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  • In 1917, doctors proposed an outlandish treatment for syphilis,

    1917年,醫生提出了一種治療梅毒的偏方。

  • the incurable bacterial infection that had ravaged Europe for centuries.

    肆虐歐洲數百年的不治之症細菌感染。

  • Step 1: Infect patients suffering from the later stages of syphilis

    第一步:感染梅毒晚期患者。

  • with the parasite that causes malaria,

    與引起瘧疾的寄生蟲。

  • the deadly but curable mosquito-borne disease.

    致命但可治癒的蚊子傳播疾病;

  • Step 2: Hope that malarial fevers clear the syphilis.

    第二步:希望瘧疾發燒清除梅毒。

  • And step 3: Administer quinine to curb the malaria.

    而第三步:注射奎寧,抑制瘧疾。

  • If all went according to plan,

    如果一切按計劃進行。

  • their patient would be left alive and free of both diseases.

    他們的病人會活著,沒有這兩種疾病。

  • This killed some 15% of patients, but for those who survived,

    這使大約15%的病人死亡,但對於那些倖存下來的人來說。

  • it seemed to work.

    似乎很有效。

  • It actually became the standard treatment for syphilis

    它實際上成了梅毒的標準治療方法

  • until penicillin was widely used decades later.

    直到幾十年後青黴素被廣泛使用。

  • And its driving force was fever.

    而它的驅動力就是發燒。

  • There are many mysteries around fever,

    圍繞著發燒,有很多奧祕。

  • but what we do know is that all mammals,

    但我們知道的是,所有的哺乳動物,

  • some birds and even a few invertebrate and plant species feel fever's heat.

    一些鳥類甚至一些無脊椎動物和植物物種都感受到了發燒的熱量。

  • It has persisted for over 600 million years of evolution.

    在6億多年的進化過程中,它一直堅持著。

  • But it has a significant cost.

    但它的成本很高。

  • For every 1 degree Celsius of temperature increase in the human body,

    人體溫度每升高1攝氏度。

  • there's a 12.5 percent increase in energy required,

    需要增加12.5%的能量。

  • the equivalent of about 20 minutes of jogging for some.

    相當於一些人慢跑20分鐘左右。

  • So, why and how does your body produce a fever?

    那麼,身體為什麼會產生髮燒,又是怎麼產生的呢?

  • Your core temperature is maintained via thermoregulation,

    你的核心溫度是通過體溫調節來維持的。

  • a set of processes that usually keep you around 37 degrees Celsius.

    一套流程,通常讓你保持在37攝氏度左右。

  • These mechanisms are controlled by the brain's hypothalamus,

    這些機制由大腦的下丘腦控制。

  • which detects minute temperature shifts

    檢測微小的溫度變化

  • and sends signals throughout the body accordingly.

    並據此向全身發出信號。

  • If you're too hot, the hypothalamus produces signals

    如果你太熱,下丘腦就會產生信號

  • that activate your sweat glands or make your blood vessels dilate,

    激活你的汗腺或使你的血管擴張。

  • moving blood closer to the skin's surface

    使血液更接近皮膚表面------。

  • all of which releases heat and cools you off.

    都會釋放熱量,給你降溫。

  • And if you're too cold,

    而如果你太冷。

  • your blood vessels will constrict and you may start to shiver,

    你的血管會收縮,你可能會開始發抖。

  • which generates heat.

    產生熱量。

  • Your body will disrupt its usual temperature equilibrium to induce a fever,

    你的身體會破壞平時的溫度平衡,誘發發燒。

  • which sets in above 38 degrees Celsius.

    攝氏38度以上的集。

  • Meanwhile, it has mechanisms in place to prevent it

    同時,它還建立了預防機制。

  • from exceeding 41 degrees Celsius, when organ damage could occur.

    避免超過41攝氏度,否則會造成器官損傷。

  • Immune cells that are fighting an infection can induce a fever

    正在與感染作鬥爭的免疫細胞會誘發發燒。

  • by triggering a biochemical cascade that ultimately instructs

    通過觸發生化級聯,最終訓示了

  • your hypothalamus to increase your baseline temperature.

