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  • I'm a mechanical engineering professor

    我來自賓州大學

  • at the University of Pennsylvania

    是一位機械工程學教授

  • and my favorite hobby is photography.

    而我最喜歡的嗜好是攝影。

  • And as I travel around the world,

    我環遊世界,

  • I love taking photographs like these

    四處拍照,

  • so I can remember all the beautiful

    這樣我可以記住所有我見到的

  • and interesting things that I've seen.

    美麗及有趣的事物。

  • But what I can't do is record and share

    但我沒辦法做到的是 記錄並分享

  • how these objects feel to touch.

    這些東西的觸感。

  • And that's kind of surprising

    而這很令人訝異,

  • because your sense of touch is really important.

    因為人的觸覺真的很重要。

  • It's involved in every physical interaction you do every day,

    實際生活裡的每件事

  • every manipulation task,

    每個操作和互動

  • anything you do in the world.

    都用得上我們的觸覺。

  • And so the sense of touch is actually pretty interesting.

    因此觸覺是很有趣的。

  • It has two main components.

    它分為兩部份。

  • The first is tactile sensations,

    第一部份是觸感,

  • things you feel in your skin.

    你皮膚的感覺。

  • And the second is kinesthetic sensations,

    第二部份是動覺,

  • and this has to do with the position of your body,

    而這和你身體的位置有關,

  • and how it's moving,

    或是它是怎麼移動、

  • and the forces you encounter.

    還有遇到的是什麼外力。

  • And you're really good at incorporating

    而人很擅長

  • both of these types of sensations together

    結合著兩種感覺

  • to understand the physical interactions

    以瞭解你在物質世界上的

  • you have with the world

    各種互動

  • and understand as you touch a surface,

    當你觸碰一個表面時,

  • is it a rock, is it a cat, is it a bunny, what is it?

    是一塊石塊、一隻貓、一隻兔子, 還是什麼?

  • And so, as an engineer, I'm really fascinated

    因此,身為一個工程師, 我很讚嘆

  • and I have a lot of respect for

    也很敬佩

  • how good people are with their hands.

    人類的手的精巧。

  • And I'm intrigued and curious

    我很疑惑、也很好奇,

  • about whether we could make technology better

    藉著研究

  • by doing a better job at leveraging

    人類的觸覺

  • the human capability with the sense of touch.

    我們能不能讓科技變得更好。

  • Could I improve the interfaces to computers and machines

    利用手的優點,

  • by letting you take advantage of your hands?

    我能改善電腦或機械的介面嗎?

  • And indeed, I think we can,

    我想我們可以,

  • and that's at the core of a field called "haptics,"

    這正是「觸覺學」這個學科的核心,

  • and this is the area that I work in.

    也是我研究的領域。

  • It's all about interactive touch technology.

    它是關於互動的觸覺科技。

  • And the way it works is,

    而它運作的方式是:

  • as you move your body through the world,

    當你在空間中移動你的身體,

  • if, as an engineer, I can make a system

    身為一個工程師,我可以製作一個

  • that can measure that motion,

    一個測量各個運動的系統,

  • and then present to you sensations over time

    接著隨著時間顯現不同觸感,

  • that kind of make sense,

    讓它合乎常理、

  • that match up with what you might feel in the real world,

    讓它符合你在真實世界的感覺,

  • I can fool you into thinking you're touching something

    我有辦法誘導你覺得你在摸東西,

  • even though there's nothing there.

    儘管實際上並沒有東西。

  • All right, so here are three examples

    好,所以這裡有三個例子,

  • and these are all done from research in my lab at Penn.

    這些都是我在 賓大實驗室完成的。

  • The first one is all about

    第一個是關於

  • that same problem that I was showing you:

    我剛剛說的同樣的問題:

  • how can we capture how objects feel

    我們如何捕捉物體的觸感

  • and recreate those experiences?

    然後再做出同樣的感覺?

  • So the way we solve this problem

    我們解決這問題的方法

  • is by creating a hand-held tool

    是製作一個手握的工具

  • that has many different sensors inside.

    裡面有許多不一樣的感應器。

  • It has a force sensor

    有力量感應器,

  • so we can tell how hard you're pushing,

    這樣我們才知道你用了多少力;

  • it has motion tracking

    有動態記錄器,

  • so we tell exactly where you've moved it,

    這樣我們才知道你怎麼移動;

  • and it has a vibration sensor,

    還有振動感應器、

  • an accelerometer, inside

    加速度感應器,

  • that detects the shaking back and forth of the tool

    它們可以偵測前後振動的量,

  • that let's you know that's a piece of canvas

    好讓你知道這是一塊帆布

  • and not a piece of silk or something else.

