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  • Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    謄寫者:約瑟夫-傑尼Joseph Geni 審稿人: Camille MartínezCamille Martínez

  • What if you own a hotel,

    如果你擁有一家酒店。

  • and one of the key principles in your mission statement

    以及你的使命宣言中的一個關鍵原則。

  • is a commitment to treat all employees and customers equally,

    是對所有員工和客戶一視同仁的承諾。

  • including on the basis of gender and religion?

    包括基於性別和宗教的歧視?

  • And then a large group books an event at your space,

    然後一大群人在你的空間裡訂了一個活動。

  • and when you look at the booking, you realize it's a religious group,

    而當你看到預訂, 你意識到這是一個宗教團體。

  • and one of their key principles is that women should never leave the home

    他們的主要原則之一是婦女永遠不應離開家庭;

  • and should have no opportunities for professional development outside of it.

    並應在其外沒有專業發展的機會。

  • What do you do?

    你是做什麼的?

  • Do you host the event and get criticized by some,

    你主持活動,會不會被一些人責備。

  • or refuse and get criticized by others?

    還是拒絕,被別人責備?

  • In my work, I counsel organizations on how to create rules

    在我的工作中,我為各組織提供諮詢,幫助它們制定規則。

  • to navigate ideological disagreement and controversial speech,

    以駕馭意識形態的分歧和有爭議的言論。

  • and I defend my clients,

    我為我的客戶辯護。

  • whether in court or from the government,

    無論是在法庭上還是從政府那裡。

  • when their actions are challenged.

    當他們的行動受到挑戰時。

  • The structures I recommend

    我建議的結構

  • recognize the real harms that can come from certain types of speech,

    認識到某些類型的言論可能帶來的真正危害;

  • but at the same time, seek to promote dialogue rather than shut it down.

    但與此同時,應設法促進對話,而不是關閉對話。

  • The reason is that we need disagreement.

    原因是我們需要分歧。

  • Creativity and human progress

    創造力和人類進步

  • depend on it.

    依靠它。

  • While it may be often easier

    雖然它可能往往更容易

  • to speak with someone who agrees with everything you say,

    和一個同意你所說的一切的人說話。

  • it's more enlightening and oftentimes more satisfying

    醍醐灌頂,妙趣橫生

  • to speak with someone who doesn't.

    要和不的人說話。

  • But disagreement and discord can have real and meaningful costs.

    但是,分歧和不和諧會帶來真實而有意義的代價。

  • Disagreement, particularly in the form of hateful speech,

    不同意,特別是以仇恨言論的形式;

  • can lead to deep and lasting wounds and sometimes result in violence.

    可能導致深刻而持久的創傷,有時還會導致暴力。

  • And in a world in which polarization and innovation are increasing

    而在這個兩極分化和創新不斷加劇的世界裡

  • at seemingly exponential rates,

    以看似指數級的速度。

  • the need to create structures for vigorous but not violent disagreement

    有必要為激烈而非暴力的分歧建立結構;

  • have never been more important.

    從未如此重要。

  • The US Constitution's First Amendment might seem like a good place to start

    美國憲法第一修正案似乎是一個很好的開始。

  • to go to look for answers.

    去尋找答案。

  • You, like I, may have often heard somebody say

    你和我一樣,可能經常聽到有人說

  • that some form of a speech restriction, whether from an employer, a website,

    認為某種形式的言論限制,無論是來自僱主、網站。

  • or even somebody else,

    甚至是別人。

  • "violates" the First Amendment.

    "違反 "第一修正案。

  • But in fact, the First Amendment usually has little if any relevance at all.

    但事實上,第一修正案通常根本沒有什麼關係。

  • The First Amendment only applies

    第一修正案只適用於

  • when the government is seeking to suppress the speech of its citizens.

    當政府試圖壓制其公民的言論時。

  • As a result, the First Amendment is by design a blunt instrument.

    是以,第一修正案在設計上是一個鈍器。

  • A narrow category of speech can be banned based on its content.

    狹義的言論類別可以根據其內容而被禁止。

  • Almost everything else cannot.

    幾乎所有其他的東西都不能。

  • But the First Amendment has no relevance

    但第一修正案與此無關

  • when what we're talking about is a private entity regulating speech.

    當我們談論的是一個私人實體 監管言論。

  • And that's a good thing,

    這是件好事

  • because it means private entities have at their disposal

    因為這意味著私人實體可以自由支配

  • a broad and flexible set of tools that don't prohibit speech,

    一套廣泛而靈活的、不禁止言論的工具;

  • but do make speakers aware of the consequences of their words.

