocean depths warn that mining could be  

    許多研究海洋深處的科學家警告說,開採海洋可能是一個巨大的挑戰。

  • environmentally devastating just how devastating  we don't really know yet because of that intense  

    環境的破壞性,只是破壞性有多大,我們還不知道,因為那種強烈的... ...

  • pressure at the sea floor it's the most poorly  understood ecosystem on earth scientists didn't  

    海底的壓力 這是地球上最不瞭解的生態系統 科學家們並不瞭解它

  • even think it could support much life beyondfew scavengers until 1977 when the first ecosystem  

    直到1977年,當第一個生態系統出現時,它甚至認為它可以支持很多生命,除了一些食腐動物。

  • around a hydrothermal vent was discovered  almost two and a half kilometers down even  

    圍繞著熱液噴口被發現了,甚至在近兩公里半的地方。

  • today marine biologists think we've only foundtiny fraction of the life that lives in the deep  

    今天,海洋生物學家認為我們只發現了生活在深海的生命的一小部分。

  • mining could wipe out organisms before we've  had the chance to discover them like microbes  

    採礦可能會在我們有機會發現生物體之前就消滅它們,比如說微生物

  • that have possible uses in medicine many microbes  actually live on poly metallic nodules which can  

    許多微生物實際上生活在多金屬結核上,這些金屬結核可用於醫療。

  • take over 10 million years to form so once they're  extracted that habitat isn't coming back the waste  

    需要超過一千萬年的時間才能形成,所以一旦它們被開採出來,棲息地就不會再回來了,廢物也不會再回來了。

  • slurry that's dumped back into the ocean once or  is extracted could also be a hazard if it's dumped  

    泥漿一旦傾倒回海洋或被開採出來,如果傾倒也會造成危險。

  • high up in the water column it could possibly  drift for hundreds of kilometers and disrupt  

    在水體的高處,它有可能漂流數百公里,並擾亂了

  • ecosystems far removed from the mining site  and the site itself could be scarred for years  

    遠離礦區的生態系統和礦區本身可能會有多年的傷痕。

  • in 1989 scientists simulated a mining operation  by dragging plows across the sea floor and nearly  

    1989年,科學家們模擬了一次採礦作業,在海底拖動犁,幾乎是在海面上進行的。

  • three decades later the tracks are still there and  the microbe and animal populations haven't fully  

    三十年後,足跡依然存在 微生物和動物的種群還沒有完全消失。

  • recovered some of those bacteria absorb carbon  from the environment so mining operations could  

    回收的一些細菌會從環境中吸收碳,是以採礦作業可以通過這種方式進行。

  • set back some of the efforts to go green it's  an uncomfortable dilemma mining on land has a  

    阻礙了一些綠色環保的努力,這是一個令人不舒服的困境,在土地上採礦有一個很重要的原因。

  • lot of known negatives but the impacts of deep sea  mining are unknown and potentially huge a future  

    很多已知的負面因素,但深海採礦的影響是未知的,潛在的巨大未來。

  • where carbon emissions are under control could  depend on having enough of these resources but  

    在碳排放得到控制的情況下,可能取決於是否有足夠的這些資源,但如果沒有足夠的資源,就無法控制碳排放。

  • who knows what irreversible harm we could do  getting them fortunately we're getting better  

    誰知道我們得到他們會造成什麼不可挽回的傷害 幸運的是,我們正在變得更好

  • at recycling these metals and other energy storage  solutions do exist besides lithium-ion batteries  

    除了鋰離子電池外,還存在著回收這些金屬和其他儲能解決方案。

  • maybe a healthy sustainable energy future is  within our reach but it's going to require  

    也許一個健康的可持續能源的未來是我們可以實現的,但它將需要

  • informed people making decisions and caring about  what happens to a part of the planet that most of  

    知情的人在做決定,關心地球的一部分發生了什麼,而大多數人都不知道。

  • us will never see poly metallic nodules form as  dissolved metals build up on organic materials  

    我們永遠不會看到多金屬結核的形成,因為溶解的金屬堆積在有機材料上。

  • and they often form around ancient shark teeth  if you want an idea of just how much remains  

    如果你想知道有多少遺留物,它們通常會在古鯊魚牙齒周圍形成。

  • undiscovered in the ocean check out marin's  video on 200 000 new viruses scientists didn't  

    在海洋中未被發現的檢查出馬林的視頻對20萬新病毒科學家沒有。

  • know existed here thanks for watching be sure to  subscribe and i'll see you next time on seeker

    知道存在於這裡,感謝觀看一定要訂閱,我會看到你下一次在seeker的

a shift to a world that's no longer powered  by fossil fuels likely means we're going to  

轉變到一個不再由化石燃料驅動的世界,可能意味著我們要去

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B1 中級 中文 深海 電池 海洋 金屬 開採 微生物

關於深海採礦的令人不安的真相。 (The Uncomfortable Truth About Deep Sea Mining)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 18 日
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