    而不是絲綢還什麼的。

  • And then we take the data that we record

    接著我們取出這些互動中

  • from these interactions.

    我們記錄的資料。

  • Here's ten seconds of data.

    這些是十秒鐘的資料。

  • You can see how the vibrations get larger and smaller,

    你可以振動是如何隨著你的移動

  • depending on how you move.

    變大變小。

  • And we make a mathematical model of those relationships

    接著我們構造了這些關係 的數學模型

  • and program them into a tablet computer

    然後在平版電腦中寫一個程式

  • so that when you take the stylus

    這樣當你拿著觸控筆

  • and go and touch the screen,

    並去碰時,

  • that voice coil actuator in the white bracket

    在白匣子裡的揚聲線圈

  • plays vibrations to give you the illusion

    會開始振動,給你一種

  • that you're touching the real surface

    你正在摸真實物體的感覺

  • just like if you touched, dragged back and forth,

    就像你真的摸到帆布時一樣,

  • on the real canvas.

    會上下振動。

  • We can create very compelling illusions.

    我們可以創造 非常具有說服力的幻覺。

  • We can do this for all kinds of surfaces

    我們可以在各種平面上這麼做,

  • and it's really a lot of fun.

    那真的很有趣。

  • We call it haptography,

    我們把它叫做觸覺攝影,

  • haptic photography.

    觸覺的攝影。

  • And I think it has potential benefits

    我想這對許多領域 都會有

  • in all sorts of areas like online shopping,

    潛在的好處,像是線上購物,

  • maybe interactive museum exhibits,

    或是互動博物館展覽,

  • where you're not really supposed to touch

    就是那些你實在不該摸

  • the precious artifacts, but you always want to.

    但你總是想摸的珍貴文物。

  • The second example that I want to tell you about

    第二個我想說的例子

  • comes from a collaboration I have

    源自於與

  • with Dr. Margrit Maggio at the Penn dental school.

    賓大牙醫學院 Margrit Maggio 醫師的合作。

  • Part of her job is to teach dental students

    她部份的工作是教牙醫系學生

  • how to tell where in a patient's mouth

    如何分辦病人口腔

  • there are cavities.

    哪裡有蛀牙。

  • Of course they look at x-rays,

    當然他們也會用 X 光,

  • but a large part of this clinical judgment

    但多數時候臨床的判斷

  • comes from what they feel

    則仰賴他們的用牙醫探針

  • when they touch your teeth with a dental explorer.

    碰到你牙齒時的感覺。

  • You guys have all had this happen, they go across.

    你們都有這種經驗,他們會逐步檢查。

  • What they're feeling for is if the tooth is really hard,

    他們感覺到的是,如果牙齒真的很硬

  • then it's healthy,

    那就是健康的;

  • but if it's kind of soft and sticky,

    但如果有點軟或黏,

  • that's a signal that the enamel is starting to decay.

    這是珐瑯質開始退化的警訊。

  • And these types of judgments are hard

    而這種判斷是對一位

  • for a new dental student to make

    牙醫系新生來說是困難的,

  • because they haven't touched a lot of teeth yet.

    因為他們對牙齒還不熟悉。

  • And you want them to learn this

    但你希望他們能夠

  • before they start practicing on real human patients.

    在為實際病人看診前學會這點。

  • So what we do is we add an accelerometer

    所以我們在牙醫探針上

  • on to the dental explorer

    加裝加速度感應器,

  • and then we record what Dr. Maggio feels

    接著記錄 Maggio 醫師碰觸不同

  • as she touches different extracted teeth.

    已拔牙齒時的感覺。

  • And we can play it back for you as a video

    然後我們就可以像播影片一樣 沿著觸碰的軌跡

  • with a touch track.

    再放一次。

  • So not just a sound track, but also a touch track

    所以當你握著這 重覆播放的工具時

  • that you can feel by holding that repeating tool.

    你可以感覺到的不只是音軌, 而還有「觸軌」。

  • You can feel all the same things

    你可以和牙醫師有一樣的感覺,

  • that the dentist felt when they did the recording

    就是當他們錄製以及

  • and practice making judgments.

    做判斷時的感覺。

  • So here's a sample one.

    所以這是一個樣本。

  • Here's a tooth that looks kind of suspicious, right?

    這顆牙齒看起來很可疑,對吧?

  • It has all those brown stains,

    有許多黃斑,

  • and you might be thinking,

    而你可能會想:

  • "Oh, we should definitely put a filling in this tooth."