    但確實讓發言者意識到他們說話的後果。

  • Here are some examples.

    下面是一些例子。

  • When you go to university,

    當你上大學的時候。

  • it's a time for the free and unrestricted exchange of ideas.

    這是一個自由和不受限制的思想交流的時間。

  • But some ideas and the words used to express them

    但有些觀點和表達這些觀點的詞語

  • can cause discord,

    會造成不和諧。

  • whether it's an intentionally inflammatory event hosted by a student group

    不管是學生團體舉辦的蓄意煽動性活動

  • or the exploration of a controversial issue in class.

    或在課堂上探討一個有爭議的問題。

  • In order to protect both intellectual freedom

    為了保護知識自由

  • and their most vulnerable students,

    及其最脆弱的學生。

  • some universities have formed teams that bring speaker and listener together,

    一些大學組建了團隊,將演講者和聽眾聚集在一起。

  • free from the possibility of any sanction,

    不受任何制裁的可能性。

  • to hear each other's viewpoints.

    來聽取對方的觀點。

  • Sometimes students don't want to meet,

    有時學生不想見面。

  • and that's fine.

    這很好。

  • But in other circumstances,

    但在其他情況下。

  • mediated exposure to an opposing view can result in acknowledgment,

    媒介性的對立觀點的接觸可以導致承認。

  • recognition of unintended consequences

    承認意外後果

  • and a broadening of perspectives.

    和拓寬視野。

  • Here's an example.

    這裡有一個例子。

  • On a college campus, a group of students supporting the Israelis

    在一所大學的校園裡,一群支持以色列人的學生們

  • and those supporting the Palestinians

    和支持巴勒斯坦人的人

  • were constantly reporting each other

    互相舉報

  • for disrupting events, tearing down posters

    破壞活動、撕毀海報的行為

  • and engaging in verbal confrontations.

    並進行言語上的對抗。

  • Recognizing that most of what the students were reporting

    認識到學生們所報告的大部分內容

  • did not violate the university's disciplinary code,

    並沒有違反大學的紀律守則。

  • the university invited both groups to sit down

    學校邀請兩組人坐下來

  • in a so-called "restorative circle,"

    在所謂的 "恢復性循環 "中。

  • where they could hear each other's viewpoints,

    在那裡他們可以聽到對方的觀點。

  • free from the possibility of sanction.

    擺脫制裁的可能性。

  • After the meeting,

    會後,

  • the ideological disagreements between the groups

    思想上的分歧

  • remained as stark as ever,

    依然是那樣的鮮明。

  • but the rancor between them significantly dissipated.

    但他們之間的嫌隙明顯消散了。

  • Now, obviously, this doesn't always happen.

    現在,很明顯,這並不總是發生。

  • But by separating reactions to speech from the disciplinary system,

    但通過將言論反應與懲戒制度分開。

  • institutions of higher education have created a space

    高等教育機構已經創造了一個空間

  • for productive disagreement and a broadening of perspectives.

    以促進富有成效的分歧和拓寬視野。

  • We're all biased.

    我們都有偏見。

  • I don't mean that in a bad way.

    我不是說不好的意思。

  • All of us are influenced, and rightly so,

    我們所有人都會受到影響,而且是正確的影響。

  • by our family background, our education, our lived experience

    我們的家庭背景,我們的教育,我們的生活經驗。

  • and a million other things.

    和其他無數的事情。

  • Organizations, too, have influences,

    組織,也有影響。

  • most importantly, the beliefs of their members,

    最重要的是,其成員的信仰。

  • but also the laws under which they're governed

    但同時也是法律的管轄範圍。

  • or the marketplace in which they compete.

    或其競爭的市場。

  • These influences can form a critical part of a corporate identity,

    這些影響可以形成企業形象的關鍵部分。

  • and they can be vital for attracting and retaining talent.

    而且它們對吸引和留住人才至關重要。

  • But these "biases," as I'm calling them,

    但這些 "偏見",我稱之為。

  • can also be a challenge,

    也可以是一個挑戰。

  • particularly when what we're talking about

    特別是當我們說到

  • is drawing lines for allowing some speech and not allowing others.

    是為允許一些言論而不允許另一些言論劃線。

  • The temptation to find speech harmful or disruptive

    發現有害或破壞性言論的誘惑;

  • simply because we disagree with it

    只因我們不同意

  • is real.

    是真實的。

  • But equally real is the harm that can come from certain types of expression.

