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  • Well, last week, we celebrated Thanksgiving, and no, I didn't make a Rachel's English trifle,

  • but I thought about it. I've been thinking a lot about this trifle since we made our video last week.

  • In this week's video, we're going to continue with learning English with TV,

  • learning English with Friends as we study more of this Thanksgiving episode.

  • Here's the scene.

  • Rach, you killing us here. Will you serve the dessert already?

  • What is it?

  • It's a trifle. It's got all of these layers. First, there's a layer of ladyfingers,

  • then a layer of jam, then custard, which I made from scratch,

  • then beef sautéed with peas and onions,

  • and then a little bit more custard, and then bananas, and then I just put some whipped cream on top!

  • What, what was the one right before bananas?

  • The beef?

  • Yeah. That was weird to me, too.

  • But then, you know, I, I thought, well, there's mincemeat pie. I mean, that's an English dessert.

  • These people just put very strange things in their food.

  • You know?

  • Oh, by the way, can I borrow some rum from your place?

  • Yeah, sure, yeah.

  • And while I'm gone, don't you boys sneak a taste!

  • Okay.

  • And now let's do the analysis.

  • Rach.

  • Rach, Rach, a nickname, of course, I'm very familiar with this nickname as I get called it all the time.

  • Rach, Rach, Rach, Rach.

  • Little up-down shape, but it is also pretty flat. He's a little frustrated.

  • Rach, Rach, Rach.

  • Rach, Rach, Rach, you're killing us here--

  • You're killing us here--

  • you're killing us here--

  • A couple reductions. You are, your, becomes yer, yer, yer, yer,

  • said really quickly, as if there's not even a vowel there.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • Kill, the peak of stress for that phrase, the most stressed word, with that up-down shape.

  • Now he doesn't say killing, with an NG sound, he says killing with an N sound, tongue at the front of the mouth.

  • Killin'. You're killin' us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • The energy of the word 'your'. Yer, yer, yer, yer.

  • It goes up, it's going towards the peak of stress, and then the final three syllables,

  • in us here, are all flatter, falling away from that peak.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here.

  • You're killing us here. Will you serve the dessert already?

  • Will you serve the dessert already?

  • Serve and dessert, the most stressed syllables there,

  • they actually have the same vowel,

  • the UR as in bird vowel, serve, dessert, I call this an UR vowel.

  • It's just like the R consonant, only it's held out. It has that shape.

  • But you don't try to make two different sounds, a vowel, and then an R.

  • It's just the one sound.

  • Serve.

  • Serve.

  • Serve the dessert.

  • Will you serve the dessert already?

  • Will you serve the dessert already?

  • Will you serve the dessert already?

  • The letters SS here make a Z sound, dessert, dessert.

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you-- both flatter, lower in pitch, unstressed.

  • Will you, will you. Will you serve.

  • The, also unstressed.

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • So we actually have two unstressed syllables here because even though dessert is a stressed word,

  • the first syllable is unstressed.

  • Dessert. And that's the schwa.

  • The de-- the de-- the de-- the dessert.

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • Will you serve the dessert?

  • The T in dessert, that's pronounced as a stop T, dessert.

  • The dessert already?

  • The dessert already?

  • The dessert already?

  • The dessert already?

  • Listen to just the word 'already'.

  • Already?

  • He says it just like I do without an L sound.

  • Already. Already. Already. Already.

  • This is a three syllable word with middle syllable stress.

  • Already. You can definitely drop that L there, simplify that.

  • Already?

  • What is it?

  • This three syllable phrase what is our most stressed syllable?

  • What is it?

  • What is it?

  • What is it?

  • It's the middle syllable.

  • What is it?

  • What is it?

  • The word 'what' goes up in energy towards the peak and the word 'it' falls off in energy.

  • What is it?

  • Notice that the first T here in this phrase, the T in what, is a flap T linking those two words together,

  • and the second T is a stop T, it's at the end of the phrase.

  • What is it?

  • The letter S here is a Z sound, and it links the two words together.

  • Is it? Is it? Is it? What is it?

  • What is it?

  • What is it?

  • What is it?

  • It's a trifle.

  • Rachel's response: it's a-- It's a trifle.

  • Energy leading up to that stressed syllable tri-- It's a trifle.

  • And then the second unstressed syllable falls back from that.

  • It's a trifle. It's a trifle.

  • All links together, all very smooth, the letter A is the schwa.

  • It's a, it's a, it's a. It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • The TR cluster is very often pronounced as a CHR and that's what she does here.

  • Tri-- tri-- trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's a trifle.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • In this next sentence, what are the most stressed words?