    你的下丘腦增加你的基線溫度。

  • Your body then gets to work to meet its newset pointusing the mechanisms

    然後,您的身體開始工作,以滿足其新的 "設定點",使用機制。

  • it would to generate heat when cold.

    它將產生熱時冷。

  • Until it reaches this new temperature, you'll feel comparatively cool,

    在達到這個新的溫度之前,你會覺得比較涼爽。

  • which is why you might experience chills.

    這就是為什麼你可能會經歷寒戰。

  • But why does your body do this?

    但為什麼你的身體會這樣做呢?

  • While the jury's still out on how higher temperatures directly affect pathogens,

    雖然陪審團仍在研究高溫如何直接影響病原體。

  • it seems that fever's main effect

    看來,發燒的主要作用

  • is in rapidly inducing a whole-body immune response.

    是在迅速誘發全身免疫反應。

  • Upon exposure to raised internal temperatures,

    當接觸到內部溫度升高時。

  • some of your cells release heat shock proteins, or HSPs,

    你的一些細胞會釋放熱休克蛋白,或HSPs。

  • a family of molecules produced in response to stressful conditions.

    在應激條件下產生的一個分子家族。

  • These proteins aid lymphocytes, one of several kinds of white blood cells

    這些蛋白質有助於淋巴細胞(白血球中的一種)的生長。

  • that fight pathogens, to travel more rapidly to infection sites.

    抵抗病原體,更迅速地前往感染部位。

  • HSPs do this by enhancing thestickinessof lymphocytes,

    HSPs通過增強淋巴細胞的 "粘性 "來實現。

  • enabling them to adhere to and squeeze through blood vessel walls

    使它們能夠粘附並擠破血管壁

  • so they can reach the areas where infection is raging.

    以便他們能夠到達感染肆虐的區域。

  • In the case of viral infections,

    在病毒感染的情況下。

  • HSPs help tell nearby cells to dampen their protein production,

    HSPs有助於告訴附近的細胞抑制其蛋白質的產生。

  • which limits their ability to replicate.

    這限制了它們的複製能力。

  • This stunts the virus's spread because they depend on

    這就阻礙了病毒的傳播,因為它們依賴於。

  • their host's replicative machinery to reproduce.

    它們的宿主的複製機器進行繁殖。

  • It also protects surrounding cells from damage since some viruses spread

    它還可以保護周圍的細胞不受損害,因為有些病毒會傳播。

  • by rupturing their host cells, which can lead to large-scale destruction,

    通過破壞其宿主細胞,從而導致大規模的破壞。

  • the build-up of detritus, and potentially even organ damage.

    雜物的堆積,甚至有可能造成器官損傷。

  • The ability of HSPs to protect host cells and enhance immune activity

    HSPs保護宿主細胞和增強免疫活動的能力。

  • can limit the pathogen's path of destruction inside of the body.

    可以限制病原體在體內的破壞路徑。

  • But for all we know about fever's role in immune activation,

    但對於我們所知道的發熱在免疫激活中的作用。

  • some clinical trials have shown that fever suppressor drugs

    一些臨床試驗表明,退燒藥

  • don't worsen symptoms or recovery rates.

    不要使症狀或恢復率惡化。

  • This is why there's no definitive rule on whether to suppress a fever

    這也是為什麼發燒要不要退燒沒有定論的原因。

  • or let it ride.

    或讓它騎。

  • Doctors decide on a case-by-case basis.

    醫生根據具體情況決定。

  • The fever's duration and intensity, as well as their patient's immune status,

    發熱的持續時間和強度,以及他們患者的免疫狀態。

  • comfort level, and age will all play a role in their choice of treatments.

    舒適度和年齡都會對他們選擇治療方法產生影響。

  • And if they do let a fever ride,

    如果他們真的讓發燒了。

  • they'll likely prescribe rest and plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration

    他們可能會開出休息和大量的液體,以防止脫水。

  • while the body wages its heated battle.

    而身體卻在進行著激烈的戰鬥。

In 1917, doctors proposed an outlandish treatment for syphilis,

1917年,醫生提出了一種治療梅毒的偏方。

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B2 中高級 中文 發燒 溫度 細胞 梅毒 產生 免疫

為什麼你生病的時候會發燒? (Why do you get a fever when you're sick? - Christian Moro)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 12 日
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