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  • Ah, a dog eat dog World Winner takes all survival of the fittest.

    啊,一個狗吃狗的世界冠軍採取一切適者生存。

  • But is it really?

    但真的是這樣嗎?

  • If the biggest and baddest always win, how come there are so many more of them thin them?

    如果最大最壞的總是贏,怎麼會有那麼多的人瘦他們?

  • Strength is helpful, but friendliness might actually be the key.

    實力是有幫助的,但其實友好度可能才是關鍵。

  • Thio evolutionary success e Think dogs are Exhibit A for the survival of the friendliest Meet Dr Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods, co authors of the book Survival of the Friendliest.

    Thio進化的成功e認為狗是最友好的生存的展覽品A會見布萊恩-哈雷博士和瓦妮莎-伍茲,這本書的共同作者,最友好的生存。

  • A group of wolves decided to start hanging around human settlements, and the friendliest among them started to breed together.

    一群狼決定開始在人類聚居地附近徘徊,其中最友好的狼開始一起繁殖。

  • Their bodies changed, their minds changed.

    他們的身體變了,思想也變了。

  • They became more communicative and cooperative with us.

    他們與我們的溝通和合作變得更加緊密。

  • They became.

    他們成為。

  • But what's unique is our communication with them.

    但獨特之處在於我們與他們的溝通。

  • What do you doing?

    你在做什麼?

  • Dogs understand communicative gestures viewpoint, or you look in the direction you're trying to tell somebody where something is or what you want.

    狗狗理解交流的手勢觀點,或者你看的方向,你想告訴別人某樣東西在哪裡或者你想要什麼。

  • Dogs were really good at reading those intentions in our gestures.

    狗狗真的很善於從我們的手勢中讀出這些意圖。

  • That is a crucial ability in human development.

    這是人類發展中至關重要的能力。

  • Domestication is selection for friendliness, and that's why our dogs are so good at telling us what they need.

    馴化是為了友好的選擇,這也是為什麼我們的狗那麼善於告訴我們它們需要什麼。

  • So if dogs use friendliness, what about survival of the fittest survival of the fittest is misconstrue role of what Darwin actually meant.

    所以,如果狗用友善,那適者生存呢適者生存是誤解了達爾文實際意思的作用。

  • Somewhere along the way, it kind of twisted so that the most dominant was going to do the best.

    某個地方,它有點扭曲,所以,最主要的是要做最好的。

  • But that's not what they meant at all.

    但他們根本不是這個意思。

  • They were talking about fitness, as in your ability to reproduce friendliness we find in nature is a much more successful strategy on, of course, one of the friendliest animals.

    他們說的是健身,就像你在自然界中發現的繁殖友好的能力是一個更成功的策略上,當然,最友好的動物之一。

  • It's us.

    是我們

  • We often credit our big brains.

    我們常常把自己的大腦袋歸功於自己的大腦袋。

  • Language or technology is the key to survival.

    語言或技術是生存的關鍵。

  • But we now know those characteristics weren't unique to just us.

    但我們現在知道這些特徵並不只是我們獨有的。

  • One defining factor that contributed to our evolutionary success was our ability to get along.

    促使我們進化成功的一個決定性因素是我們的相處能力。

  • Humans developed this new social category called the In Group stranger, someone that you've never seen before and that you've never met.

    人類開發出了這個新的社交類別,叫做In Group陌生人,就是你從來沒有見過,也沒有見過的人。

  • But you immediately identify as part of your group.

    但你馬上就會認定自己是你們群體中的一員。

  • So in early humans, this could be I'm on, adorned with some kind of decoration, or maybe facial pattern on.

    所以在早期的人類中,這可能是我在,裝飾著某種裝飾,或者是面部圖案上。

  • This would say immediately, I'm connected to you and we should be friends.

    這樣就會馬上說,我和你有緣,我們應該做朋友。

  • And that allowed us to expand our social networks beyond those we grew up with hundreds of people.

    而這也讓我們的社交網絡擴展到了我們成長的數百人之外。

  • Now you're learning from hundreds of people you're cooperating from hundreds of people, and now cultural innovation can explode.

    現在你向幾百人學習你向幾百人合作,現在文化創新可以爆發。

  • That's what was the friendly spark that made our species different than all the other species.

    這就是讓我們的物種不同於其他物種的友好火花。

  • But it has a darker side, a darker side and one that's easy to see when you look at the differences between these two e love bonobos because they really do teach us how to be better people.

    但它也有黑暗的一面,黑暗的一面,當你看到這兩隻e愛倭瓜的不同之處時,你很容易看到,因為它們確實教會了我們如何成為更好的人。

  • They don't have any of the lethal aggression that we find in other great apes, including humans.

    它們沒有我們在其他大型類人猿身上發現的任何致命的攻擊性,包括人類。

  • The female sort of dictate the way the culture goes, which means that the males don't get too aggressive, and the babies are always unharmed.