  • The peak of stress, the peak of energy?

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • All and lay-- our two peaks of stress here.

  • It's and got, a little lower in pitch, flatter, quicker.

  • It's got-- its got all--

  • It's got all--

  • It's got all--

  • It's got all--

  • Often the T between two vowels will link two words like 'got all'

  • but actually, she makes a stop here and re-emphasizes the vowel.

  • It's got all-- that helps make the word 'all' feel more stressed.

  • It's got all-- its got all--

  • What about the word 'of'?

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • All of these layers.

  • It's said very quickly, and I do think I hear a very quick subtle V sound, but you could leave it out.

  • All of these layers.

  • You could make it just a schwa.

  • All of these layers.

  • All of these layers.

  • All of these layers.

  • The letter S in 'these' is a weak Z sound.

  • All of these-- all of these layers--

  • All of these layers.

  • All of these layers.

  • All of these layers.

  • Really think about the stress. Repeat this sentence out loud and think about the stress. Let's slow it down.

  • It's got all these layers.

  • Da-da-da-da.

  • Focusing on the stress, and maybe even exaggerating it a little bit,

  • will help you work on the rhythmic contrast which will help you sound more natural speaking English.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • It's got all of these layers.

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • What are the most stressed words in this phrase?

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • Da da da da da da da da.

  • A little bit of stress on fingers, ladyfingers.

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, this is also that same R vowel consonant combination,

  • fer, so you don't need to try to make a vowel there.

  • F to R to S.

  • First, first there's--

  • Now the letter T.

  • It's actually dropped here because she links these two words together,

  • and when the T comes between two consonants it's often dropped.

  • First there's-- first there's--

  • right from S into the TH.

  • First, there's a layer of--

  • First, there's a layer of--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • The letter A here is just a quick schwa linking the words together.

  • The word 'of', again, the V is very subtle, I actually don't think I really hear it.

  • Layer of ladyfingers.

  • You can definitely just say that as a quick schwa linking the words together.

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • First, there's a layer of ladyfingers--

  • Ladyfingers is this bottom layer here, a ladyfinger is a bit of sponge cake that is shaped like a finger, a big finger.

  • Ladyfingers, fingers, notice the pitch goes up that's because she's listing.

  • She's listing all the layers. And when we list things,

  • the intonation goes up for each item until we get to the end and then the intonation goes down.

  • A layer of ladyfingers--

  • A layer of ladyfingers--

  • A layer of ladyfingers--

  • A layer of ladyfingers, then a layer of jam--

  • Then a layer of jam--

  • Then, a little bit up, a little bit of stress, and a little bit up.

  • Then a layer of jam, jam, and again, it goes up because she is continuing her list.

  • Then a layer of jam--

  • Then a layer of jam--

  • Then a layer of jam--

  • Then a layer of jam--

  • A little lift after 'then', but everything else is really smoothly linked together.

  • A layer of jam.

  • And here, I do here more of a V sound.

  • A layer of jam.

  • A layer of jam--

  • A layer of jam--

  • A layer of jam--

  • Jam.

  • Let's talk about the sounds there, if you look that up, you'll see the AA as in bat vowel.

  • Jaa-- jam.

  • It's not pure, that would be AH. Jam.

  • So when AH is followed by M, it's not pure, we make more of an UH sound,

  • the back of the tongue relaxes before the M.

  • Jaaam. Jam. So that transition is important in this sound to make it sound natural.

  • Jam. Jam.

  • Jam, Jam, Jam, then custard--

  • Then custard, then custard, the peak of stress there is cus-- then custard.

  • Then custard--

  • Then custard--

  • Then custard, which I made from scratch.

  • So then she says, which, and puts a break, separates it into its own thought group,

  • it's got that shape of stress, which I made from scratch, then she emphasizes 'I',

  • she's pretty proud that she put all of this energy and effort into this dessert.

  • Which I made from scratch--

  • Which I made from scratch--

  • Which I made from scratch--

  • I made from scratch--

  • scratch-- Stress on that word as well.

  • She takes a little bit of the sound out of her voice, but it's still stressed.

  • Which I made from scratch.

  • The word 'from', that is reduced. It's not from, but it's, from, from, schwa M, M takes over the schwa,

  • so it's as if there's no vowel at all in that word.

  • From, from, from scratch.

  • From scratch-- from scratch-- from scratch-- Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Okay, in this thought group, what are our most stressed words?

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • So our three nouns are our most stressed words there.

  • The other words are a little flatter, and said a little more quickly.

  • We even have a reduction, do you hear it?

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--

  • Then beef, sautéed with peas and onions--