    「噢,這顆牙一定要補了。」

  • But truly, if you pay attention to how it feels,

    但事實上,如果你注意一下它的觸感,

  • all the surfaces of this tooth are hard and healthy

    整顆牙齒表面都又硬又健康,

  • so this patient does not need a filling.

    其實這位病人不需要補牙。

  • And these are exactly the kind of judgments

    這些正是醫師們

  • that doctors make every day

    每天要做的判斷

  • and I think this technology that we've invented

    而我想我們發明的這項科技

  • has a lot of potential for many different things

    在不同的醫療訓練上

  • in medical training because it's really simple

    應該很有潛力,因為它很簡單

  • and it does a great job at recreating

    而且在重現 別人使用工具的感覺上

  • what people feel through tools.

    表現得很好。

  • I think it could also maybe help make games

    我想它也可能讓遊戲變得

  • more interactive and fun

    更為互動也更有趣,

  • and more realistic in the sensations that you feel.

    並且在你的感受上更加真實。

  • The last example I want to tell you about

    最後一個我想說的例子

  • is again about human movement.

    一樣是有關人類的運動。

  • So if any of you have ever learned sports,

    所以如果你們有人曾經學過運動,

  • you know, how do you get good at something like surfing?

    你知道,像衝浪這樣的運動 你是如何上手的?

  • You practice.

    你會練習。

  • You practice some more and more, right?

    你會一次一次努力練習,對吧?

  • Making small corrections,

    藉由一些小的修正,

  • maybe getting some input from a coach,

    這可能來自教練的教導,

  • learning how to improve your motions.

    學習如何改進自己的動作。

  • I think we could use computers

    我想我們可以利用電腦

  • to help make that process more efficient and more fun.

    來讓這個學習的過程 更有效率也更有趣。

  • And so here, for example,

    所以,舉例來說,

  • if I have six different arm movements

    如果我想要你學

  • that I want you to learn,

    六個不同的手臂動作,

  • you come into my lab at Penn

    你可以來到我在賓大的實驗室

  • and try out our system.

    然後試試我們的系統。

  • We use a Kinect to measure your motions,

    我們用 Kinect 來量測你的動作,

  • we show graphics on the screen,

    我們在螢幕上顯示圖像,

  • and then we also give you touch cues,

    接著也會給你觸覺的暗號,

  • haptic feedback, on your arm

    也就是這些觸覺手臂環

  • delivered by these haptic arm bands,

    傳送給你的觸覺回饋,

  • which have motors inside

    這裡面裝有馬達

  • and guide you as you move.

    可以在你動的時候引導你。

  • So, if we put it together,

    所以,如果你戴上它,

  • as you're trying to track this motion,

    當你試著跟上動作時,

  • if you deviate,

    如果你動作歪了,

  • say maybe your arm is a little too high,

    比如說你的手太高了,

  • we turn on the motors that are right there on the skin

    我們會啟動 就在你皮膚上的馬達

  • to let you know, hey, you should move down,

    來讓你知道,嘿,你應該低一點,

  • almost like a coach gently guiding you

    幾乎就像是一個教練 耐心地引導你,

  • and helping you master these movements more quickly

    然後幫助你更快地 學會這些動作,

  • and make more precise corrections.

    並且作出更精準的修正。

  • We developed this system for use in stroke rehabilitation,

    我們為中風復健開發這個系統,

  • but I think there are a lot of applications,

    但我認為還有很多不同應用,

  • like maybe dance training

    像是舞蹈訓練

  • or all sorts of sports training as well.

    或是各種的運動訓練。

  • And so, now you know a little bit

    所以,你現在大概知道

  • about the field of haptics,

    觸覺學這個領域了,

  • which I think you're going to hear more about in the coming years.

    我想你在未來會聽到更多。

  • I've shown you three examples,

    我已經講完三個例子了,

  • and I just want to take a moment

    接著我想花一點時間

  • to acknowledge all of the great students

    來感謝所有和我一起

  • who work with me in my lab at Penn

    在賓大實驗室努力的偉大的學生,

  • and my collaborators,

    以及我的合作者,

  • they're a great group.

    他們是很棒的團隊。

  • And I also want to thank you for your kind attention.

    我也要謝謝你們用心的聆聽。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I'm a mechanical engineering professor

我來自賓州大學

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 觸覺 觸感 感應器 牙齒 感覺

【TED-Ed】觸覺攝影:觸覺感官的數位化 (Haptography: Digitizing our sense of touch - Katherine Kuchenbecker)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 02 月 06 日
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