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  • Picture warm, gooey cookies,

    想像一下暖暖又軟糊糊的餅乾,

  • crunchy candies,

    鬆脆的糖果,

  • velvety cakes,

    柔軟絲滑的蛋糕,

  • waffle cones piled high with ice cream.

    堆滿冰淇淋的甜筒

  • Is your mouth watering?

    你流口水了嗎?

  • Are you craving dessert?

    你渴望甜點嗎?

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • What happens in the brain

    腦中發生了什麼事

  • that makes sugary foods so hard to resist?

    讓甜食如此難以抗拒?

  • Sugar is a general term

    糖是一種一般用語

  • used to describe a class of molecules

    用於描述這一類分子

  • called carbohydrates,

    稱之「碳水化合物」,

  • and it's found in a wide variety of food and drink.

    它能在各種不同的食物和飲料中被發現,

  • Just check the labels on sweet products you buy.

    只要查詢你購買的甜品上標籤所示

  • Glucose,

    葡萄糖,

  • fructose,

    果糖,

  • sucrose,

    蔗糖,

  • maltose,

    麥芽糖,

  • lactose,

    乳糖,

  • dextrose,

    右旋葡萄糖,

  • and starch

    以及澱粉,

  • are all forms of sugar.

    都是糖的一種形式

  • So are high-fructose corn syrup,

    所以高果糖的玉米糖漿也是,

  • fruit juice,

    果汁,

  • raw sugar,

    粗糖,

  • and honey.

    還有蜂蜜

  • And sugar isn't just in candies and desserts,

    而且糖不止存在於糖果與甜點中,

  • it's also added to tomato sauce,

    它也會添加入番茄醬,

  • yogurt,

    優格,

  • dried fruit,

    水果乾,

  • flavored waters,

    風味水,

  • or granola bars.

    或燕麥棒

  • Since sugar is everywhere,

    因為糖類無所不在,

  • it's important to understand

    所以這是很重要的

  • how it affects the brain.

    去了解它如何影響我們大腦

  • What happens when sugar hits your tongue?

    當糖類碰到舌頭時會發生什麼事?

  • And does eating a little bit of sugar

    還有吃一點點糖

  • make you crave more?

    會讓你想吃更多嗎?

  • You take a bite of cereal.

    你吃下一口喜瑞兒穀麥片

  • The sugars it contains

    裡面含有的糖份

  • activate the sweet taste receptors,

    活化了甜味的受器,

  • part of the taste buds on the tongue.

    舌頭上味蕾的一部份

  • These receptors send a signal up to the brain stem,

    這些受器傳送訊號給腦幹,

  • and from there, it forks off

    接著從這裡開始,訊號分叉了

  • into many areas of the forebrain,

    進入前腦的許多區域,

  • one of which is the cerebral cortex.

    其中一處是大腦皮質

  • Different sections of the cerebral cortex

    大腦皮質的不同部份

  • process different tastes:

    處理著不同的味覺:

  • bitter,

    苦味,

  • salty,

    鹹味,

  • umami,

    鮮味,

  • and, in our case, sweet.

    還有如我們的例子,甜味

  • From here, the signal activates

    訊號在這裡活化

  • the brain's reward system.

    大腦的「獎勵系統」

  • This reward system is a series

    這個獎勵系統是一連串的

  • of electrical and chemical pathways

    電化學路徑

  • across several different regions of the brain.

    去穿過大腦的不同區域

  • It's a complicated network,

    這是一個複雜的網路,

  • but it helps answer a single, subconscious question:

    但這有助於回答一個潛意識中的問題:

  • should I do that again?

    我該重覆這個動作嗎?

  • That warm, fuzzy feeling you get

    你那溫暖的,模糊的感覺

  • when you taste Grandma's chocolate cake?

    當你品嚐著祖母的巧克力蛋糕?

  • That's your reward system saying,

    那是你的獎勵系統在說話,

  • "Mmm, yes!"

    「嗯,太棒了!」

  • And it's not just activated by food.

    而且這不光是由食物來活化

  • Socializing,

    社交活動,

  • sexual behavior,

    性行為,

  • and drugs

    還有藥物,

  • are just a few examples

    只是少數幾件

  • of things and experiences

    事情或經驗

  • that also activate the reward system.

    也能活化獎勵系統的例子

  • But overactivating this reward system

    但過度活化的獎勵系統

  • kickstarts a series of unfortunate events:

    將促使一連串不幸的事件:

  • loss of control,

    失控,

  • craving,

    渴求,

  • and increased tolerance to sugar.

    對糖的耐受性增加

  • Let's get back to our bite of cereal.

    讓我們回到剛剛吞下的喜瑞兒

  • It travels down into your stomach

    它穿過了你的胃

  • and eventually into your gut.

    終於進入了腸道

  • And guess what?

    猜猜怎麼了?

  • There are sugar receptors here, too.

    這裡也有糖類的受器

  • They are not taste buds,

    雖然它們不是味蕾,

  • but they do send signals

    但它們確也傳送訊號

  • telling your brain that you're full

    告訴你的大腦,你是肚子飽了

  • or that your body should produce more insulin

    或你的身體應該製造更多的胰島素

  • to deal with the extra sugar you're eating.

