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There's a lot of misinformation out there about what it means to be transgender,
but recently
scientists have begun to look more closely
into the neurology, physiology, and psychology
behind it.
So today, we're gonna break down what science does know
in a respectful and educational way.
Hey guys! I'm Gigi Gorgeous
and today, I'm here with ASAPScience
to break down 'The Science of Being Transgender.'
Before we get too deep into it,
we have to look at your genetic sex,
or the chromosomes you have.
These were determined right at fertilization,
when the sperm cell from your father⁠—
which carries an X or a Y chromosome⁠—
fused with the egg from your mother⁠—which carries an X chromosome.
But until 6 or 7 weeks after fertilization,
both XY and XX embryos
have identical gonads.
Around 7 weeks,
the male sex organs start to develop
because of a gene on the Y chromosome
called SRY.
It causes cells to become more specialized
and these cells create testosterone,
which in turn triggers the development
of structures like the
penis and scrotum,
while other cells block female development
by degenerating the female ducts.
However, in female development,
because there is no Y chromosome with the SRY gene,
these ducts stay intact and become the uterus,
cervix, upper vagina, and the oviduct
with the help of estrogen, and chemicals secreted by
the early kidney.
But it's not always that simple.
There are sometimes even rare combinations
like XXY, XXX, XXYY, etc.
and even people with
XX chromosomes that develop male genitals and characteristics
due to a piece of the Y chromosome breaking off
and switching places to an X chromosome.
But sexual differentiation in the brain
actually happens much later than gonadal differentiation.
And yes, although controversial,
male and female brains have
structural and functional differences
between each other.
Studies have found that
males generally have a larger cerebrum,
and hippo campus.
While females have
higher-density left frontal lobes,
and larger volumes in the right frontal lobes.
So what exactly do we see
when we look at the brain
of a transgender person?
Several studies have shown that
transgender brains are both
structurally and functionally more
similar to their experienced gender identity
than their biological sex.
One study found that transwomen, who
despite being assigned male at birth,
had a smaller female-sized structure in the hypothalamus.
MRI scans also show the
brain structures of transpeople
to be more similar in thickness to their
experienced gender and not their sex.
Finally, the pheromone androstadienone causes
different hypothalamic responses in male and female brains.
And when individuals with Gender Dysphoria were exposed to it,
the hypothalamic response match their perceived gender rather than their sex.
These studies help to highlight how masculinisation
or feminisation of the gonads
is not always the same as the brain,
and that there's a difference between
your sex, or your anatomy,
and your gender, or how we perceive our own bodies.
There also seems to be
a genetic component to transgender identity.
Looking at family histories,
gender identity in congruence seems to run in the family,
meaning they may be inherited.
The CYP17 gene, which controls
the body's level of sex hormones,
has a changed allele that is expressed
frequently in transmen.
Although more research could be done,
scientists are currently looking at over
3 million DNA markers for transgender identity
to investigate any genetic link for being trans.
Even though scientific studies
validate the experience of transgender people,
they're still suffering from more
depression and anxiety than the general public.
The risk of suicide
is more prominent in transgender people
who have been rejected by their family,
discriminated in the workplace,
or in health care.
Suicide risks seem to
decrease after gender transitioning,
suggesting that Gender Dysphoria can cause
an extreme amount of emotional pain,
even to the point of suicide.
If you, a family member, or a friend is
suffering from Gender Dysphoria,
there are few links in the description
for more information.
Thank you so much Gigi
for being part of this video,
it means so much and we're happy that you were here to do this with us.
Ah, well thank you guys for using
your channel, your platform
validating transgender experiences with science
which just brings us closer to equality.
If you guys wanna check out Gigi's channel,
we'll put links in the description
or on the screen somewhere.
Otherwise, you can subscribe for more science here
every week, and we'll see you next time.


帶你用科學來解釋「誇性別人士」 (The Science of Being Transgender ft. Gigi Gorgeous)

21 分類 收藏
jeremy.wang 發佈於 2020 年 3 月 30 日
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