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  • A cat's bladder can only store a golf ball's worth of urine.

    貓的膀胱只能儲存一個高爾夫球的尿液。

  • For humans, it's a coffee mug and for elephants, a kitchen trash can.

    對人類來說,這是一個咖啡杯,對大象來說,這是一個廚房垃圾桶。

  • An elephant's bladder is 400 times the size of a cat's,

    大象的膀胱是貓的400倍。

  • but it doesn't take an elephant 400 times longer to pee.

    但大象尿尿並不需要400倍的時間。

  • So, how does this work?

    那麼,這是如何操作的呢?

  • The answer lies in what scientists call theOther Golden Rule.”

    答案就在於科學家所說的 "另一條黃金法則"。

  • It applies to mammals, which pee out some of their wastes in a yellowy liquid.

    它適用於哺乳動物,它們會將一些廢物以黃色液體的形式尿出來。

  • Other classes of animals use different systems and methods to excrete waste.

    其他類別的動物使用不同的系統和方法來排洩廢物。

  • The Rule describes how urinary organs and forces change with body size,

    規則》介紹了泌尿器官和力量隨體型變化的情況。

  • enabling a range of mammals to achieve similarly rapid relief.

    使一系列的哺乳動物能夠實現類似的快速緩解。

  • There are two main factors contributing to urination speed:

    導致排尿速度的因素主要有兩個。

  • bladder pressure and gravity.

    膀胱壓力和重力。

  • Bladder pressure is created when mammals contract their muscles

    當哺乳動物收縮肌肉時,就會產生膀胱壓力。

  • to squeeze urine out.

    以擠出尿液。

  • This pressure is equal to the applied muscular force per unit area but,

    這個壓力等於組織、部門面積所施加的肌肉力量,但。

  • since these factors scale proportionally,

    因為這些因素按比例縮放。

  • bladder pressure doesn't actually change much depending on body size.

    膀胱壓力其實並不會因為體型的不同而有太大的變化。

  • Meanwhile, the effects of gravity do vary across species.

    同時,重力的影響在不同的物種中確實有所不同。

  • Mammals have a pipe-like organ called the urethra

    哺乳動物有一個類似管道的器官,叫做尿道口。

  • that transports urine from a higher elevation to a lower one

    將尿液從較高的地方輸送到較低的地方。

  • specifically, from the bladder down to where urine exits the body.

    具體來說,從膀胱一直到尿液排出體外的地方。

  • In doing so, the urethra harnesses the power of Torricelli's Law,

    這樣一來,尿道就利用了托里切利定律的力量。

  • which states that flow rate increases with container height.

    其中指出,流量隨容器高度增加而增加。

  • Take these two containers holding the same volume of liquid.

    取這兩個盛有相同體積液體的容器。

  • When identically punctured at the bottom,

    當相同的刺破底部時。

  • the vertical container drains nearly twice as fast.

    垂直容器的排水速度幾乎是其兩倍。

  • This is because the water's falling from a greater elevation difference.

    這是因為水的落差較大。

  • By transporting urine from high to low, the urethra has a similar effect.

    通過將尿液從高處運送到低處,尿道也有類似的作用。

  • The urethra is probably not perfectly vertical,

    尿道可能不是完全垂直的。

  • so its length doesn't tell us exactly how far the urine falls.

    所以它的長度並不能準確地告訴我們尿液的落差有多大。

  • However, it's a good approximation.

    不過,這是一個很好的近似值。

  • The urethra's diameter also affects flow rate.

    尿道的直徑也會影響流速。

  • When that vertical container's exit hole has a larger diameter,

    當該垂直容器的出口孔直徑較大時。

  • the water drains out even faster.

    水排得更快。

  • The length and diameter of an animal's urethra varies

    動物尿道的長度和直徑各不相同

  • depending on its species and whether it has a penis or vagina.

    取決於它的種類和是否有陰莖或陰道。

  • For example, a female elephant has a meter-long urethra

    例如,一頭雌性大象的尿道有一米長

  • with a thirty-five millimeter diameter.

    直徑為三十五毫米。

  • A person with a vagina has a urethra that is more than 20 times shorter

    有陰道的人,其尿道縮短20多倍。

  • and 5 times thinner.

    和5倍的薄。

  • The elephant's longer, wider urethra is what allows it to urinate

    大象的尿道較長、較寬,所以它才能排尿。

  • for a comparable amount of time as a human.

    在與人類相當的時間內。

  • Indeed, if an elephant had the urethra of a housecat,

    的確,如果一頭大象有家貓的尿道。

  • it might take it about 2 hours to drain its bladder.

    它可能需要2個小時才能排出膀胱。

  • It's hypothesized that the Other Golden Rule

    據推測,另一個黃金法則就是

  • is conserved because quicker pees may both reduce vulnerability to predators

    因為更快的排卵既可以減少對捕食者的脆弱性,又可以保護自己的身體。

  • and flush out disease-causing pathogens.

    並排出致病病原體。

  • But the Rule has limitations.

    但該規則有其侷限性。

  • It's only been shown to apply to non-aquatic mammals.

    它只被證明適用於非水生哺乳動物。

  • And the Rule doesn't apply to mammals under three kilograms.

    而且該規則不適用於三公斤以下的哺乳動物。

  • They actually pee in droplets, not continuous streams,

    他們其實是以水滴的形式撒尿,而不是連續不斷的尿流。

  • because surface tension breaks up their tiny jets of urine.

    因為表面張力打破了他們的微小的尿液噴射。

  • Even within non-aquatic mammals above three kilograms,

    即使在三公斤以上的非水生哺乳動物內。

  • different behaviors disrupt the Other Golden Rule.

    不同的行為擾亂了其他金科玉律。

  • Male dogs don't always fully empty their bladders

    公狗並不總是完全排空膀胱。

  • and will instead tinkle in short spurts to mark their territory.

    而會在短時間內叮叮噹噹地標記自己的領地。

  • Male pandas sometimes pee in handstands, marking bark higher up on trees

    雄性大熊貓有時會用手臺尿尿,在樹上較高處的樹皮上做記號。

  • in order to broadcast their scent to potential mates.

    以便向潛在的配偶傳播它們的氣味。

  • Handstand pees take longer because urine must work against gravity.

    由於尿液必須在重力的作用下工作,所以站立小便需要更長的時間。

  • Underwater pees are also lengthier

    水下的小便也比較長

  • because the external water pressure counteracts the internal forces

    因為外在的水壓抵消了內在的力量。

  • resulting from elevation difference.

    由高差造成的。

  • Whether it's with the intensity of a fire hydrant or a squirt gun,

    不管是用消火栓還是水槍的力度。

  • this system swiftly delivers our urine to the outside world.

    這個系統迅速地將我們的尿液輸送到外界。

A cat's bladder can only store a golf ball's worth of urine.

貓的膀胱只能儲存一個高爾夫球的尿液。

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B2 中高級 中文 尿液 膀胱 哺乳動物 大象 直徑 容器

較大的動物需要更長的時間來撒尿嗎? (Do larger animals take longer to pee? - David L. Hu)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 05 日
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