    去處理這些你吃下的多餘的糖份

  • The major currency

    這主要的傳遞物質

  • of our reward system is dopamine,

    在我們的獎勵系統中,它叫「多巴胺」,

  • an important chemical or neurotransmitter.

    一個很重要的化學或神經傳導物質

  • There are many dopamine receptors in the forebrain,

    在我們的前腦有很多的多巴胺受器,

  • but they're not evenly distributed.

    但它們分佈並不是均勻的

  • Certain areas contain dense clusters of receptors,

    某些區域含有高密度聚集的受器,

  • and these dopamine hot spots

    而這些多巴胺的熱區

  • are a part of our reward system.

    就是我們獎勵系統的一部份

  • Drugs like alcohol,

    一些藥物如酒精,

  • nicotine,

    尼古丁,

  • or heroin

    或海洛因,

  • send dopamine into overdrive,

    讓多巴胺過載,

  • leading some people to constantly seek that high,

    導致一些人一直想要找尋這樣的高潮狀態,

  • in other words, to be addicted.

    換句話說,「上癮了」

  • Sugar also causes dopamine to be released,

    糖也會造成多巴胺的釋放,

  • though not as violently as drugs.

    即使沒有藥物這麼強烈

  • And sugar is rare among dopamine-inducing foods.

    而有些食物的含糖量很低

  • Broccoli, for example, has no effect,

    例如花椰菜,就沒有(刺激多巴胺)的作用,

  • which probably explains

    這可能解釋了

  • why it's so hard to get kids to eat their veggies.

    為什麼要讓孩子們吃下蔬菜是這麼的困難

  • Speaking of healthy foods,

    談到健康的食物,

  • let's say you're hungry

    比方說你餓了

  • and decide to eat a balanced meal.

    決定要吃均衡的一餐

  • You do, and dopamine levels spike

    你這麼做時,多巴胺量就會衝高,

  • in the reward system hot spots.

    刺激了獎勵系統的熱區

  • But if you eat that same dish many days in a row,

    但如果你連續每天一直吃同樣的菜色,

  • dopamine levels will spike less and less,

    多巴胺的量將愈來愈低,

  • eventually leveling out.

    最後消失

  • That's because when it comes to food,

    這是因為涉及到食物時,

  • the brain evolved to pay special attention

    大腦演進成要把注意力放在

  • to new or different tastes.

    新奇和多樣的口味上

  • Why?

    為什麼呢?

  • Two reasons:

    兩個原因:

  • first, to detect food that's gone bad.

    首先,檢視食物有沒有變質

  • and second, because the more variety

    其次,因為愈是多樣化

  • we have in our diet,

    在我們每餐攝取的飲食中,

  • the more likely we are

    我們就愈有可能

  • to get all the nutrients we need.

    得到所需的所有營養成份

  • To keep that variety up,

    為使得多樣化提升,

  • we need to be able to recognize a new food,

    我們就需要有能力去辨認出新的食物,

  • and more importantly,

    更重要的是,

  • we need to want to keep eating new foods.

    我們必須「想要」去嚐試新的食物,

  • And that's why the dopamine levels off

    而這就是為什麼多巴胺會不做變化

  • when a food becomes boring.

    每當食物一成不變時

  • Now, back to that meal.

    現在,回到我們所說的那一餐

  • What happens if in place

    會發生什麼事呢?

  • of the healthy, balanced dish,

    如果將健康、均衡的飲食

  • you eat sugar-rich food instead?

    用高糖份的食物取代,

  • If you rarely eat sugar

    如果你很少吃甜食

  • or don't eat much at a time,

    或一次吃得不多,

  • the effect is similar to that of the balanced meal.

    這影響將和均衡飲食差不多

  • But if you eat too much,

    但如果你吃了太多的甜食,

  • the dopamine response does not level out.

    多巴胺的反應就不會消失

  • In other words, eating lots of sugar

    換句話說,吃了過量的糖

  • will continue to feel rewarding.

    將會持續的感到被獎勵

  • In this way, sugar behaves a little bit like a drug.

    這種方式下,糖就變得像藥物一樣

  • It's one reason people seem to be hooked

    這就是人們似乎對高糖份食品成癮的

  • on sugary foods.

    原因之一

  • So, think back to all those different kinds of sugar.

    因此,回頭想想各種不同的糖

  • Each one is unique,

    各個都獨一無二,

  • but every time any sugar is consumed,

    但每當吃下不同的糖時,

  • it kick-starts a domino effect in the brain

    它促使了大腦的骨牌效應

  • that sparks a rewarding feeling.

    激發了被獎勵的感覺

  • Too much, too often,

    吃太多或太頻繁,

  • and things can go into overdrive.

    (多巴胺)將會過載

  • So, yes, overconsumption of sugar

    所以過度的攝取糖類

  • can have addictive effects on the brain,

    會對大腦有成癮的影響,

  • but a wedge of cake once in a while won't hurt you.

    但偶爾來一小塊蛋糕,也無傷大雅哦。

Picture warm, gooey cookies,

想像一下暖暖又軟糊糊的餅乾,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 獎勵 多巴胺 大腦 食物 活化

【TED-Ed】糖如何影響大腦,讓我們愛吃甜食?How sugar affects the brain - Nicole Avena

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    Halu Hsieh 發佈於 2014 年 01 月 14 日
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