    雌性算是決定了文化的走向,也就是說,雄性不會太過凶猛,寶寶們總是不會受到傷害。

  • They're just like an amazing model.

    他們就像一個神奇的模型。

  • You can talk about chimps.

    你可以談談黑猩猩。

  • Thanks, Um, chimps, while they can be kind and friendly and wonderful, I love chimpanzees.

    謝謝,嗯,黑猩猩,雖然它們可以是善良的,友好的,美好的,但我喜歡黑猩猩。

  • They, like humans, have a darker side.

    他們和人類一樣,也有黑暗的一面。

  • They commit lethal aggression.

    他們進行致命的侵略。

  • Just like this homicide.

    就像這起凶殺案一樣。

  • There's chimp aside.

    有黑猩猩在一旁。

  • They wouldn't share with a stranger because strangers might hurt them.

    他們不會和陌生人分享,因為陌生人可能會傷害他們。

  • That cost doesn't exist in bonobos, and then that's where humans become really interesting, because we could be extremely pro social to strangers and it could be really aggressive towards strangers.

    這種成本在倭黑猩猩身上是不存在的,那麼這也是人類變得非常有趣的地方,因為我們可能對陌生人非常親近社交,它可能對陌生人非常具有攻擊性。

  • And so our ability to feel love for these in groups.

    所以我們能夠在群體中感受到對這些的愛。

  • Strangers also drives our ability to be extremely violent.

    陌生人也促使我們具有極度暴力的能力。

  • Was those threatening a members?

    那些是威脅成員嗎?

  • But how does friendliness help?

    但友好度如何幫助?

  • Today?

    今天?

  • We've become much more of a winner take all society, and it can't be very many winners.

    我們已經變成了一個贏家通吃的社會,而且贏家不可能很多。

  • So it just kind of puts you into that mindset of being in a competition with other people.

    所以這只是一種讓你進入那種與別人競爭的心態。

  • If somebody else wins, it's gonna be at your expense.

    如果別人贏了,那就是你的損失。

  • Dr.

    博士

  • Jennifer Crocker examines our social motivations of ecosystem, an ecosystem in the ego system.

    詹妮弗-克羅克研究了我們的生態系統的社會動機,這是一個自我係統中的生態系統。

  • We are preoccupied with our self worth, both in our own eyes and in other people's eyes.

    我們專注於自我價值,無論是在自己的眼中還是在別人的眼中。

  • And then the ecosystem is this other paradigm for thinking about relationships with other people, where, instead of thinking about what I want from you, I'm thinking about Oh, what do you need?

    然後生態系統就是這種另一種思考與他人關係的模式,在這種模式下,我不是在想我要你做什麼,而是在想哦,你需要什麼?

  • If the other people in my social context are thriving, that's going to be more likely to help me thrive.

    如果我的社會環境中的其他人都在茁壯成長,那將更有可能幫助我茁壯成長。

  • Eso This might seem like Justin idealistic thought, but the research it actually points to health benefits.

    Eso這看起來像是Justin的理想主義思想,但它的研究實際上指向了健康的好處。

  • Being responsive to other people's needs actually predicts increases in self esteem because people feel like they can make a difference for other people that support critics decreases in symptoms of anxiety symptoms of depression you're making a difference for others is good for your sense of software.

    對其他人的需求作出反應實際上預示著自尊心的增加,因為人們覺得他們可以為其他人做出不同的支持批評者減少焦慮的症狀抑鬱症的症狀你正在為他人做出改變對你的軟件感很好。

  • I don't think of ecosystem and ecosystem motivation as being trait.

    我不認為生態系統和生態系統的動機是特質。

  • Everybody has the capacity for both of these motivations.

    每個人都有這兩種動機的能力。

  • And the question is, which one is activated at a particular moment?

    而問題是,在特定的時刻,哪一個被激活?

  • Yeah, this is paradox of human nature.

    是啊,這就是人性的悖論。

  • How could we be simultaneously so kind and so cruel?

    我們怎麼能同時這麼善良又這麼殘忍呢?

  • We're wired to connect with one another, but along the way we started seeing others as well others and this ability to relate.

    我們被賦予了彼此聯繫的能力,但在這個過程中,我們開始看到別人以及他人,這種聯繫的能力。

  • It also led us to divide the best way Thio understand that we're all human is through cross group friendships.

    這也讓我們分裂Thio瞭解我們都是人的最好方式就是跨群體的友誼。

  • Through all our research, it's really being one of the main ways that you can sort of differ views the cycle of dehumanization.

    通過我們所有的研究,它真的是正在的主要方式之一,你可以排序的不同意見的非人性化的週期。

Ah, a dog eat dog World Winner takes all survival of the fittest.

啊,一個狗吃狗的世界冠軍採取一切適者生存。

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為什麼它實際上可能是 "最友好的生存"|Nat Geo探祕。 (Why It Actually Might Be 'Survival of the Friendliest' | Nat Geo Explores)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 05 日
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