    但同樣真實的是,某些類型的表達方式可能帶來的傷害。

  • In this situation, third parties can help.

    在這種情況下,第三方可以提供幫助。

  • Remember the hotel,

    記住酒店。

  • trying to decide whether or not to allow the religious group to host its event?

    試圖決定是否允許宗教團體舉辦其活動?

  • Rather than having to make a complex, on-the-spot decision

    而不是必須在現場做出複雜的決定。

  • about that group's identity and message,

    關於該團體的身份和資訊。

  • the hotel could instead rely on a third party,

    酒店可以轉而依靠第三方。

  • say, for example,

    比如說,。

  • the Southern Poverty Law Center,

    南方貧困法中心。

  • which has a list of hate groups in the United States,

    其中有一份美國仇恨團體的名單。

  • or indeed even its own outside group of experts

    甚至是自己的外部專家組

  • brought together from diverse backgrounds.

    來自不同背景的人聚集在一起;

  • By relying on third parties

    依靠第三方

  • to draw lines outside the context of a particular event,

    在特定事件的背景之外畫線。

  • organizations can make content decisions

    組織可以做出內容決策

  • without being accused of acting in self-interest or bias.

    而不被指責為出於私利或偏見。

  • The line between facts and opinions is a hazy one.

    事實與觀點之間的界限是朦朧的。

  • The internet provides the opportunity to publish almost any position

    互聯網提供了發佈幾乎任何位置的機會。

  • on any topic under the sun.

    陽光下的任何話題。

  • And in some ways, that's a good thing.

    從某種程度上來說,這是件好事。

  • It allows for the expression of minority viewpoints

    它允許少數人表達觀點;

  • and for holding those in power accountable.

    並追究當權者的責任。

  • But the ability to self-publish freely

    但能夠自由地自我出版

  • means that unverified or even flat-out false statements

    意味著未經核實甚至是完全錯誤的陳述。

  • can quickly gain circulation and currency,

    可以迅速獲得流通和貨幣。

  • and that is very dangerous.

    這是很危險的。

  • The decision to take down a post or ban a user is a tough one.

    刪除一個帖子或禁止一個用戶是一個艱難的決定。

  • It certainly can be appropriate at times,

    當然有時候也可以適當的。

  • but there are other tools available as well

    但也有其他工具可供選擇

  • to foster productive and yet responsible debate.

    促進富有成效和負責任的辯論;

  • Twitter has recently started labeling tweets

    Twitter最近開始給推文貼上標籤

  • as misleading, deceptive or containing unverified information.

    誤導性、欺騙性或含有未經核實的資訊;

  • Rather than block access to those tweets,

    而不是屏蔽對這些微博的訪問。

  • Twitter instead links to a source that contains more information

    而Twitter則鏈接到一個包含更多資訊的源頭

  • about the claims made.

    關於所提出的要求。

  • A good and timely example is its coronavirus page,

    一個很好很及時的例子是其冠狀病毒頁面。

  • which has up-to-the-minute information about the spread of the virus

    該網站有關於病毒傳播的最新資訊。

  • and what to do if you contract it.

    以及如果你感染了它該怎麼辦。

  • To me, this approach makes a ton of sense.

    在我看來,這種做法很有意義。

  • Rather than shutting down dialogue,

    而不是關閉對話。

  • this brings more ideas, facts and context to the forum.

    這給論壇帶來了更多的想法、事實和背景。

  • And, if you know that your assertions are going to be held up

    而且,如果你知道你的論斷會被證實的話

  • against more authoritative sources,

    對照更權威的來源。

  • it may create incentives

    它可能會產生激勵作用

  • for more responsible speech in the first place.

    以期在第一時間獲得更多負責任的言論。

  • Let me end with a hard truth:

    最後讓我說一個殘酷的事實。

  • the structures I've described can foster productive debate

    我所描述的結構可以促進富有成效的辯論。

  • while isolating truly harmful speech.

    同時隔離真正有害的言論。

  • But inevitably, some speech is going to fall in a grey area,

    但不可避免的是,有些言論會陷入灰色地帶。

  • perhaps deeply offensive

    惡語相向

  • but also with the potential to contribute to public debate.

    但也有可能對公眾辯論作出貢獻。

  • In this situation,

    在這種情況下。

  • I think as a general matter,

    我認為作為一般的問題。

  • the tie should go to allowing more rather than less speech.

    平局應歸於允許更多而不是更少的言論。

  • Here's why.

    這就是為什麼。

  • For one, there's always the risk

    首先,總是有風險